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Plants  in  Danger 

What  do  we  know? 


aJN  ISS 


'/xtsLmt^ 


1  1  MAY  1988 


njcH 


Plants  in  Danger 
What  do  we  know? 


INTERNATIONAL  UNION  FOR  CONSERVATION 
OF  NATURE  AND  NATURAL  RESOURCES 


Plants  in  Danger 

What  do  we  know? 


STEPHEN  D.  DAVIS,  STEPHEN  J.M.  DROOP,  PATRICK  GREGERSOH, 
LOUISE  HENSON,  CHRISTINE  J.  LEON,  JANE  LAMLEIN 
VILLA-LOBOS,  HUGH  SYNGE  AND  J  AN  A  ZANTOVSKA 


Threatened  Plants  Unit, 

lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre 

c/o  The  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew,  U.K. 


Published  by  the  International  Union  for  Conservation  of  Nature  and  Natural  Resources, 
Gland,  Switzerland,  and  Cambridge,  U.K.  1986 


lUCN 

The  International  Union  for  Conservation  of  Nature  and  Natural  Resources  (lUCN)  is  a 
network  of  governments,  non-governmental  organizations  (NGOs),  scientists  and  other 
conservation  experts,  joined  together  to  promote  the  protection  and  sustainable  use  of  living 
resources. 

Founded  in  1948,  lUCN  has  more  than  500  member  organizations  from  116  countries, 
including  58  State  Members.  Its  six  Commissions  consist  of  more  than  2000  experts  on 
threatened  species,  protected  areas,  ecology,  environmental  planning,  environmental  policy, 
law  and  administration,  and  environmental  education.  lUCN 

•  monitors  the  status  of  ecosystems  and  species  throughout  the  world; 

•  plans  conservation  action,  both  at  strategic  level  through  the  World  Conservation  Strategy 
and  at  the  programme  level  through  its  programme  of  conservation  for  sustainable 
development; 

•  promotes  such  action  by  governments,  inter-governmental  bodies  and  non-governmental 
organizations; 

•  provides  the  assistance  and  advice  necessary  to  achieve  such  action. 

From  1984  lUCN  and  the  World  Wildlife  Fund  have  been  implementing  a  Plant  Conservation 
Programme,  designed  "to  assert  the  fundamental  importance  of  plants  in  all  conservation 
activities".  Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know?  is  a  part  of  this  programme. 

The  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (CMC)  is  the  division  of  lUCN  that  provides  a 
data  service  to  lUCN  and  to  the  conservation  and  development  community.  CMC's  primary 
function  is  the  continuous  collection,  analysis,  interpretation  and  dissemination  of  data  as  a 
basis  for  conservation.  CMC  produces  a  wide  variety  of  specialist  outputs  and  analyses  as  well 
as  major  outputs  such  as  the  Red  Data  Books  and  Protected  Areas  Directories.  CMC  is  based 
in  the  U.K.  at  Cambridge  and  Kew.  Enquiries  about  the  centre  or  book  orders  should  be 
addressed  to: 

lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre, 

219(c)  Huntingdon  Road,  Cambridge,  CBS  ODL,  U.K. 

The  designations  of  geographical  entities  in  this  book,  and  the  presentation  of  the  material,  do 
not  imply  the  expression  of  any  opinion  whatsoever  on  the  part  of  lUCN  concerning  the  legal 
status  of  any  country,  territory,  or  area,  or  of  its  authorities,  or  concerning  the  delimitation  of 
its  frontiers  or  boundaries. 

Published  by  lUCN,  Gland,  Switzerland,  and  Cambridge,  U.K.  1986 

Prepared  with  financial  support  from  the  World  Wildlife  Fund,  the  Trust  Fund  for  the  United 
Nations  Environment  Stamp  Conservation  Fund,  the  United  Nations  Environment  Programme 
and  the  Natural  Environment  Research  Council  (U.K.)  on  behalf  of  the  European  Research 
Councils  through  the  European  Science  Foundation. 

A  contribution  to  GEMS  —  The  Global  Environment  Monitoring  System. 


ii^m  ^ 


©  1986  International  Union  for  Conservation  of  Nature  and  Natural  Resources/United  Nations 
Environment  Programme 

ISBN  2-88032-707-5 

Printed  by  Unwin  Brothers  Ltd,  The  Gresham  Press,  Old  Woking,  Surrey,  U.K. 

Typeset  by  Parchment  (Oxford)  Ltd.,  60  Hurst  Street,  Oxford  OX4  IHD 

Cover  design  by  James  Butler  and  Stephen  Droop 

Figures  by  Reginald  Piggott 

Book  design  by  James  Butler 

Cover  photograph  by  M.P.  Price  (Bruce  Coleman  Ltd.):  Fire,  Merritt  Island,  Florida,  U.S.A. 


Contents 


Page  number 

Introductory  Chapters 

Preface  xi 

Acknowledgements  xiii 

Outline  of  the  book  xvi 

Plants  in  Danger:  What  we  know  so  far  xxii 

Constraints  to  the  identification  of  threatened  species  xxxv 

Conclusions  for  the  future  xxxvi 

Definitions  of  the  lUCN  Red  Data  Categories  xliii 

References  for  introduction  xliv 

Country  and  Island  Accounts 

Afghanistan  1 

Agalega  Islands  2 

Albania  2 

Aleutian  Islands  4 

Algeria  4 

American  Samoa  6 

Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands  7 

Andorra  8 

Angola                                                        ■-  9 

Anguilla  10 

Antarctica  10 

Antigua  and  Barbuda  12 

Antipodes   Islands  13 

Argentina  14 

Ascension  Island  16 

Auckland  Islands  17 

Australia  17 

Austria  22 

Azores  25 

Bahamas  26 

Bahrain  28 

Bangladesh  29 

Barbados  30 

Belgium  31 

Belize  33 

Benin  35 

Bermuda  36 

Bhutan  37 

Bismarck  Archipelago  38 

Bolivia  39 

Botswana  41 

Bougainville  41 

Bounty  Islands  42 

Brazil  42 

British  Indian  Ocean  Territory  (Chagos  Archipelago)  46 

British  Virgin  Islands  47 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Brunei  48 

Bulgaria  49 

Burkina  Faso  52 

Burma  53 

Burundi  54 

Cameroon  55 

Campbell  Islands  57 

Canada  58 

Canary  Islands  61 

Canton  and  Enderbury  Islands  63 

Cape  Verde  64 

Cargados  Carajos  65 

Caroline  Islands  65 

Cayman  Islands  67 

Central  African  Republic  68 

Chad  69 

Chatham  Islands  70 

Chile  71 

China  74 

Christmas  Island  77 

Clipperton  Island  78 

Coco,  Isla  del  78 

Coco  Islands  79 

Cocos  Islands  79 

Colombia  80 

Comoro  Islands                            -  83 

Congo  83 

Cook  Islands  84 

Coral  Sea  Islands  85 

Costa  Rica  86 

Cuba  88 

Cyprus  90 

Czechoslovakia  91 

Denmark  95 

D'Entrecasteaux  Islands  98 

Djibouti  98 

Dominica  99 

Dominican  Republic  100 

Easter  Island  102 

Ecuador  103 

Egypt  105 

El  Salvador  107 

Equatorial  Guinea  109 

Ethiopia  1 1 1 

Faeroe   Islands  112 

Falkland  Islands  (Islas  Malvinas)  113 

South   Georgia  114 

South  Sandwich  Islands  115 

Fiji  115 

Finland  116 

France  119 

vi 


Contents 

Corsica  123 

French  Guiana  125 

Gabon  127 

Galapagos  Islands  128 

Gambia  130 

Gambler  Islands  130 

German  Democratic  Republic  131 

Germany,  Federal  Republic  of  133 

Ghana  139 

Gibraltar  140 

Glorieuses,  lies  141 

Great  Barrier  Reef  Islands  141 

Greece  142 

Crete  145 

Greenland  147 

Grenada  147 

Guadeloupe  and  Martinique  148 

Guam  151 

Guatemala  152 

Guinea  154 

Guinea-Bissau  155 

Guyana  156 

Haiti  157 

Hawaii  158 

Honduras                                                    "  161 

Hong  Kong  163 

Hungary  164 

Iceland  166 

India  168 

Indonesia  173 

Iran  178 

Iraq  180 

Ireland  181 

Israel  184 

Italy  186 

Sardinia  190 

Sicily  190 

Ivory  Coast  192 

Jamaica  193 

Japan  195 

Johnston  Island  197 

Jordan  198 

Juan  Fernandez  199 

Kampuchea  201 

Kazan  Retto  202 

Kenya  202 

Kermadec  Islands  204 

Kiribati  205 

Korea,  Democratic  People's  Republic  of  206 

Korea,  Republic  of  207 

Kuwait  209 

vii 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Lakshadweep  210 

Laos  210 

Lebanon  211 

Lesotho  212 

Liberia  213 

Libya  214 

Liechtenstein  216 

Lord  Howe  Island  217 

Louisiade  Archipelago  218 

Luxembourg  218 

Macau  220 

Macquarie  Island  220 

Madagascar  221 

Madeira  Islands  223 

Malawi  225 

Malaysia  226 

Maldives  230 

Mali  231 

Malta  231 

Mariana  Islands  233 

Marion  and  Prince  Edward  Islands  234 

Marquesas  Islands  235 

Marshall  Islands  236 

Mauritania  237 

Mauritius  238 

Mexico                                             _  240 

Midway  Islands  245 


Minami-Tori-Shima 


Morocco 


Namibia 
Nauru 
Navassa  Island 


Netherlands  Antilles 
New  Caledonia 
New  Zealand 


Niue 

Norfolk  Island 

Norway 


Pakistan 
Panama 


245 


Mongolia  246 

Montserrat  247 


247 


Mozambique  249 


250 
251 
252 


Nepal  252 

Netherlands  254 


258 
259 
261 


Nicaragua  264 

Niger  265 

Nigeria  266 


268 
268 
269 


Ogasawara-Gunto  271 

Oman 


272 
273 
275 


Papua  New  Guinea  277 


vui 


Contents 

Paraguay  279 

Peru  281 

Philippines  283 

Pitcairn   Islands  285 

Poland  287 

Portugal  290 

Puerto  Rico  292 

Qatar  295 

Reunion  296 

Rodrigues  297 

Romania  299 

Rwanda  301 

Ryukyu  Retto  303 

St  Helena  304 

St  Kitts-Nevis  305 

St  Lucia  306 

St-Pierre  and  Miquelon  307 

St  Vincent  307 

Salvage  Islands  308 

Sao  Tome  and  Principe  309 

Saudi  Arabia  310 

Senegal  312 

Seychelles  313 

Sierra  Leone  316 

Singapore  318 

Society  Islands  319 

Socotra  320 

Solomon  Islands  321 

Somalia  323 

South  Africa  324 

Spain  330 

Balearic  Islands  334 

Sri   Lanka  335 

Sudan  337 

Suriname  339 

Svalbard  340 

Swaziland  341 

Sweden  343 

Switzerland  345 


Syria 


Tromelin 


348 


Taiwan  349 

Tanzania  351 

Thailand  353 

Togo  3^5 

Tokelau  356 

Tonga  ^^" 

Trinidad  and  Tobago  357 

Tristan  da  Cunha  '59 

Trobriand   Islands  ^^ 


360 


Tuamotu  Archipelago  3^^ 


IX 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Tubuai  361 

Tunisia  362 

Turkey  363 

Turks  and  Caicos  Islands  367 

Tuvalu  367 

Uganda  367 

Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  369 

United  Arab  Emirates  374 

United  Kingdom  375 

Channel   Islands  380 

United   States  381 

Miscellaneous  Islands  394 

United  States  Virgin  Islands  395 

Uruguay  396 

Vanuatu  397 

Venezuela  398 

Islands  401 

Viet  Nam  401 

Wake  Island  403 

Wallis  and  Futuna  403 

Western  Sahara  404 

Western   Samoa  405 

Yemen,  Democratic  406 

Yemen  Arab  Republic  407 

Yugoslavia  408 

Zaire  411 

Zambia  41 3 

Zimbabwe  414 

Appendices 

Appendix  1:  General  and  Regional  References  417 

Appendix  2:  Index  to  Bibliography  436 
Appendix  3:  The  Implementation  of  Conservation  Conventions  relevant  to  Plants        441 

Geographical  Index  444 


Preface 


Over  the  last  ten  years,  a  vast  amount  has  been  written  and  pubUshed  on  threatened  plants, 
often  in  rather  inaccessible  places.  Numerous  countries  have  prepared  Red  Data  Books  of 
their  threatened  flora.  Yet  it  is  also  clear  that  plant  conservation  is  not  succeeding  in  most 
parts  of  the  world  and  is  not  yet  fully  accepted  as  a  fundamental  part  of  conservation  as  a 
whole.  One  reason  may  simply  be  that  many  conservationists  do  not  know  how  much 
information  on  plants  is  already  available.  This  would  not  be  unduly  surprising,  as  most 
efforts  to  list  threatened  plants  have  emerged  from  herbaria  and  botanic  gardens,  rather 
than  from  conservation  groups.  Botanists  are  concerned  about  the  threats  to  the  plants 
they  study  from  day  to  day  and  anxious  to  provide  at  least  an  assessment  of  the  problem. 
Yet,  although  individual  botanists  may  be  the  best  people  to  assess  which  species  are  in 
danger,  conservation  organizations,  with  successful  track  records  in  other  fields  of 
conservation,  are  surely  in  a  far  better  position  to  turn  that  knowledge  into  effective  action 
on  the  ground. 

The  purpose  of  this  book  is  to  provide  these  conservation  organizations  with  a  concise 
guide  to  information  on  threatened  plants.  Rather  than  providing  information  on  each 
threatened  plant,  which  would  be  impossible  in  one  book,  we  show  how  to  find  that 
information.  The  entries  are  arranged  alphabetically  by  country,  so  as  to  answer  the 
questions,  "Where  can  I  find  out  about  the  flora  of  any  country,  which  species  in  that 
flora  are  threatened,  and  who  may  be  trying  to  save  them?" 

The  book  forms  part  of  the  lUCN/WWF  Plant  Conservation  Programme.  This  is  a  set  of 
around  90  activities,  derived  from  the  philosophy  and  principles  of  the  World 
Conservation  Strategy.  Long  overdue,  its  aim  is  two-fold:  firstly,  to  provide  a  strategic 
basis  for  plant  conservation,  and  secondly,  by  means  of  model  projects,  to  show  how  this 
knowledge  can  be  applied  on  the  ground.  As  part  of  the  first  aim,  lUCN  is  preparing  about 
10  books  and  major  papers,  of  which  this  book  is  one.  Others  include  an  illustrated 
account  for  the  layman  of  why  plant  conservation  is  important  (Green  Inheritance  by 
Anthony  Huxley,  1985)  and  a  Conservation  Strategy  for  Botanic  Gardens  (1985-6).  At 
early  stages  of  preparation  are  a  book  on  the  principles  and  practice  of  plant  conservation, 
and  a  Red  Data  Book  of  plant  sites  where  high  numbers  of  plant  species  could  be  saved. 
Other  activities  cover  education,  training  and  institution-building.  Special  themes,  in 
addition  to  threatened  plants,  are  the  issue  of  genetic  resources,  the  status  of  economic 
plants  and  the  role  of  botanic  gardens  in  conservation. 

The  concepts  developed  in  the  strategic  part  of  the  programme  are  being  applied  in  field 
projects  in  16  selected  countries.  These  include,  for  example,  a  rescue  programme  for  the 
critically  endangered  Mauritian  flora;  land  use  surveys  of  threatened  areas  like  the 
Usambaras  and  Ulugurus  of  Tanzania;  support  for  large  plant-rich  national  parks  like  La 
Amistad  (Costa  Rica),  Tai  (Ivory  Coast)  and  Manu  (Peru);  support  for  planning  networks 
of  protected  areas  in  Borneo  and  Irian  Jaya;  conservation  of  medicinal  plants  in  Sri 
Lanka,  of  teosintes  in  Mexico  and  of  multipurpose  palm  species  in  Latin  America;  and 
education  about  plant  conservation  in  India. 

As  these  activities  show,  research  on  threatened  plants  and  rescue  of  their  populations  are 
only  part  of  plant  conservation.  Yet  it  is  on  this  aspect  that  most  of  the  research  and  data- 
gathering  has  concentrated,  at  least  until  very  recently.  Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we 
know?  charts  the  results  of  that  work,  but  intentionally  does  not  extend  to  other,  more 
recent,  topics  in  plant  conservation.  For  instance,  few  references  are  given  on  the 
conservation  of  economic  plants;  in  this  case,  and  in  others,  the  priority  is  not  so  much 
data  synthesis  as  conceptual  development  and  pilot  projects  which  will  show,  for  example, 

\  xi 


how  the  genetic  variation  of  economic  plants  can  best  be  conserved  in  situ  as  well  as  ex 
situ.  As  the  spotlight  widens  to  include  topics  such  as  the  conservation  of  medicinal  plants 
and  the  better  use  of  traditional  knowledge  about  plants  useful  to  man,  it  seemed  sensible 
to  document  the  quite  remarkable  progress  that  has  been  made  in  the  last  decade  or  so  in 
finding  out  which  species  are  threatened. 

It  is  our  hope  and  intention  that  the  knowledge  outlined  in  this  book  will  encourage  action 
to  save  the  threatened  plants  documented  so  assiduously  by  botanists  all  over  the  world. 
Although  more  research  is  needed,  enough  is  known  about  the  threats  to  plant  life  for 
action  to  be  taken  now:  for  instance,  creation  of  national  parks  and  biosphere  reserves, 
better  use  of  botanic  gardens,  and  enactment  of  more  effective  laws  to  control  plant 
collecting  and  plant  trade.  For  of  all  the  changes  that  man  can  make  to  the  Earth,  none  is 
more  permanent  or  more  wasteful  than  the  extinction  of  a  species. 


xn 


Acknowledgements 


This  book  could  not  have  been  written  without  a  great  deal  of  help  from  many  people.  It  is 
our  pleasure  to  acknowledge  and  thank  over  400  botanists  who  helped  us  and  contributed 
information.  Virtually  all  whom  we  approached  offered  their  help.  We  are  most  grateful. 
The  response  we  received,  literally  overwhelming  at  times,  and  the  masses  of  additional 
data  accumulated,  are  the  main  reason  the  book  was  delayed  from  its  original  publication 
date  at  the  end  of  1984. 

We  would  like  to  thank  especially  those  scientists  who  reviewed  and  commented  on  the 
drafts  for  whole  regions  and  contributed  so  much  to  the  book.  Their  help  was  vital  in 
ensuring  overall  consistency  and  completeness.  In  some  cases,  reviewers  most  kindly  spent 
many  hours  carefully  checking  manuscripts,  finding  obscure  and  difficult  references  for  us 
and  sharing  their  knowledge  with  us.  Here  we  thank  in  particular  CD.  Adams 
(Caribbean),  P.S.  Ashton  (Asia),  M.M.J,  van  Balgooy  (Asia),  F.R.  Fosberg  (Pacific),  J.B. 
Gillett  (Africa),  B.  MacBryde  (New  World),  R.  Polhill  (Africa),  G.T.  Prance  (New  World 
Tropics),  P.H.  Raven  and  his  colleagues  at  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  (all  the  tropics)  and 
V.M.  Toledo  (Latin  America).  We  also  thank  L.  McMahan  and  J.  McKnight  at 
WWF-U.S.  for  their  help  with  the  New  World  accounts  and  WWF-U.S.  in  general  for 
their  continued  support  to  CMC.  We  thank  especially  those  botanists  who  contributed 
country  accounts  for  us;  we  want  to  mention  here  the  contribution  of  R.A.  DeFilipps,  who 
not  only  wrote  the  account  for  the  U.S.A.  (with  P.  Gregerson),  by  far  the  longest  in  the 
book,  but  also  gave  extensive  help  with  many  other  accounts. 

We  also  warmly  thank  our  colleagues  in  the  Library  and  Herbarium  at  Kew.  Preparing  the 
book  has  drawn  heavily  on  the  splendid  facilities  of  the  Kew  Library  and  we  are  most 
grateful  to  the  staff  for  patiently  coping  with  our  many  requests.  Above  all,  we  would  like 
to  thank  the  staff  of  the  Herbarium,  in  particular  the  Keeper,  G.Ll.  Lucas,  for  their 
continued  support.  The  Threatened  Plants  Unit  of  lUCN's  Conservation  Monitoring 
Centre  developed  within  the  Kew  Herbarium  and  continues  to  benefit  greatly  from  its 
presence  there.  lUCN  is  deeply  grateful  to  the  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew,  and  to  its 
Director,  E.A.  Bell,  for  their  magnificent  support  that  has  now  lasted  over  10  years. 

The  sections  for  countries  of  Latin  America  were  written  by  Patrick  Gregerson  and  Jane 
Lamlein  Villa-Lobos  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  with  whom  lUCN  has  a  co-operative 
arrangement  for  data-gathering  on  threatened  plants  in  that  region.  lUCN  is  most  grateful 
to  the  Smithsonian  for  their  help  and  acknowledges  with  pleasure  the  contributions  of 
their  scientists. 

In  a  sense  the  real  authors  of  this  book  are  the  very  many  experts  who  spared  time  to 
comment,  and  in  many  cases  rewrite,  the  accounts  for  the  places  on  which  they  are  the 
acknowledged  experts.  For  their  help  and  for  sharing  their  knowledge,  we  thank  E. 
Adjanohoun,  J.M.  Aguilar  Cumes,  J.R.  Akeroyd,  D.M.  Al-Eisawi,  A.H.  Al-Khayat,  A. 
Alnen,  R.M.  Alfaro,  S.I.  AH,  S.  Andrews,  G.W.  Argus,  E.O.A.  Asibey,  G.G.  Aymonin, 
J.A.  Bacone,  P.  Bamps,  C.  Barclay,  W.T.  Barker,  T.M.  Barkley,  T.  Baytop,  H.E.  Beaty, 
S.  Beck,  L.J.  Beloussova,  D.  Benkert,  G.  Benl,  R.W.  Boden,  P.  Boniface,  I.  Bonnelly  de 
Calventi,  A.  Borhidi,  J.  Bosser,  D.  Bramwell,  F.J.  Breteler,  P.  Broussalis,  R.E.  Brown, 
R.K.  Brummitt,  W.  Burger,  W.  Burley,  R.  Burton,  R.  Bye,  L.J.T.  Cadet,  J.  Cerovsky, 
J.D.  Chapman,  A.O.  Chater,  M.N.  Chaudhri,  A.  Cheke,  S.  Cheng-kui,  M.  Chilcott,  G.L. 
Church,  S.  Cochrane,  M.  Cohen,  N.H.A.  Cole,  J.B.  Comber,  P.  Condy,  M.  Conrad, 
M.J.E.  Coode,  T.A.  Cope,  F.  Corbetta,  R.A.  Countryman,  P.  Coyne,  P.J.  Cribb,  J.R. 
Croft,  B.S.  Croxall,  K.  Curry-Lindahl,  W.  D'Arcy,  J.-P.  D'Huart,  E.  D'Souza,  A. 

(  xiii 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Danin,  B.  De  Winter,  R.A.  DeFilipps,  H.  Demirez,  G.  Dennis,  G.  Dihoru,  M.  Dillon, 
M.G.  Dlamini,  C.H.  Dodson,  D.D.  Doone,  L.E.  Dorr,  F.  Dowsett-Lemaire,  J. 
Dransfield,  A.M.  Dray,  R.W.  Dwyer,  J.  Dwyer,  E.  Einarsson,  J.M.  Engel,  H.  Ern,  L. 
Escobar,  R.  Faden,  P.  Fairburn,  L.  Farrell,  J.M.  Fay,  J.  Feilberg,  K.  Ferguson,  A.A. 
Ferrar,  H.  Fink,  M.A.  Fischer,  J.J.  Floret,  E.  Forero,  L.L.  Forman,  B.  Fredskild,  J.D. 
Freeman,  F.  Friedmann,  I.  Friis,  E.  Gabrielian,  Z.O.  Gbile,  C.  Geerling,  D.  Geltman, 
A.H.  Gentry,  A.  George,  B.  Gibbs-Russell,  M.G.  Gilbert,  D.R.  Given,  L.  GodicI,  E.E. 
Gogina,  P.  Goldblatt,  P.  Golz,  L.D.  Gomez  P.,  C.  Gomez-Campo,  J. -J.  de  Granville,  W. 
Greuter,  C.  Grey-Wilson,  V.I.  Grubov,  C.V.S.  Gunatilleke,  M.N.  el  Hadidi,  W.  Hahn, 
A.V.  Hall,  N.  Halle,  O.  Hamann,  H.  Hamburger,  L.  Hamet-Ahti,  A.C.  Hamilton,  A. 
Hansen,  W.Z.  Hao,  R.M.  Harley,  I.  Hedberg,  I.C.  Hedge,  D.  Henderson,  A.J.  Hepburn, 
F.N.  Hepper,  D.  Herbst,  V.H.  Heywood,  F.-C.  Ho,  K.  Holland,  L.  Holm-Nielson,  S. 
Holt,  J.  Holub,  M.  Houser,  K.-S.  Hsu,  T.-C.  Huang,  O.  Huber,  C.J.  Humphries,  H.G. 
Hundley,  D.R.  Hunt,  J.  Hunziker,  T.  Ingelog,  H.  Jacques-Felix,  P.  Jaeger,  S.K.  Jain,  H. 
Jasiewicz,  C.  Jeffrey,  J.  Jensen,  J.  Jeremie,  R.  Johns,  M.C.  Johnston,  J.-C.  Jolinon, 
L.D.  Jornez,  M.G.  Karrer,  K.  Kartawinata,  D.L.  Kelly,  H.  Keng,  R.  Kiesling,  R.  Kiew, 
R.A.  King,  R.B.  de  Klee,  E.  Kohler,  J.  Kornas,  R.  Krai,  B.A.  Kuzmanov,  R.  Kwok,  E. 
Landoh,  E.  Lanfranco,  P.  Lantz,  S.E.  Lauzon,  C.C.  Lay,  J.-P.  Lebrun,  T.B.  Lee,  Y.N. 
Lee,  J.H.  Leigh,  R.  Letouzey,  G.P.  Lewis,  R.W.  Lichvar,  J.C.  Lindeman,  H.P.  Linder, 
A.H.  Liogier,  Phan  Ke  Loc,  B.  Lojtnant,  D.  Long,  A.H.  Lot,  J.  Lovett,  S.  Lyster,  H.S. 
MacKee,  D.A.  Madulid,  W.  Marais,  F.  Markgraf,  C.  Martin,  P.C.  Martinelli,  B. 
Mathew,  S.J.  Mayo,  D.  McClintock,  B.R.  McDonald,  R.D.  Meikle,  J.E.  Mendes  Ferrao, 
J.  Mennema,  A.G.  Miller,  J.  Miller,  M.J.  Mitchell,  N.  Mohner,  D.  Money,  T.  Monod,  F. 
Monterroso,  D.M.  Moore,  W.H.  Moore,  Ph.  Morat,  S.A.  Mori,  N.  Morin,  L.  Morse,  M. 
Munoz  Schick,  T.  Muller,  D.F.  Murray,  C.  Nelson  S.,  F.  Nemeth,  E.  Ni  Lamha,  D.H. 
Nicolson,  H.  Niklfeld,  H.  Nishida,  C.  Norquist,  M.  Numata,  C.  Ochoa,  H.  Ohba,  J.C. 
Okafor,  R.  Olaczek,  L.  Olivier,  P.  Olwell,  S.  Orzell,  R.T.  Pace,  J.  Page,  C.  Pannell,  F.H. 
Perring,  D.  Philcox,  A.  Phillipps,  B.R.  Phillips,  D.  Phitos,  R.E.G.  Pichi-Sermolh,  J. 
Pickard,  S.  Pignatti,  G.E.  Pilz,  E.  Pingitore,  A.R.  Pinto  da  Silva,  A.  Pinzl,  M.  Plotkin, 
A.C.  Podzorski,  D.M.  Porter,  D.A.  Powell,  R.  Press,  S.  Price,  A.  RadcHffe-Smith,  T.P. 
Ramamoorthy,  A.L.  Rao,  W.  Rauh,  L.  Reichling,  S.A.  Renvoize,  S.A.  Robertson,  W.A. 
Rodgers,  J.A.  Rodrigues  de  Paiva,  M.  Romeril,  W.  Rossi,  J.H.  Rumely,  J.  Rzedowski, 
M.-H.  Sachet,  Md.  Salar  Khan,  M.J.S.  Sands,  C.  Sargent,  M.  Scannell,  J.  van  Scheepen, 
C.  Scheepers,  F.M.  Schlegel,  M.  Schmid,  J.  Schwegman,  J.W.  Scott,  K.  Scriven,  M. 
Segnestam,  K.H.  Sheikh,  G.  Sheppard,  T.  Shimizu,  A.  Shmida,  S.  Siwatibau,  A.C. 
Smith,  W.A.  Smith,  T.  Smitinand,  S.  Snogerup,  J.C.  Solomon,  G.V.  Somner,  B.A. 
Sorrie,  M.  Soto,  R.  Spichiger,  J.  Steyermark,  A.L.  Stoffers,  W.  Strahm,  H.E.  Strang,  A. 
Strid,  A.M.  Studart  da  Fonseca  Vaz,  T.F.  Stuessy,  H.-J.  Su,  A.  Sugden,  H.  Sukopp,  J. 
Suominen,  J.D.  Supthut,  D.  Sutton,  W.R.  Sykes,  A.L.  Takhtajan,  E.  Tanner,  C.  Taylor, 
Y.  Te-Tsun,  A.D.  Thompson,  G.  Thor,  Dao  Van  Tien,  C.C.  Townsend,  G.  Traxler,  G. 
Troupin,  C.  Tydeman,  P.  Uotila,  K.  Vollesen,  S.  Vuokko,  M.  Wadhwa,  F.H. 
Wadsworth,  S.  Wahlberg,  M.  Walters,  S.M.  Walters,  D.A.  Webb,  L.  Webb,  E.  Weinert, 
O.  Weiskirchner,  D.W.  Weller,  T.  Wendt,  H.  van  der  Werff,  M.  Werkhoven,  A.  Whistler, 
F.  White,  T.C.  Whitmore,  G.E.  Wickens,  S.R.  Wilbur,  R.T.  Winterbottom,  J.R.L 
Wood,  K.  Woolliams,  T.  Wraber,  A.  Wunschmann,  F.  Yaltirik,  T.  Zanoni,  E.  Zardini,  A. 
Zimmermann  and  E.M.  van  Zinderen  Bakker,  with  apologies  to  anyone  whom  we  may 
have  forgotten. 

We  thank  those  in  lUCN  who  have  helped  make  this  book  possible,  in  particular  M.F. 
Tillman,  Director  of  the  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre,  J.A.  McNeely,  Director  of  the 
Programme  and  Policy  Division,  and  O.  Hamann,  Plants  Officer.  We  thank  L.  Wright, 

xiv 


Acknowledgements 

lUCN  Publications  Officer,  for  seeing  it  through  production  and  issuing  it,  and  D.C. 
Mackinder,  N.P.  Phillips  and  S.  Luckcock,  in  the  Computer  Services  Unit,  for  help  with 
the  word-processing.  His  fellow  authors  would  also  like  to  thank  Stephen  Droop,  now  a 
professional  publisher  in  his  own  right,  for  his  meticulous  work  in  compiling  the 
appendices  and  in  proof-reading  the  whole  book. 

Naturally  we  wish  to  give  particular  thanks  to  our  financial  sponsors,  without  whom  none 
of  the  work  could  have  been  done.  The  preparation  of  the  European  accounts  was  done 
under  a  grant  from  the  U.K.  Natural  Environment  Research  Council  (NERC),  on  behalf 
of  the  European  Research  Councils,  co-ordinated  through  the  European  Science 
Foundation.  The  CMC  receives  generous  financial  support  from  the  United  Nations 
Environment  Programme  (UNEP),  under  their  Global  Environment  Monitoring  System 
(GEMS),  and  from  the  World  Wildlife  Fund  (WWF).  In  this  case  WWF  have  given  an 
additional  grant  towards  pubhcation  that  will  enable  500  copies  of  this  book  to  be  donated 
to  botanical  institutions  and  conservation  organizations  in  those  countries  where  funds  for 
buying  books  are  hard  to  obtain.  We  warmly  thank  our  sponsors  for  all  this  support. 


XV 


Outline  of  the  book 


In  the  pages  that  follow,  we  provide  information  about  data  sources  on  plants  for  each 
country  and  island  group  in  the  world.  Most  islands  are  given  a  separate  account,  whatever 
their  political  affiliations,  because  so  often  their  flora  is  very  different  from  that  of  the 
parent  country.  We  have  only  placed  the  island  account  next  to  that  of  its  parent  country 
where  both  are  close  geographically,  the  island  is  not  oceanic  and  the  floras  are  similar; 
otherwise  the  islands  are  placed  in  the  alphabetical  sequence.  For  example,  Corsica  may  be 
found  after  the  account  for  France,  but  Guadeloupe  and  Martinique,  French 
departements,  are  placed  in  the  main  sequence. 

We  have  included  most  islands  other  than  those  inshore  ones  and  those  that  have  little  or 
no  flora.  The  main  omissions  are  in  the  Arctic,  where  there  are  few,  if  any,  endangered 
plants.  We  have  had  difficulty  in  finding  the  correct  names  for  some  of  the  islands,  and 
have  found  it  quite  impossible  to  be  wholly  consistent  in  geographical  names.  The 
literature  on  small  islands,  although  fascinating,  is  obscure  and  difficult  to  find  and  we  are 
conscious  that  some  of  the  accounts  are  far  from  complete.  We  would  be  glad  to  know  of 
any  errors. 

The  information  in  each  account  is  arranged  under  the  following  headings,  although  where 
data  are  lacking  or  where  the  accounts  are  very  short,  some  or  all  of  the  headings  have 
been  omitted  for  the  sake  of  clarity. 

Area  In  square  kilometres,  mostly  taken  from  The  Times  Atlas  of  the  World, 
Comprehensive  Edition  (Times  Books,  London,  1983  version). 

Population  Taken  from  the  UN  World  Population  Chart,  1984,  prepared  by  the 
Population  Division  of  the  Department  of  International,  Economic  and  Social  Affairs, 
United  Nations.  The  figures  are  estimates,  to  the  nearest  thousand,  for  the  middle  of  the 
year.  In  a  few  cases,  mostly  small  islands,  different  sources  were  used  and  these  are 
indicated,  with  a  date  wherever  possible. 

Floristics  Here  we  outline  the  size  of  the  flora  and  its  affinities,  with,  where 
relevant,  notes  on  areas  of  high  diversity  and  endemism. 

In  most  cases  we  have  tried  to  give  two  figures:  the  number  of  species  of  native  vascular 
plants,  and  the  number  of  endemic  taxa.  The  first  of  these  usually  comes  from  the  floristic 
literature,  being  either  a  tally  of  species  recorded  or  an  estimate  of  species  predicted  to 
occur  in  the  country  or  island.  It  has  been  a  pleasant  surprise  to  find  estimates  and  totals 
for  so  many  countries.  We  are  unable  to  present  figures  for  only  a  handful  of  countries, 
principally  Uruguay,  the  two  Yemens,  and  the  two  Koreas.  We  should  emphasize  that  the 
figures  are  not  always  strictly  compatible  from  one  country  to  another;  taxonomic 
concepts  vary,  as  does  the  extent  of  knowledge.  But  we  do  feel  that  this  set  of  figures, 
never  drawn  together  before  as  far  as  we  can  assess,  provides  a  sharp  comment  on  how  the 
diversity  of  plants  is  spread  over  the  Earth. 

The  second  number  we  have  tried  to  include  is  the  number  of  endemics;  by  this  we  mean 
plants  strictly  confined  to  the  island,  island  group  or  country  concerned,  rather  than  plants 
that  are  of  an  endemic  nature,  i.e.  confined  to  small  areas,  whether  in  one  country  or  not. 
These  figures  are  usually  taken  from  the  lUCN  database,  as  lUCN  has  been  accumulating 
information  on  endemic  plants  for  many  years. 

Vegetation  Our  aim  has  been  to  provide  a  succinct  account  of  the  principal 
vegetation  types  in  each  country  and  to  outline  the  mosaic  they  form.  This  is  no  easy  task, 

xvi 


Outline  of  the  book 

even  for  professional  phytosociologists,  and  we  have  invariably  found  this  the  most 
difficult  section  to  write.  As  botanists,  with  mostly  a  taxonomic  and  ecological  rather  than 
a  phytosociological  training,  we  have  learned  greatly  from  the  process  but  are  very  aware 
of  the  deficiencies  in  what  we  have  written.  We  hope,  nevertheless,  that  the  accounts  will 
be  of  some  use  in  providing  a  birds-eye  picture  of  the  natural  vegetation  that  remains;  the 
tremendous  help  that  we  have  had  from  the  numerous  botanists  who  have  reviewed  the 
accounts  should  ensure,  too,  that  they  are  not  wholly  inaccurate. 

In  writing  these  sections,  we  have  deliberately  not  followed  any  one  system  of  classifying 
vegetation,  and  have  tried  to  follow  a  structural  rather  than  a  phytosociological  approach. 
As  White  (1983)  says,  "The  remark  made  long  ago  by  Richards,  Tansley  and  Watt  (1939, 
1940)  in  discussing  Burtt  Davy's  (1938)  classification  of  tropical  woody  vegetation,  namely 
that  existing  knowledge  is  inadequate  for  the  construction  of  a  world-wide  natural 
classification,  still  remains  true."  We  have  also  tried  to  avoid  the  more  baffling  and 
complex  terms  used  by  some  vegetation  scientists. 

The  sections  vary  greatly  from  region  to  region,  those  for  Europe,  predominantly  a  man- 
made  landscape,  being  the  most  difficult.  For  Africa,  we  have  had  the  benefit  of  F. 
White's  masterpiece  on  the  vegetation  -  the  AETFAT  vegetation  map  and  descriptive 
memoir  (White,  1983).  We  have  followed  this  closely  and  as  a  result  the  accounts  of  the 
vegetation  for  Africa  are  better,  shorter  and  more  consistent  than  those  for  other  regions. 

Where  possible,  especially  in  tropical  forest  countries,  we  have  added  figures  on  the  extent 
of  vegetation  remaining,  and  of  the  rate  of  loss,  although  in  no  sense  do  we  provide  more 
than  a  brief  introduction  to  the  literature.  Here,  too,  difficulties  intrude  for  those  who 
seek  to  summarize.  We  have,  in  fact,  tended  to  quote  from  two  very  eminent  but  very 
different,  indeed  often  contradictory,  accounts.  The  first  is  the  series  of  books  by 
FAO/UNEP  under  the  overall  title  Tropical  Forest  Resources  Assessment  Project, 
specifically  Forest  Resources  of  Tropical  Africa,  of  Tropical  Asia  and  of  Tropical  America 
(the  latter  in  Spanish).  These  massive  tomes  were  compiled  by  FAO  from  figures  requested 
from  governments.  The  second  source  is  Norman  Myers'  Conversion  of  Tropical  Moist 
Forests  (Myers,  1980),  a  report  prepared  for  the  U.S.  National  Research  Council  and 
published  by  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences.  As  Myers  himself  (1984)  points  out,  the 
discrepancy  lies  with  the  two  sets  of  criteria  used.  He  looked  at  significant  conversion  of 
primary  forests,  that  is,  destruction  plus  degradation,  whereas  the  FAO/UNEP  study 
focused  instead  on  outright  eUmination  of  forests,  that  is,  destruction  alone.  From  the 
point  of  view  of  biological  values,  the  Myers  figures  are  therefore  likely  to  be  the  more 
useful,  because  it  is  well  known  that  modification  of  tropical  forests  tends  to  cause  loss  of 
plant  diversity.  When  these  differences  are  taken  into  account,  Myers  (1984)  claimed  that 
the  figures  for  overall  loss  of  tropical  forests  were  quite  similar:  a  deforestation  rate  in 
1980  of  76,000  sq.  km  per  year  according  to  the  FAO/UNEP  study,  and  a  figure  for 
outright  elimination  from  the  Myers  study  of  92,000  sq.  km  per  year.  In  both  cases  one 
should  emphasize  that  the  largest  countries  with  tropical  forest  are  often  the  least  well 
documented  so  that  the  overall  estimates  are  figures  to  be  treated  with  caution. 

Checklists  and  Floras  This  section  is  included  to  provide  a  taxonomic  basis  for 
the  sections  that  follow  on  threatened  species.  The  aim  is  to  cite  those  works  that 
conservationists  would  use,  so  we  take  a  selective  view  of  the  botanical  literature.  Where  a 
comprehensive  Flora  has  just  been  completed,  we  have  added  none  of  the  older  works 
since  these  would  only  be  required  by  the  taxonomic  specialist.  But  where  a  Flora  has  not 
been  written,  or  is  still  incomplete,  we  have  included  those  older  works  that  will  be  needed 
to  cover  the  gaps.  Often,  where  modern  Floras  are  still  only  just  beginning,  as  in  many 
South  American  countries,  we  have  included  references  to  monographs  for  the  larger 

xvii 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

individual  families.  We  have  also  included  botanical  bibliographies  whenever  we  could 
find  them.  In  European  countries,  and  some  others,  we  have  included  plant  atlases  and 
national  botanical  journals. 

We  should  emphasize  just  how  selective  we  have  been,  especially  for  countries  with  an 
extensive  botanical  literature.  The  bibliography  of  Mexican  botany,  for  example,  runs  to 
1015  pages  (Langman,  1964).  The  second  edition  of  Taxonomic  Literature,  TL2,  in  seven 
massive  volumes,  will  list  15-16,000  titles,  mostly  published  before  1939  and  will  not  be 
complete,  covering  just  the  important  works  (M.R.  Crosby  and  P.H.  Raven,  pers. 
comm.). 

While  in  the  final  stages  of  producing  this  book,  D.G.  Frodin's  Guide  to  Standard  Floras 
of  the  World  was  published.  This  gives  very  detailed  accounts  of  all  the  Floras  published 
up  to  1980,  country  by  country,  and  is  the  result  of  many  years  of  careful  research.  The 
Floras  section  of  our  book  is  fundamentally  different  as  we  list  only  selected  works. 
Nevertheless,  quick  perusal  of  Frodin  showed  a  high  degree  of  consistency  between  the 
accounts.  In  only  a  few  cases  have  we  taken  the  liberty  of  adding  a  book  or  paper  from 
Frodin's  accounts  and  all  these  instances  are  cited  (e.g.  "from  Frodin").  We  salute  Dr 
Frodin's  magnum  opus  and  commend  it  for  those  who  require  a  more  detailed  and 
complete  account. 

Field-guides  Again  our  choice  is  selective,  especially  for  those  countries  like 
Britain  and  the  United  States  where  very  many  field-guides  have  been  published  over  the 
years.  In  numerous  other  countries,  however,  there  is  not  even  a  simple  guide  to  the 
common  species. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  This  is  the  core  of  the  book.  We  have  tried  to 
include  all  lists  of  threatened  plants  and  Plant  Red  Data  Books,  but  have  not  listed  papers 
on  one  or  two  threatened  species  only,  unless  they  give  valuable  background  on  threatened 
species  in  the  area  concerned.  Some  of  the  major  works  have  been  reviewed  in  the 
Threatened  Plants  Newsletter,  issued  by  the  Threatened  Plants  Unit  about  twice  a  year  and 
sent  to  those  who  contribute  data  to  the  CMC;  these  reviews  are  mentioned  where  they 
provide  a  useful  summary  of  a  work  or  give  new  information. 

News  of  national  databases  on  threatened  species  are  also  given,  but  this  is  a  recent 
development  in  most  countries.  The  maps  (see  below)  summarize  the  coverage  of  Red  Data 
Books  for  countries  around  the  world  and  the  conclusions  from  this  are  outlined  in  the 
following  section. 

Where  known,  we  give  figures  for  the  number  of  species  (and  in  some  cases  infraspecific  or 
lower  taxa)  falling  into  each  of  the  lUCN  Red  Data  Book  Categories,  used  as  a  measure  of 
the  degree  of  threat  to  wild  populations  of  individual  taxa.  These  categories  are  defined  at 
the  end  of  the  introductory  section  and  outlined  with  examples  in  a  booklet  available  from 
the  Threatened  Plants  Unit  at  Kew.  Most  of  the  figures  are  taken  from  the  CMC  database 
on  plants.  In  some  instances,  we  quote  the  number  of  plants  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data 
Book  (Lucas  and  Synge,  1978),  especially  where  these  are  the  only  readily  available 
examples  of  threatened  species  from  a  particular  country.  It  is  important  to  remember, 
however,  that  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  contains  only  examples,  chosen  to  show 
the  types  of  threats,  habitats  and  areas  affected.  The  aim  was  to  find  a  few  examples  for 
each  country,  so  the  accounts  are  not  representative  of  the  places  where  the  most 
extinctions  are  happening. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  This  section  covers  legislation  specifically  to  protect 
plants.  It  includes  details  of  the  type  of  protection  offered  and  the  taxa  covered.  With  the 

xviii 


Outline  of  the  book 
exception  of  Europe,  information  on  plants  protected  by  law  is  still  rudimentary;  the  very 
extensive  database  of  the  lUCN  Environmental  Law  Centre  in  Bonn,  West  Germany, 
covers  the  individual  species  of  fauna  that  receive  legal  protection,  but  not  yet  flora.  The 
great  size  and  complexity  of  that  database,  which  depends  on  a  standard  list  of  animals,  at 
least  vertebrates,  show  how  difficult  it  will  be  to  compile  similar  records  for  plants. 

Details  on  laws  relating  to  protected  area  legislation  are  not  given;  for  this  the  reader 
should  consult  the  lUCN  Directories  of  Protected  Areas,  of  which  the  volume  for  the 
Neotropics  is  available  (lUCN,  1982).  Volumes  for  Africa,  Asia  and  Oceania  are  in 
advanced  stages  of  preparation. 

Voluntary  Organizations  Here  are  listed  those  non-governmental  organizations 
(NGOs),  sometimes  called  citizen  groups,  that  include  plant  conservation  and  botany  in 
their  remit.  Many,  but  not  all,  are  members  of  lUCN. 

Botanic  Gardens  This  section  was  included  to  reflect  the  very  great  importance 
that  lUCN  attaches  to  the  role  that  Botanic  Gardens  can  play  in  conservation.  In  the 
accounts  of  some  countries,  for  reasons  of  space,  only  gardens  subscribing  to  lUCN's 
Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body  are  included.  More  details  of  the 
Botanic  Gardens  of  the  world  may  be  found  in  the  International  Directory  of  Botanical 
Gardens  IV  (4th  Edition),  compiled  under  the  aegis  of  the  International  Association  of 
Botanical  Gardens  (lABG)  (Henderson,  1983).  A  survey  of  botanic  gardens,  undertaken 
by  V.H.  Heywood  and  P.S.  Ashton  for  the  preparation  of  an  lUCN  Botanic  Gardens 
Conservation  Strategy,  has  greatly  increased  the  number  of  Botanic  Gardens  on  which 
recent  data  is  available;  there  are  now  over  1300  institutions  recorded  in  the  lUCN 
database  as  Botanic  Gardens  although  not  all  may  qualify  in  the  scientific  sense. 

Useful  Addresses  These  include,  for  example,  the  main  conservation  agency  in 
the  country  and  the  CITES  management  and  scientific  authorities.  For  the  most  part, 
herbaria  are  not  included,  being  very  effectively  covered  by  the  very  meticulous  and 
accurate  Index  Herbariorum  (Holmgren,  Keuken  and  Schofield,  1981),  which  describes 
about  1400  herbaria. 

Additional  References  This  is  a  very  selective  section,  including  additional 
references  cited  in  the  text,  as  well  as  further  books  and  articles  on  conservation  and 
botany  in  the  country  concerned  that  are  especially  useful.  We  have  made  a  special  effort 
to  include  references  to  national  vegetation  maps  here. 

After  the  country  and  island  accounts,  we  provide  three  appendices.  The  first  gives  the 
references  that  occur  so  often  they  are  not  repeated  in  full  on  each  country  or  island 
account.  The  second  provides  a  geographical  index  to  the  references  in  Appendix  1,  with 
an  indication  of  subject  matter.  It  may  be  helpful  in  finding  references  for  a  region  rather 
than  for  a  country.  The  third  is  a  table  showing  which  countries  have  ratified  or  acceded  to 
the  three  global  conservation  conventions  that  relate  to  plants  -  the  Convention  on 
International  Trade  in  Endangered  Species  of  Wild  Fauna  and  Flora  (CITES),  the 
Convention  concerning  the  Protection  of  the  World  Cultural  and  Natural  Heritage  (The 
World  Heritage  Convention),  and  the  Convention  on  Wetlands  of  International 
Importance  especially  as  Waterfowl  Habitat,  usually  known  as  the  Ramsar  Convention. 

The  final  part  of  the  book  is  an  index  of  countries,  islands  and  island  groups  mentioned  in 
the  data  sheets,  and  important  old  or  alternative  names  (even  if  these  are  not  mentioned  in 
the  text)  given  as  synonyms,  followed  by  the  current  name.  The  page  number  given  is  that 
at  the  beginning  of  the  relevant  data  sheet,  rather  than  the  page  number  of  every 
occurrence.  Geographical  entities  such  as  mountains,  rivers  or  regions  are  not  included  in 
the  index. 

xix 


XX 


Degree  of  completeness  of  Red  Data  Books 
^^^^^  Over75%complete 
wz/y/yy/A  25 — 75%  complete 
Up  to  25%  complete 
N  H  D      National  Red  Data  Book  in  preparation 


Map  1 


XXI 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  we 
know  so  far 


There  is  now  a  very  substantial  amount  of  knowledge  on  threatened  plants.  It  is  mostly 
very  recent:  for  example,  by  1970,  only  Belgium  had  produced  a  threatened  plant  list,  only 
Ronald  Melville  was  cataloguing  threatened  plants  globally,  and  there  was  only  a 
scattering  of  papers  on  plant  conservation.  Today,  almost  all  the  countries  of  the 
"North",  as  defined  by  the  Brandt  Report  and  so  including  Australia,  New  Zealand  and 
South  Africa,  have  produced  Red  Data  Books  listing  their  threatened  plants.  Several 
countries  of  the  "South",  notably  India,  have  produced  exemplary  lists  too,  and  are 
following  them  up  with  programmes  to  conserve  the  plants  they  have  listed  as  threatened. 

The  coverage  of  Red  Data  Books  is  shown  in  Map  No.  1.  Some  figures  for  numbers  of 
threatened  species  in  the  regions  and  countries  of  the  "North"  are  also  given  in  Table  1. 

Table  1  Selected  countries  or  regions  of  the  "North"  with  Red  Data  Books 


Country/Region 

Species 

Rare  &  threatened 

Extinct 

Endangered 

taxa 

taxa 

taxa 

Australia 

25,000 

1716 

117 

215 

Europe' 

11,300 

1927 

20 

117 

New  Zealand 

2000 

186 

4 

42 

South  Africa 

23,000 

2122 

39 

107 

U.S.S.R. 

21,100 

653 

c.  20 

c.  160 

U.S.A.^ 

20,000 

2050 

90 

? 

Sources:  Country  accounts  and  CMC  database 

1.  Excludes  European  U.S.S.R,  Azores,  Canary  Islands  and  Madeira 

2.  Continental  U.S.A. 

In  Europe,  for  example,  all  but  five  countries  have  produced  Red  Data  Books  or 
threatened  plant  lists,  and  those  five,  with  the  exception  of  Italy  and  Albania,  are  likely  to 
produce  reports  soon.  There  is  also  a  regional  list  for  Europe  (Threatened  Plants  Unit, 
lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre,  1983),  which  covers  only  species  rare  or 
threatened  on  a  European  scale,  and  a  rather  incomplete  list  for  the  neighbouring  region  of 
North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East  (lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat, 
1980).  In  the  United  States,  there  is  a  mass  of  lists  and  reports  covering  both  the  nation  and 
individual  states:  the  situation  is  complex  and  rather  untypical  of  other  countries,  but  the 
profligacy  of  independent  initiatives  and  activities  gives  perhaps  a  glimpse  of  how  the  data 
may  develop  elsewhere  in  future.  The  data  for  the  U.S.S.R.  are  also  very  complex,  with  a 
plethora  of  literature. 

In  North  America,  10-11  %  of  the  taxa  have  been  listed  as  rare  or  threatened.  The  figure  is 
rather  higher  in  Europe,  probably  because  of  the  combination  of  extensive  threats  to 
vegetation  in  the  northern,  industrialized  countries,  and  the  high  degree  of  plant  endemism 
in  the  southern  Mediterranean  countries.  In  northern  European  countries,  the  number  of 
world-threatened  species  tends  to  be  low;  this  is  a  reflection  of  the  poverty  of  the  flora, 
mostly  consisting  of  widespread  species  that  have  invaded  since  the  last  Ice  Age.  The  lists 
of  nationally  threatened  species,  however,  tend  to  be  several  times  greater,  typically  of  200 
taxa  or  more. 

xxii 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  we  know  so  far. 

For  the  Southern  Hemisphere,  there  is  a  Hst  for  South  Africa  (Hall  et  al.,  1980),  although 
this  is  heavily  weighted  in  favour  of  the  Cape.  A  good  list  is  available  for  Australia,  now  in 
its  third  version,  though  it  is  known  to  be  incomplete  for  the  fast  disappearing  Queensland 
rain  forests  and  for  the  extraordinarily  diverse  flora  of  Western  Australia.  Botanists 
estimate  that  as  many  as  7000  plant  species  await  discovery  in  Australia,  mainly  in  the 
western  region.  In  temperate  Latin  America,  there  is  a  list  for  Chile,  but  not  yet  for 
Argentina. 

Of  all  countries,  the  problem  of  threatened  plants  has  perhaps  been  best  documented  in 
New  Zealand.  First  to  appear,  in  1976,  was  a  register  -  or  list  -  of  314  taxa  under 
consideration  for  threatened  status  (Given,  1976).  Then,  in  1976-1978,  sets  of  loose-leaf 
sheets  were  issued;  each  sheet  covered  an  individual  species,  with  emphasis  on  the  exact 
localities  and  populations  in  each  locality.  This  was  not  a  public  document,  but  was 
designed  to  provide  the  practising  conservationist  with  the  information  needed  on  the  most 
critically  threatened  plants.  This  was  followed  by  a  popular,  illustrated  book  on 
conservation  of  the  New  Zealand  flora  (Given,  1981a),  an  official  Red  Data  Book  covering 
plants  and  animals  (Williams  and  Given,  1981),  and  a  paper  describing  the  whole 
documentation  process  (Given,  1981b). 

Within  these  regions,  the  highest  percentages  of  rare  and  threatened  species  are  from  those 
areas  with  a  mediterranean  climate  -  the  Mediterranean  basin  countries  themselves. 
Western  Australia,  the  Cape  of  South  Africa  and  California.  Raven  (1976)  estimates  that 
these  regions  contain  at  least  25,000  plant  species;  a  high  percentage  of  them,  maybe  as 
many  as  half,  are  narrow  endemics,  and  it  is  these  plants,  mostly  in  the  lUCN  Rare  or 
Endangered  categories,  that  dominate  the  threatened  plant  lists  for  U.S.A.,  Europe, 
Australia  and  South  Africa.  To  give  two  examples,  Calif ornian  endemics  account  for  669 
of  the  2050  threatened  species  in  the  U.S.  and,  according  to  Hall  et  al.  (1984),  the  Cape 
Floristic  Kingdom  contains  1621  threatened  plants,  including  36  Extinct,  98  Endangered 
and  137  Vulnerable. 

In  addition,  threatened  plant  lists  and  Plant  Red  Data  Books  have  been  prepared  for  many 
islands.  For  example,  the  Canary  Islands  are  well  covered  by  the  list  for  Spain  (Barreno  et 
al.,  1984),  a  Red  Data  Book  for  Mauritius,  sponsored  by  lUCN/WWF,  is  in  preparation 
and  several  lists  have  been  prepared  for  the  species-rich  islands  of  Hawaii.  Emphasis, 
however,  has  been  more  on  listing  the  endemics  and  assigning  threatened  categories  to 
them  rather  than  preparing  comprehensive  Red  Data  Books.  Nevertheless  these  lists  show 
convincingly  the  very  high  degree  of  species  endangerment  on  islands,  especially  on 
tropical  oceanic  islands. 

Most  important  for  conservation  of  biological  diversity  are  those  islands  with  large 
endemic  floras  (endemic  here  means  taxa  confined  to  the  island  concerned).  Those  with 
over  1000  endemics  are  listed  in  Table  2.  They  are  all  very  ancient  land  masses,  unlike  most 
oceanic  islands  which  are  of  more  recent  geological  origin.  These  islands  contain 
remarkable  floras  that  are  very  distinct,  often  isolated  biologically  and  relicts  of  floras  no 
longer  seen  today.  This  is  demonstrated  by  the  high  degree  of  endemism  among  genera  and 
even  families.  In  all  of  them  the  vegetation  is  acutely  threatened,  but  only  for  Cuba  is  there 
a  comprehensive  assessment  of  which  species  are  at  risk.  A  more  detailed  survey  and 
assessment  of  the  conservation  status  of  these  floras  is  an  urgent  world  priority.  For  Cuba, 
Borhidi  and  Muniz  (1983)  Hst  959  species  as  threatened  or  extinct,  832  of  them  endemics. 
For  the  Dominican  Republic  there  is  a  partial  list  of  133  species  (Jimenez,  1978)  as  well  as 
extensive  unpublished  material. 


xxin 


Total  number  of  taxa 

-500 


ENDEMIC  TAXA 

Ex  Extinct 

E  Endangered 

V  Vulnerable 

R  Rare 

I  Indeterminate 

K  Insufficiently  known 

nt  not  threatened 


H(y) St  Helena 


'  TristBH  da  Cunha 


XXIV 


o    o 
o     o 

CM        ^ 


XXV 


XXVI 


xxvu 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Table  2  Oceanic  islands  with  over  1000  endemic  plant  species 

Country  Size  of  flora  Endemics 

Madagascar  10,000-12,000  spp.  c.  80% 

Cuba  6000-7000  spp.  3000-4000 

Hispaniola'  5000  spp.  1800 

New  Caledonia  3250  spp.  2474 

1.  Excludes  Australia,  New  Zealand,  Borneo,  New  Guinea. 

2.  Hispaniola  comprises  the  nations  of  Haiti  and  Dominican  Republic. 

There  are,  of  course,  many  other  islands  with  rich  floras,  although  none  except  the  four 
listed  above  have  over  1000  endemics.  Here,  paradoxically,  data  are  usually  more 
complete.  Some  examples  are  given  in  Table  3,  using  the  lUCN  Red  Data  Book  categories 
to  define  the  degree  of  threat.  The  islands  least  well  documented  are  in  the  Caribbean, 
especially  the  Lesser  Antillean  chain,  where  a  new  Flora  is  in  preparation  (Howard, 
1974-  ). 

Table  3  Endemic  vascular  plant  taxa  from  selected  oceanic  islands 

50-1000  endemics,  over  75%  of  the  flora  assigned  to  categories 


Ex 

E 

V 

R 

I 

K 

nt 

Total 

Rare  or 
threatened 

Azores 

I 

- 

5 

18 

6 

11 

14 

55 

30  (55%) 

Canary  Islands 

I 

126 

119 

132 

5 

26 

160 

569 

383  (67%) 

Galapagos 

- 

9 

15 

111 

15 

2 

77 

229 

150  (66%) 

Juan  Fernandez 

I 

52 

32 

9 

1 

17 

6 

118 

95  (81%) 

Lord  Howe  Island 

- 

2 

10 

58 

3 

- 

2 

75 

73  (97%) 

Madeira 

- 

17 

30 

39 

- 

22 

23 

131 

86  (66%) 

Mauritius 

19 

65 

35 

39 

14 

69 

39 

280 

172  (61%) 

Seychelles 

- 

21 

35 

15 

2 

17 

- 

90 

73  (81%) 

Socotra 

1 

84 

17 

29 

1 

2 

81 

215 

132  (61%) 

Similar  data  exist  for  Puerto  Rico  (234  endemics)  but 

are  not  yet  converted  to  lUCN  criteria.  Figures 

for  Seychelles  are  for  the  Granitic  Islands  only 

,  and 

so  exclude  Aldabra. 

The  damage  to  the  vegetation  of  smaller  islands  often  gives  an  indication  of  what  might 
happen  to  larger  areas  in  future.  In  many  cases  destruction  started  centuries  ago,  often 
with  the  introduction  of  goats  (in  case  of  shipwreck).  On  the  British  dependency  of  St 
Helena,  destruction  started  with  the  introduction  of  goats  in  1513,  which  within  75  years 
had  formed  herds  which  stretched  for  nearly  2  km  and  devastated  the  flora  before  a 
botanist  could  even  visit  the  island.  Some  examples  of  devastated  floras  are  given  in 
Table  4. 


xxvin 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  we  know  so  far. 
Table  4  Small  oceanic  islands  with  devastated  floras 


Ex 

E 

V 

R 

I 

K 

nt 

Total   Rare  or 

threatened 

Ascension  Island 

1 

5 

- 

4 

_ 

1 

_ 

11    10  (91%) 

Bermuda 

3 

4 

1 

6 

- 

7 

7 

?    14 

Norfolk  Island 

5 

11 

29 

- 

1 

2 

- 

48  46  (96%) 

Rodrigues 

10 

20 

8 

8 

- 

- 

2 

48  46  (96%) 

St  Helena 

7 

23 

- 

17 

- 

2 

- 

49  47  (96%) 

A  number  of  tropical  countries  have  prepared  or  are  preparing  threatened  plant  lists, 
despite  the  difficulties.  Among  the  most  prominent  are: 

India  Several  lists  prepared,  covering  in  total  c.  900  threatened 

species. 
Nepal  National  Plant  Red  Data  Book,  funded  by  WWF-US. 

Pakistan  Identification  of  threatened  plants  is  part  of  the  WWF- 

Pakistan  Plants  Programme. 
Peninsular  Malaysia  Database   on    threatened    plants    being   created    by   the 

Malayan  Nature  Society. 

The  programme  in  India  is  one  of  the  most  comprehensive,  with  a  full-time  team  stationed 
around  the  country,  and  is  described  in  the  country  account.  In  China,  a  basic  list  of  354 
threatened  plants  has  been  prepared  and  a  Red  Data  Book  covering  their  status  is  in 
preparation,  the  English  translation  being  due  in  1985.  Another  good  example  is  Egypt, 
where  a  threatened  plant  list  is  being  prepared  by  the  National  Herbarium.  There  are  lists 
of  various  kinds  for  El  Salvador,  French  Guiana,  Guatemala,  Kenya,  South  Korea, 
Peninsular  Malaysia,  Mexico,  Tanzania  and  Viet  Nam,  and  lUCN  hold  additional  data  for 
countries  including  Ivory  Coast,  Malawi,  Mozambique  and  Senegal. 

In  middle  America  (Mexico  to  Panama),  an  lUCN  project  has  prepared  a  threatened  plant 
list  for  the  region,  using  where  possible  the  floristic  accounts  prepared  for  the  forthcoming 
Flora  Mesoamericana.  Out  of  many  thousands  of  species  screened,  including  7622  single 
country  endemics,  1620  have  been  found  to  be  rare  or  threatened.  This  is  undoubtedly  a 
major  under-estimate;  because  of  the  lack  of  botanical  knowledge,  it  was  not  possible  to 
assign  categories  to  5115  of  the  7622  single-country  endemics. 

There  is,  then,  a  large  and  rapidly  expanding  literature  of  Red  Data  Books  and  national 
threatened  plant  lists  but  like  much  conservation  information,  it  is  mostly  'grey  literature', 
that  is  reports,  often  a  typescript,  produced  in  low  numbers  and  known  only  to  a  handful 
of  people.  Such  reports  are  usually  available  on  request  but  cannot  be  said  to  be  published. 

To  make  all  these  data  more  accessible  and  to  enable  comparisons  to  be  made  from 
country  to  country,  the  Threatened  Plants  Unit  of  lUCN's  Conservation  Monitoring 
Centre,  based  at  Kew,  has  made  a  database  drawing  upon  much  of  the  information 
contained  in  the  national  Red  Data  Books  and  threatened  plant  lists.  At  present,  this  is 
principally  a  matrix  of  the  name  of  the  plant,  its  distribution  by  countries  and  the  lUCN 
Red  Data  Book  category  for  its  degree  of  threat,  applied  at  country  and  at  world  level, 
where  known.  A  major  development  of  the  database  is  planned  for  1986-7.  This  will 
enable  the  database  to  include  plant  distributions  by  localities,  with  presence  in  named 
protected  areas,  synonyms,  life-form,  bibliographic  references  and  data  sources.  It  will 
include  continued  research  on  effective  coding  schemes  for  threats  and  for  habitats. 


XXIX 


XXX 


Degree  of  completeness  of  lUCN 
threatened  plants  datatiase 

^^M  Over  75% 

25-75  % 

up  to  25% 


Map  2 


XXXI 


I  New  Zealand 


I  Honduras 

Guatemala    ,  ■ 

■  ElSalvador/         I 
■  Nicaragua  / 
HCostaRica/B 
H  Hj  Panama  ■ 

H  Ecuador H 


II 


I 


Brazil 

Paraguay 


Chile 


ll 


Argentina 


7 


XXXll 


m 


Sweden  \. 

Finland 


■    Neth. 
■elend  ^      UK      ^ 


I 

USSR 


nOtmHi' 


I  Switzerland 


GDB  Pola"'' 
Belgium  5fR    Beech 

AustBllHug 


France^        ,,^,^     By^^.  Romania 
■isia 


Mongolia 


.1 

Portugal    Spam 


Algeria 


^  ■  Bulgaria  ■ 

■  /  I  TurkevI 

.  .        /Greece  Syria 

i  HAIbania    ^prus         Iraq 

tsraetl 


South  ^% 
^Korea'* 


Jordan  Iran 


I  *; 


Afghanistan 


Libya  ■  ■ 

Arab  Jamah,    Egypt  Saudi 

Arabia 


l<!» 


ilauritania 

il 


ya] 


Niger 


Sudan        ■ 
■  Nigeria      J     ^  | 

■  ■  ■  M' 


S.Yemen 


India 

I 


I  MBhuta 

Nepal      "    H 

H    Burm. 
Bangladesh 


China  I 


Japan 


Ethiopia 


Sri" 
LarAa 


J 


■  ■  BKenya 

I"       ■ 
■  BurundiH 

H  HTanzania 

I  ■      H  _B- — Malawi! 

igbia   Za^ia  I  H 

IMozannbique  ■ 
Zimbabwe  H 

I  South 
Africa 


IHVtetnan 
I  I 

|Melaysial^ 

P  I 

Singapore    ■ 


I 


Philippines 


%:•    New 

Guinea 


I 


Madagascar 


Size  of  Flora 
50  000 


-40000 
-30000 
-20000 
-10000 
-0 


lAustralia 


(wNot  a  political  entity) 


Map  3 


XXXlll 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

So  far  the  database  contains  records  on  34,266  plant  taxa,  15,870  of  which  are  threatened; 
these  comprise  42,569  plant-area  records  (18  September  1985).  Detailed  data-sheets, 
comprising  one  or  more  sheets  of  text,  are  held  on  c.  300  of  the  threatened  plants, 
including  those  published  as  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (Lucas  and  Synge,  1978). 
There  are  still  a  number  of  threatened  plant  lists  not  incorporated  into  the  database.  It  is 
reasonable  to  assume,  therefore,  that  the  total  number  of  known  threatened  plants  will  rise 
to  perhaps  as  high  as  20,000  taxa  within  the  coming  months  as  these  data  are  incorporated. 

Even  so,  this  will  barely  cover  many  tropical  countries,  especially  those  where  rain  forest  is 
the  dominant  vegetation.  For  some  time  lUCN's  working  estimate  of  the  number  of 
threatened  plants  has  been  25,000-30,000;  the  terminology  has,  however,  been 
unsatisfactory,  as  it  is  not  possible  to  predict  which  species  will  be  lost  and  when;  the 
lUCN/WWF  Plant  Advisory  Group  in  1985  estimated  that  as  many  as  60,000  plant  species 
could  become  extinct  by  2050  if  present  trends  continue  -  the  greatest  loss  of  plant  species 
that  has  ever  occurred  during  a  short  period  of  time.  This  estimate  is  entirely  compatible 
with  the  figures  outlined  above. 

Table  5  Families  with  most  threatened  species  in  the  lUCN  database 

Name  of  Family  No.  Threatened  Species'  No.  Species^ 

Compositae  1430  c.  25,000 

Leguminosae  941  17,000 

Orchidaceae  712  c.  18,000 

Palmae  546  c.  2780 

Rubiaceae  524  c.  7000 

Liliaceae  495  c.  3500 

Euphorbiaceae  487  Over  5000 

Labiatae  477  c.  3000 

Gramineae  460  c.  9000 

Cruciferae  443  c.  3000 

1.  Source:  lUCN  database,  18  September  1985; 

2.  Source:  Heywood  (1978). 


xxxiv 


Constraints  to  the 
identification  of  threatened 
species 


The  concept  of  a  species  threatened  with  extinction  is  a  simple  one,  yet,  as  the  previous 
section  shows,  national  threatened  plant  lists  and  Red  Data  Books  so  far  cover  only  part  of 
the  world.  Whereas  most  countries  of  the  "North",  with  predominantly  temperate 
vegetation,  are  well  covered,  there  are  few  Red  Data  Books  for  the  countries  of  the 
"South",  where  the  vegetation  is  mostly  tropical. 

Yet  as  Map  No.  3  shows,  most  of  the  world's  plants  grow  in  the  tropics.  Roughly  two- 
thirds  of  the  world's  flora  is  tropical,  half  of  it  in  Latin  America  and  half  shared  between 
Africa  and  Asia.  Comparison  of  the  maps  shows  a  sharp  discrepancy  between  these 
regions  with  Red  Data  Books  and  those  regions  with  most  plants. 

Although  hardly  surprising,  this  is  obviously  a  matter  of  great  concern.  The  richer  the 
flora,  obviously  the  more  difficult  it  is  to  identify  which  species  are  threatened  as  the 
information  on  each  species  tends  to  be  less.  Indeed,  for  much  of  the  world,  the 
information  on  each  species  is  so  small  that  it  is  not  possible  to  assess  chances  of  survival  at 
all.  Numerous  tropical  plants  are  only  known  from  a  handful  of  herbarium  specimens, 
often  collected  many  years  ago  and  frequently  poorly  documented.  It  is  not  known 
whether  the  plant  is  common,  even  dominant,  over  a  large  area,  or  extremely  rare. 

This  problem  is  made  more  difficult  by  the  distribution  patterns  of  many  tropical  plants. 
The  rare  species  in  regions  of  mediterranean  climate  and  on  islands  tend  to  be  endemics, 
plants  only  known  from  one  small  place.  Here  the  threat  to  a  site  can  be  equated  to  the 
threat  to  a  species.  Destroy  the  vegetation  on  the  site  and  the  species  will  disappear.  But  in 
the  tropics,  especially  in  tropical  rain  forests,  plant  species  tend  to  have  very  scattered 
distributions.  One  small  piece  of  forest  may  contain  hundreds  of  different  tree  species, 
each  one  with  only  a  few  individuals  per  square  kilometre.  So  the  plants  tend  to  be  thinly 
scattered  over  a  very  extensive  range.  If  part  of  the  forest  is  to  be  cut  down,  it  is  usually  not 
possible  to  say  which  species  will  become  extinct  and  which  will  not.  No  one  knows  the 
critical  point  when  species  start  to  be  lost. 

But  perhaps  most  serious  of  all  is  the  great  imbalance  in  resources  for  botanical  research 
between  the  temperate  and  tropical  regions.  The  flora  of  Britain  has  barely  more  species 
than  the  1560  hectare  island  of  Barro  Colorado  in  the  Panama  Canal,  whose  luxuriant 
forest,  although  secondary,  contains  1369  species  (Croat,  1978).  Britain,  however,  is 
probably  the  best  botanized  country  in  the  world.  Every  plant  is  plotted  on  a  10  km  square 
grid  and  thousands  of  amateurs  regularly  contribute  plant  records  to  the  journals.  There 
are  probably  more  botanists  competent  on  the  British  flora  than  species  for  them  to 
identify!  The  country  is  covered  by  a  voluminous  literature  with  Floras  for  each  county  as 
well  as  for  the  nation  itself.  Yet  in  countries  Hke  Bolivia  (15-18,000  species)  and  Colombia 
(estimated  45,000  species),  a  handful  of  botanists  grapple  with  floras  that  are  largely 
unknown.  No  expert  can  identify  more  than  a  small  fraction  of  a  tropical  forest  flora,  at 
least  without  resource  to  an  herbarium.  The  sad  truth  is  that  most  botanists  live  and  work 
in  countries  far  away  from  most  of  the  world's  plants. 

Also,  of  course,  there  are  thousands,  possibly  tens  of  thousands,  of  plant  species  not  yet 
discovered,  the  greatest  proportion  being  from  Latin  America.  This  is  from  a  generally 
accepted  world  total  of  around  250,000  species  of  vascular  plants. 

xxxv 


Conclusions  for  the  future 


There  is,  then,  plenty  of  information  on  which  plants  are  threatened.  But  most  of  the 
information  is  on  the  countries  with  least  flora.  There  is  very  little  information  on  plant 
conservation  needs  for  those  parts  of  the  world  where  plant  diversity  is  greatest  and  where 
threats  to  plant  life  may  be  most  acute.  Nor  has  specific  action  to  save  plants  been 
particularly  widespread  or  effective. 

The  lUCN/WWF  Plant  Advisory  Group,  meeting  at  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  in 
December  1984,  expressed  the  need  for  plant  conservation  in  this  way: 

"Plants  are  a  primary  resource  of  fundamental  importance  for  human  life.  Rapid 
population  growth,  together  with  the  excessive  and  increasing  demands  that  are  placed 
on  the  world's  resources  by  our  societies,  are  threatening  to  destroy  a  major  portion  of 
our  common  heritage  of  plants.  This  threat  is  especially  evident  in  the  tropics  and 
subtropics,  where  at  least  two-thirds  of  the  plants  of  the  world  occur,  and  where  the 
process  of  deforestation  is  proceeding  at  an  alarming  rate.  Widespread  poverty, 
famine,  and  political  instability,  for  example  in  Africa,  are  manifestations  of  the  same 
processes  that  are  driving  plants  to  extinction  and,  by  doing  so,  seriously  limiting  our 
future  options  for  developing  sustainable  relationships  between  man  and  his  living 
resources. 

All  human  beings  depend  upon  plants,  directly  or  indirectly,  for  their  lives,  as  do  most 
other  forms  of  life:  at  least  four  million  different  kinds  of  organisms  depend  on  about 
250,000  kinds  of  plants.  But  unless  we  immediately  begin  to  take  drastic  and  innovative 
measures  to  preserve  them,  it  is  likely  that  tens  of  thousands  of  plant  species  will 
disappear  forever  during  our  lives  or  those  of  our  children.  Their  loss  would  amount  to 
a  fundamental  and  permanent  change  in  the  character  of  life  on  Earth,  a  life  whose 
wealth  is  characterized  by  great  diversity. 

Some  20  plants  provide  more  than  859/o  of  our  food  and  only  a  few  hundred  species  are 
cultivated  widely.  Most  plant  species  have  never  been  examined  to  see  if  they  might 
have  properties  that  would  make  them  useful  as  food  or  for  other  purposes  in  our 
modern  industrial  age,  and  thousands  of  species  have  not  even  been  given  a  name  or 
described  scientifically." 

So,  with  a  problem  of  such  magnitude,  what  should  be  done?  lUCN's  response  to  such 
questions  is  the  World  Conservation  Strategy,  which  provides  a  conceptual  basis  linking 
conservation  with  development.  The  task  now  is  to  work  out  precisely  how  the  Strategy 
can  be  implemented.  Applying  the  principles  of  the  World  Conservation  Strategy  to  the 
problems  of  plant  conservation: 

1.  fVe  need  more  botanists!  M.R.  Crosby  and  P.H.  Raven  (pers.  comm.,  1985) 
estimate  that  there  are  about  3000  plant  taxonomists  in  the  world  today.  They  estimate 
that  six  times  more  plant  taxonomists  are  needed  to  study  the  world's  flora  to  an  adequate 
extent  before  it  is  too  late. 

This  is  a  target  to  impress  upon  science  research  councils  and  other  funding  agencies.  It  is 
equally  important  to  promote  the  correction  of  the  imbalance  between  where  the  plants 
grow  and  where  the  botanists  live.  We  should  surely  do  all  we  can  to  encourage  young 
botanists  starting  on  their  careers  to  work  on  tropical  plants.  The  potential  for  discovering 
useful  new  plants  is  greater  in  the  tropics  than  elsewhere,  but  many  tropical  plants  are 
being  lost  before  they  are  properly  understood. 


xxxvi 


Conclusions  for  the  future 

The  goal  should  be  to  complete  surveys  of  plant  diversity  and  distribution  in  those  areas, 
predominantly  tropical,  where  they  are  lacking.  The  need  is  most  acute  in  tropical  Latin 
America,  where  there  are  an  estimated  90,000  plant  species,  far  more  than  for  any  other 
region  on  Earth;  inventories  have  been  prepared  for  only  a  few  countries,  e.g.  Guatemala 
and  Panama,  and  those  are  known  to  be  far  from  complete.  Without  the  basic  knowledge 
of  plant  distributions,  it  is  impossible  to  plan  for  the  conservation  of  plant  diversity. 
Inventories  are  the  cornerstone  of  plant  conservation. 

2.  We  need  more  Red  Data  Books!  This  book  shows  that  preparing  Red  Data 
Books  is  possible  for  many  parts  of  the  world.  Yet  there  are  still  many  gaps  in  the 
coverage. 

Looking  at  the  completed  accounts,  it  is  clearly  not  possible  to  make  a  quantitative 
assessment  of  priorities  around  the  world.  The  data  are  too  diffuse  and  the  local 
knowledge  of  floras  too  variable  for  that.  Yet  it  may  be  useful  to  have  a  more  subjective 
assessment.  On  the  basis  of  the  evidence  presented,  and  from  our  knowledge  of  compiling 
a  Red  Data  Book,  we  would  suggest  that  national  plant  Red  Data  Books  are  feasible  and 
necessary  in  the  following  countries,  where  they  should  be  treated  as  priorities: 


Country  Approx.  No.  Species 

Argentina  9000 

Turkey  8000 

Italy  5000 

Yugoslavia  4800 

Japan  4000 

Morocco  3600 

Saudi  Arabia  3500 

Canada  3200 

Portugal  2500 

Israel  2300 

Jordan  2200 

Cyprus  2000 


Looking  at  the  islands,  we  can  be  more  objective.  Clearly  priority  should  be  given  to  those 
islands  with  over  1000  endemics  -  Madagascar,  Cuba,  Hispaniola  and  New  Caledonia,  as 
outlined  in  Table  2.  In  each  case  the  floras  are  not  well  known  and  far  more  work  is 
urgently  needed.  The  next  priority  is  those  oceanic  islands  whose  floras  have  not  been 
assessed  for  threatened  species;  all  those  with  over  50  endemics  are  listed  below: 


xxxvn 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 


Island  No.  endemic  taxa 


Jamaica 

c.  910 

Taiwan 

c.  900  ' 

Sri  Lanka 

c.  900  ' 

Fiji 

c.  700 

Caroline  Islands 

293  ' 

Trinidad  and  Tobago 

215  ' 

Ogasawara-Gunto 

151  ' 

Reunion 

c.  150  ' 

Vanuatu 

c.  150 

Tubuai 

140 

or  less 

Comoro   Islands 

136' 

Bahamas 

121  ' 

Sao  Tome 

108 

Marquesas  Islands 

103  ' 

Samoa 

?  100  or  more  ' 

Cape  Verde 

92 

Mariana  Islands 

81  ' 

Notes:  1 .  Some  partial  assessments  of  threatened  species  -  see  country  accounts  for  details 

2.  Omits  monocotyledons 

3.  Covered  as  American  Samoa  and  Western  Samoa. 

4.  From  a  checklist  published  in  1917. 

The  book  shows  that  listing  threatened  plants  is  best  done  by  a  major  botanical  institution 
in  each  country,  rather  than  by  any  international  centre.  This  policy  ensures  botanical 
accuracy  and  provides  the  marriage  of  literature  and  herbarium  groundwork  with  field 
knowledge.  Work  in  the  library  and  herbarium  may  show  which  species  are  very  restricted 
in  range  or  confined  to  vulnerable  habitats,  but  only  field  knowledge,  preferably 
accumulated  over  many  years,  can  say  which  of  them  are  threatened.  This  policy  also  helps 
to  build  a  political  and  scientific  climate  within  the  country  to  go  beyond  the  data- 
gathering  and  design  a  conservation  programme  to  save  the  plants  so  listed. 

The  aim  of  a  Red  Data  Book  is  simple:  to  provide  such  data  as  are  required  to  help  create  a 
situation  where  action  may  be  taken  to  prevent  the  plants  from  becoming  extinct.  lUCN 
believes  that  each  country  should  develop  its  own  approach  and  produce  a  book  in  its  own 
style  yet  counsels  two  standards  that  will  promote  international  collaboration  and  allow 
comparisons  to  be  made  from  one  country  to  another.  The  first  is  that  countries  use  the 
lUCN  Red  Data  Book  categories  as  a  measure  of  the  degree  of  threat  to  individual  taxa. 
Countries  should  by  all  means  use  other  coded  means  of  assessment  of  their  own  devising, 
numerical  or  subjective,  but  should  also  apply  the  lUCN  categories  to  the  species  listed. 
The  categories  have  been  fixed  for  many  years  and  used  in  virtually  all  the  Red  Data  Books 
and  lists  that  have  appeared  in  recent  years  -  the  main  exception  is  the  United  States,  where 
categories  of  similar  nomenclature  but  different  meaning  are  used,  following  terminology 
in  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act  of  1973. 

The  second  standard  is  precision  over  the  full  range  of  the  plants  listed,  in  particular 
whether  each  is  confined  to  the  area  covered  by  the  Red  Data  Book  or  not.  If  it  is,  clearly  it 
will  be  threatened  on  a  world  scale  and  should  receive  priority  over  species  common  in 
other  countries.  If  the  species  does  occur  outside  the  country,  it  is  very  useful  to  give  some 
indication,  however  brief,  of  its  full  range  -  is  it  a  pantropical  weed,  for  example,  or  does 

xxxviii 


Conclusions  for  the  Future 

it  just  extend  over  the  border  into  a  neighbouring  country  where  it  may  be  equally 
threatened? 

It  may  also  be  possible  for  Red  Data  Books  to  include  information  on  the  sites  where  most 
plants  could  be  saved.  This  is  an  especially  useful  approach,  particularly  where  data  are 
lacking  on  individual  species.  Indeed,  the  best  way  to  save  most  tropical  plants  is  to 
preserve  relatively  large  areas  of  intact  vegetation,  and  it  is  certainly  easier  to  assess  where 
these  sites  should  be  rather  than  to  identify  threatened  species.  Using  this  approach,  lUCN 
is  preparing  a  Plant  Sites  Red  Data  Book;  this  will  contain  accounts  of  about  1 50  botanical 
sites  indicative  of  those  in  greatest  need  of  protection  around  the  world,  and  where  plant 
species  diversity  and/or  endemism  is  particularly  high.  It  is  not  intended  to  be  a 
comprehensive  account  of  all  sites  in  danger,  but  rather  an  indication  of  those  sites  where 
most  plants  could  be  saved.  Country  accounts  of  savable  plant  sites  will  be  even  more 
useful. 

3.  We  need  more  detailed  monitoring!  Identifying  a  species  as  threatened  is  only 
the  very  first  step  in  its  conservation.  There  are  many  other  elements  of  information  that 
are  needed.  The  most  critical  of  these  are  data  on  precisely  where  the  plant  occurs  -  its 
present  localities  and  data  on  population  biology  -  how  many  plants  occur  at  each  locality, 
what  are  the  bottlenecks  in  the  life-cycle  which  are  critical  to  expansion  of  the  population, 
and  so  on.  The  techniques  to  do  this  are  fairly  sophisticated,  following  for  the  most  part 
J.L.  Harper's  work  on  population  biology  (Harper,  1977).  Good  examples  of  such  studies 
are  few,  some  being  given  in  a  conference  partly  devoted  to  this  theme  on  the  biological 
aspects  of  rare  plant  conservation  (Synge,  1981);  this  shows  rather  clearly  that  the 
techniques  available  are  as  diverse  as  the  number  of  experimenters! 

Henefin  and  colleagues  (1981)  have  designed  guidelines  for  data-gatherers  on  the 
preparation  of  status  reports  on  rare  or  endangered  plant  species.  These  were  designed  for 
the  requirements  of  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act  of  1973.  Their  very  structured 
approach  provides  a  lengthy  and  useful  checklist  of  factors  to  consider. 

Equally  important  as  studies  on  individual  threatened  species  are  studies  on  the  plant 
communities  in  which  the  species  occur,  especially  on  the  ecology  of  the  vegetation.  An 
understanding  of  succession,  for  example,  can  be  critical  in  ensuring  the  survival  of 
individual  plant  populations.  Experience  shows  how  important  such  knowledge  can  be 
before  rescue  attempts  are  undertaken.  In  a  number  of  cases,  the  fate  of  the  plant  has  been 
harmed  by  well-meaning  but  incorrect  conservation  action.  This  is  especially  true  for 
small,  very  vulnerable  sites,  where  mistakes  can  be  fatal.  A  good  example  is  the  story  of 
Ranunculus  ophioglossifolius  in  Britain,  outlined  by  Frost  (1981).  Early  efforts  to 
conserve  the  principal  population,  confined  to  a  tiny  site  of  1/12  acre,  eliminated  the 
plants  altogether!  The  tragedy  is  that  for  those  regions  where  most  plants  are  threatened, 
conservation  of  individual  plants  has  never  been  attempted,  so  there  are  no  stories  of 
success  or  failure  to  recount.  This  is  all  the  more  serious  because  of  the  large  number  of 
economic  species  in  the  tropics. 

Far  more  knowledge  is  still  needed  on  the  basic  management  of  protected  areas,  especially 
in  the  tropics,  to  ensure  that  the  species  they  contain  will  survive  in  future  centuries.  To 
our  knowledge,  there  has  also  been  little  systematic  assessment  of  which  rare  and 
threatened  species  are  in  existing  protected  areas.  lUCN  is  keen  to  encourage  inventories 
of  protected  areas  as  a  basic  first  step  in  assessing  what  is  protected  so  far.  Few  park 
managers  have  a  list  of  the  plants  in  the  sites  they  manage  and  those  lists  that  do  exist  are 
often  difficult  to  obtain  and  unreliable.  The  lUCN/WWF  Plant  Advisory  Group 
recommended  surveys  of  the  plants  in  Unesco  Biosphere  Reserves  as  a  first  step  and  as  a 

xxxix 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

way  of  uniting  the  biological  and  conservation  communities.  This  is  being  taken  up  by 
Unesco. 

Indeed,  in  the  coming  decades,  as  habitats  continue  to  decline,  the  emphasis  may  move 
away  from  identifying  threatened  species  towards  cataloguing  the  occurrence  of  all  species 
in  protected  areas.  One  can  then  ask  the  question,  "Which  species  are  not  protected  at 
all?",  and  give  priority  to  them.  This  is  a  much  less  subjective  approach.  The  difficulties, 
however,  are  formidable:  to  derive  the  list  of  species  not  protected,  one  needs  first  of  all  an 
agreed  list  or  database  of  plants  of  the  region  concerned,  followed  by  lists  of  species 
occurring  in  protected  areas.  The  necessary  agreement  in  taxonomy  is  still  far  off,  but 
modern  computer  technology  should  act  as  a  spur  for  regional  and  specialist  plant 
databases,  linked  together  in  a  network. 

In  contrast,  the  data  are  far  better  on  which  threatened  species  are  conserved  ex  situ  in 
Botanic  Gardens,  although  it  is  generally  accepted  that  this  approach  is  a  second-best 
solution  and  is  unlikely  to  succeed  for  most  tropical  plants.  lUCN's  Botanic  Gardens 
Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body  links  together  about  250  Botanic  Gardens  into  a  world 
network  for  plant  conservation.  Surveys  have  shown  that  c.  4400  of  the  c.  16,000  known 
threatened  species  are  recorded  in  cultivation.  It  is  likely  that  this  total  will  expand  rapidly, 
double  even,  as  exchange  of  electronic  media  becomes  possible  between  Botanic  Gardens 
and  lUCN;  the  computerization  of  individual  gardens  record  schemes  and  a  limited 
measure  of  standardization,  with  the  provision  of  an  International  Transfer  Format,  is  the 
subject  of  an  lUCN  project  this  year. 

4.  We  need  more  conservation  action!  Despite  the  impressive  amount  of 
information  catalogued  in  this  book,  action  to  save  plants  in  danger  is  scattered,  often 
small  in  scale  and  rarely  effective.  Indeed,  it  is  hard  to  find  more  than  a  handful  of 
examples  where  a  species,  once  threatened,  has  been  rescued  and  is  now  conserved  and  safe 
for  the  future. 

Despite  this  rather  depressing  fact,  it  would  appear  that  success  is  possible  in  the 
predominantly  temperate  countries  such  as  those  of  Europe  and  North  America.  Here,  no 
more  species  should  be  lost.  As  Lucas  and  Synge  (1978)  outline,  relatively  few  of  the  listed 
species  are  Endangered  and  most  are  confined  to  very  small  areas  which  can  usually  be 
protected  without  great  difficulty.  Indeed,  relatively  small  protected  areas  may  be 
adequate.  Botanic  Gardens,  moreover,  can  not  only  cultivate  the  plants  but  also 
reintroduce  them,  maintain  their  habitats  and  even  own  and  manage  reserves  for  them. 
Once  the  individual  facts  on  threats,  habitats,  sites  and  populations  are  known,  successful 
conservation  of  most  plant  species  is  likely  to  prove  far  less  difficult  and  costly  than  that  of 
animals.  The  requirement  is  on  the  one  hand  for  the  political  will  to  act  and  on  the  other 
for  sufficient,  energetic  and  skilful  manpower  to  take  protective  action  for  the  numerous 
species  involved. 

In  much  of  the  tropics,  however,  one  has  to  recognize,  and  regretfully  accept,  that  species 
losses  are  now  virtually  inevitable.  The  best  answer  is  to  build  a  network  of  protected  areas 
-  national  parks  and  nature  reserves  -  covering  representative  samples  of  the  best  habitat 
types.  Clearly  the  priority  is  to  find  those  areas  with  the  most  diversity  and  to  protect 
them.  Setting  up  one  large  tropical  forest  reserve  can  save  hundreds  if  not  thousands  of 
species. 

Sometimes  a  single  species  can  act  as  a  symbol  and  rallying  point  for  a  whole  programme 
of  habitat  conservation.  Project  Tiger,  an  initiative  of  the  Indian  Government  supported 
by  the  World  Wildlife  Fund,  led  not  only  to  an  increase  in  tigers  from  about  1800  to  3000, 


xl 


Conclusions  for  the  Future 

but,  even  more  important,  to  a  revitalizing  of  India's  protected  areas  network,  with 
benefits  to  the  numerous  plants  and  animals  with  which  the  tiger  shared  its  habitat. 

Yet,  obviously,  the  creation  of  protected  areas  is  principally  a  means  of  buying  time. 
Protected  areas  cannot  be  effective  in  the  middle  of  an  over-populated  and  poverty-striken 
environment;  the  pressures  and  temptations  are  too  great  when  protected  areas  become 
lush  but  forbidden  pockets  of  vegetation  surrounded  by  degraded  land. 

To  counter  this  possibility,  managers  of  protected  areas  are  changing  their  tactics.  In 
developing  countries,  meeting  human  needs  for  food,  health  and  shelter  has  to  be  the 
primary  goal.  Rather  than  "set  land  aside",  protected  area  managers  want  to  protect  it 
from  gross  outside  disturbance  so  that  the  benefits  continue  to  radiate  out  into  the 
surrounding  countryside;  these  include  surplus  animals  for  food  and  a  continual  supply  of 
fresh  water  in  the  streams,  to  give  two  examples.  A  vital  concept  is  the  buffer  zone,  a 
broad  and  possibly  undefined  area  between  the  park  and  the  surrounding  countryside.  The 
buffer  zone  can  continue  to  be  used  in  traditional  and  sustainable  ways,  e.g.  for  gathering 
firewood  and  wild  fruit,  for  grazing  limited  numbers  of  cattle  and  for  gathering  medicinal 
herbs. 

Since  the  United  States  declared  Yellowstone  National  Park  in  1872,  parks  have  been 
created  all  over  the  world.  In  the  decade  between  1972  and  1982,  major  protected  areas, 
excluding  the  smallest,  rose  from  212  million  hectares  to  around  386  million  hectares  -  an 
impressive  55  percent  increase.  Yet  this  covers  only  a  small  proportion  of  the  Earth's 
surface,  at  a  time  when  vegetation  is  being  destroyed  faster  than  ever  before.  It  is  a  race 
against  time;  most  areas  will  have  to  be  saved  before  the  1990s.  The  timescale  for  global 
conservation  is  desperately  short. 

The  other  main  remedy,  just  as  important,  is  to  find  better  means  of  using  land  so  that 
wild  plants  continue  to  grow  there  and  the  land  remains  productive.  New  ways  to  grow 
sustainable  crops  in  tropical  rain  forest  environments  and  to  prevent  desertification  will 
not  only  contribute  greatly  to  sustainable  development  but  will  save  wild  plants  as  well.  To 
help  achieve  this,  botanists  should  be  included  in  land-use  planning  teams,  particularly  in 
tropical  regions  where  the  available  knowledge  is  especially  limited.  Land-use  specialists 
such  as  agronomists  and  foresters  should  be  included  in  conservation-orientated 
discussions  as  a  matter  of  routine.  Conservationists  must  also  work  more  actively  with 
agriculturists  and  foresters,  bearing  in  mind  that  conservation  and  sustainable 
development  can  succeed  properly  only  if  they  go  hand  in  hand.  The  subject  is  far  too 
broad  to  go  into  here  but  is  vital  for  the  future  of  the  plant  kingdom. 

5.  We  need  more  education  and  training!  None  of  the  activities  outlined  above 
will  happen  unless  there  is  the  trained  and  skilled  manpower  to  implement  them.  Indeed  an 
investment  in  training  and  institution-building  can  often  be  the  most  productive  of  all. 
There  is  a  severe  shortage  of  well-trained  scientists  and  technicians  with  conservation 
skills,  especially  in  the  tropics.  Specifically,  the  proper  management  of  germplasm  reserves 
differs  greatly  from  park  management  in  general,  and  is  seldom  based  on  adequate 
information. 

To  address  this  important  problem,  the  lUCN/WWF  Plant  Advisory  Group 
recomniended  that  increased  efforts  should  be  made  to  provide  training  at  all  levels,  to 
incorporate  conservation  principles  as  a  normal  part  of  biological  and  botanical  training, 
and  to  encourage  the  preparation  of  outstanding  textbooks  and  other  curricular  materials 
on  plant  conservation.  The  Group  felt  that  the  establishment  of  specific  degrees  in 


xli 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

conservation  might  be  extended  to  universities  other  than  those  where  such  degrees  are 
offered  at  present. 

Training  needs  to  go  hand  in  hand  with  general  education  and  awareness-building  on  the 
need  for  plant  conservation.  Here  we  need  good  educational  materials  and  a  cadre  of 
enthusiasts  to  put  across  the  concepts  and  practice  of  plant  conservation  in  the  press,  on 
radio  and  on  television.  Better  use  should  be  made  of  Botanic  Gardens,  which  can  provide 
the  most  important  single  point  of  information  for  the  public  on  plant  conservation  issues. 

This  section  draws  extensively  on  the  conclusions  of  the  first  meeting  of  the  lUCN/WWF 
Plant  Advisory  Group,  outlined  in  full  in  Threatened  Plants  Newsletter,  No.  14:  4-7 
(1985). 


xlii 


Definitions  of  the  lUCN  Red 
Data  Categories 

Extinct  (Ex) 

Taxa  which  are  no  longer  known  to  exist  in  the  wild  after  repeated  searches  of  their  type 

localities  and  other  known  or  likely  places. 

Endangered  (E) 

Taxa  in  danger  of  extinction  and  whose  survival  is  unlikely  if  the  causal  factors  continue 

operating. 

Included  are  taxa  whose  numbers  have  been  reduced  to  a  critical  level  or  whose  habitats 
have  been  so  drastically  reduced  that  they  are  deemed  to  be  in  immediate  danger  of 
extinction. 

Vulnerable  (V) 

Taxa  believed  likely  to  move  into  the  Endangered  category  in  the  near  future  if  the  causal 

factors  continue  operating. 

Included  are  taxa  of  which  most  or  all  the  populations  are  decreasing  because  of  over- 
exploitation,  extensive  destruction  of  habitat  or  other  environmental  disturbance;  taxa 
with  populations  that  have  been  seriously  depleted  and  whose  ultimate  security  is  not  yet 
assured;  and  taxa  with  populations  that  are  still  abundant  but  are  under  threat  from 
serious  adverse  factors  throughout  their  range. 

Rare  (R) 

Taxa  with  small  world  populations  that  are  not  at  present  Endangered  or  Vulnerable,  but 

are  at  risk. 

These  taxa  are  usually  localized  within  restricted  geographical  areas  or  habitats  or  are 
thinly  scattered  over  a  more  extensive  range. 

Indeterminate  (I) 

Taxa  known  to  be  Extinct,  Endangered,  Vulnerable  or  Rare  but  where  there  is  not  enough 

information  to  say  which  of  the  four  categories  is  appropriate. 

Out  of  danger  (O) 

Taxa  formerly  included  in  one  of  the  above  categories,  but  which  are  now  considered 
relatively  secure  because  effective  conservation  measures  have  been  taken  or  the  previous 
threat  to  their  survival  has  been  removed. 

In  practice.  Endangered  and  Vulnerable  categories  may  include,  temporarily,  taxa  whose 
populations  are  beginning  to  recover  as  a  result  of  remedial  action,  but  whose  recovery  is 
insufficient  to  justify  their  transfer  to  another  category. 

Insufficiently  known  (K) 

Taxa  that  are  suspected  but  not  definitely  known  to  belong  to  any  of  the  above  categories, 

because  of  the  lack  of  information. 

N.B.  For  species  which  are  neither  rare  nor  threatened,  the  symbol  'nt'  is  used. 


xliii 


References  for  introductory 
chapters 

Barreno,  E.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1984).  Listado  de  Plantas  Endemicas,  Raras  o  Amenazadas  de 

Espana.  Informacion  Ambiental.  Conservacionismo  en  Espana.  No.  3.  7  pp. 
Borhidi,  A.  and  Muniz,  O.  (1983).  Catdlogo  de  Plantas  Cubanas  Amenazadas  o 

Extinguidas.  Edit.  Academia.  85  pp. 
Burtt  Davy,  J.  (1938).  The  classification  of  tropical  woody  vegetation-types.  Inst.  Pap. 

Imp.  For.  Inst.  13:  1-85. 
Croat,  T.  (1978).  Flora  of  Barro  Colorado  Island.  Stanford  Univ.  Press,  California. 

943  pp. 
FAO/UNEP  (1981).  Tropical  Forest  Resources  Assessment  Project  (in  the  Framework 

of  the  Global  Environment  Monitoring  System  -  GEMS).  UN  32/6.1301-78-04. 

Technical  Reports  nos.  1-3,  Food  and  Agriculture  Organization  of  the  United 

Nations,  Rome.  (Comprises  3  separate  reports:  Los  Recursos  Forestales  de  la 

America  Tropical.  343  pp.  (Forest  Resources  of  Tropical  America;  in  Spanish);  2  - 

Forest  Resources  of  Tropical  Africa.  108,  586  pp.  (In  EngHsh  and  French);  3  - 

Forest  Resources  of  Tropical  Asia.  475  pp.  (In  English  and  French).) 
Frodin,  D.G.  (1984).  Guide  to  Standard  Floras  of  the  World.  Cambridge  University 

Press,  Cambridge.  619  pp. 
Frost,  L.C.  (1981).  The  study  oi  Ranunculus  ophioglossifolius  ana  its  successful 

conservation  at  the  Badgeworth  Nature  Reserve,  Gloucestershire.  In  Synge,  H. 

(Ed.),  The  Biological  Aspects  of  Rare  Plant  Conservation.  Wiley,  Chichester.  Pp. 

481-489. 
Given,  D.R.  (1976,  1977,  1978).  Threatened  Plants  of  New  Zealand:  A  Register  of  Rare 

and  Endangered  Plants  of  the  New  Zealand  Botanical  Region.  DSIR,  Christchurch. 

(Loose-leaf.) 
Given,  D.R.  (1976).  A  register  of  rare  and  endangered  indigenous  plants  in  New 

Zealand.  N.Z.  J.  Bot.  14(2):  135-149. 
Given,  D.R.  (1981a).  Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  of  New  Zealand.   Reed,  Wellington. 

154  pp. 
Given,  D.R.  (1981b).  Threatened  plants  of  New  Zealand:  documentation  in  a  series  of 

islands.  In  Synge,  H.  (Ed.),  The  Biological  Aspects  of  Rare  Plant  Conservation. 

Wiley,  Chichester.  Pp.  67-80. 
Hall,  A.V.,  de  Winter,  M.  and  B.,  van  Oosterhout,  S.A.M.  (1980).  Threatened  Plants 

of  Southern  Africa.  South  African  National  Scientific  Programmes  Report  No.  45, 

Pretoria.  244  pp. 
Hall,  A.V.,  de  Winter,  B.,  Fourie,  S.P.  and  Arnold,  T.H.  (1984).  Threatened  plants  in 

southern  Africa.  Biol.  Conserv.  28(1):  5-20. 
Harper,  J.L.  (1977).  Population  Biology  of  Plants.  Academic  Press,  London. 
Henderson,  D.M.  (1983).  International  Directory  of  Botanical  Gardens  IV,  4th  Ed., 

(first  published  1963  as  Regnum  Vegetabile  vol.  28).  Koeltz  Scientific  Books,  D-6240 

Koenigstein,  W. -Germany.  288  pp. 
Henifin,  M.S.  et  al.  (1981).  Guidelines  for  the  preparation  of  status  reports  on  rare  or 

endangered  plant  species.  In  Morse,  L.E.  and  Henifin,  M.S.  (Eds),  Rare  Plant 

Conservation:  Geographical  Data  Organization.  New  York  Botanical  Garden.  Pp. 

261-282. 
Heywood,  V.H.  (Ed.)  (1978).  Flowering  Plants  of  the  World.  Oxford  Univ.  Press.  336 

pp. 


xliv 


References  for  introductory  chapters 

Holmgren,  P.K.,  Keuken,  W.  and  Schofield,  E.K.  (1981).  Index  Herbariorum:  Part  1 

The  Herbaria  of  the  world,  7th  Ed.  Scheltema  &  Holkema,  Utrecht  and  Antwerp. 

452  pp. 
Howard,  R.A.  (Ed.)  (1974- ).  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles.  Leeward  and  Windward 

Islands.  3  vols  so  far.  Arnold  Arboretum,  Mass. 
Huxley,  A.  (1985).  Green  Inheritance  :  The  World  Wildlife  Fund  Book  of  Plants. 

Anchor  Press/Doubleday,  Garden  City,  New  York.  193  pp. 
lUCN  Commission  on  National  Parks  and  Protected  Areas  (CNPPA)  (1982).  lUCN 

Directory  of  Neotropical  Protected  Areas.  Published  for  lUCN  by  Tycooly 

International  Publishing  Ltd,  Dublin.  436  pp. 
lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980).  First  Preliminary  Draft  of  the 

List  of  Rare,  Threatened  and  Endemic  Plants  for  the  Countries  of  North  Africa  and 

the  Middle  East.  Mimeo,  lUCN,  Kew.  170  pp. 
Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  (1978).  Lista  tentativa  de  plantas  de  la  Republica  Dominicana  que 

deben  protegerse  para  evitar  su  extincion.  Coloquio  Internacional  sobre  la  practica 

de  la  conservacion,  Santo  Domingo. 
Langman,  LK.  (1964).  A  Selected  Guide  to  the  Literature  of  the  Flowering  Plants  of 

Mexico.  Univ.  Pennsylvania  Press,  Philadelphia.  1015  pp. 
Lucas,  G.  and  Synge,  H.  (1978).  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN,  Switzerland. 

540  pp. 
Myers,  N.  (1980).  Conversion  of  Tropical  Moist  Forests.  (A  report  prepared  for  the 

Committee  on  Research  Priorities  in  Tropical  Biology  of  the  National  Research 

Council.)  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  Washington,  D.C.  205  pp. 
Myers,  N.  (1984).  The  Primary  Source:  Tropical  Forests  and  Our  Future.  Norton,  New 

York.  399  pp. 
Raven,  P.H.  (1976).  Ethics  and  attitudes.  In  Simmons,  J.B.  et  al.  (Eds),  Conservation 

of  Threatened  Plants.  Plenum  Press,  New  York  and  London.  Pp.  155-179. 
Richards,  P.W.,  Tansley,  A.G.  and  Watt,  A.S.  (1939,  1940).  The  recording  of 

structure,  life-form  and  flora  of  tropical  forest  communities  as  a  basis  for  their 

classification.  /.  Ecol.  28:  224-239  (1940).  Also  published  as  Inst.  Pap.  Imp.  For. 

Inst.,  No.  19  (1939). 
Synge,  H.  (Ed.)  (1981).  The  Biological  Aspects  of  Rare  Plant  Conservation.  Wiley, 

Chichester.  558  pp. 
Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1983).  List  of  Rare, 

Threatened  and  Endemic  Plants  in  Europe  (1982  edition),  2nd  Ed.  Nature  and 

Environment  Series  No.  27,  Council  of  Europe,  Strasbourg.  357  pp. 
White,  F.  (1983).  The  Vegetation  of  Africa.  A  Descriptive  Memoir  to  Accompany  the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO  Vegetation  Map  of  Africa.  Natural  Resources  Research 

20,  Unesco,  Paris.  356  pp. 
Williams,  G.R.  and  Given,  D.R.  (1981).  The  Red  Data  Book  of  New  Zealand:  Rare 

and  Endangered  Species  of  Endemic  Terrestrial  Vertebrates  and  Vascular  Plants. 

Nature  Conservation  Council,  Wellington.  175  pp. 


xlv 


Afghanistan 

Area  636,267  sq.  km 

Population  14,292,000 

Floristics  About  3000  species  (Kitamura,  1960-1966);  estimated  25-30%  species 
endemism  (I.C.  Hedge,  1984,  in  lift.).  23  endemic  genera,  most  in  the  mountains  (Hedge 
and  Wendelbo,  1970).  The  flora  includes  Central  Asiatic  and  Eastern  elements  (including 
many  alpines  found  along  the  mountain  chains  of  the  Altai,  Pamir  Himalaya  and  south- 
west China);  Himalayan  elements  in  extreme  east  and  north-east;  Eurasiatic  and  Western 
elements  (Stewart,  1982). 

Vegetation  In  the  south-west,  mostly  desert  and  semi-desert,  with  scant 
vegetation;  in  south  and  north-west,  thorn  scrub  with  many  ephemerals,  and  grasses;  in 
west  and  parts  of  south,  open  deciduous  woodland  with  Pistacia  and  Amygdalus,  together 
with  mixed  herb  communities  and  steppe-like  vegetation;  Artemisia  or  Haloxylon  wheie 
the  soils  are  saline;  much  of  the  centre  and  east  up  to  3000  m,  rising  to  7000  m  in  the 
mountainous  north-east;  West  Himalayan  evergreen  sclerophyllous  forest,  restricted  to 
Nuristan  and  Safed  Koh  range  (Stewart,  1982),  with  Quercus  spp.  up  to  200  m,  Pinus 
gerardiana  (2100-2500  m),  Cedrus  deodara  (2500-3100  m),  Picea  smithiana  and  Abies 
wallichiana  at  2900-3300  m  (Freitag,  1971);  juniper  woodland  up  to  3500  m;  alpine 
vegetation  mainly  restricted  to  a  few  mountain  ranges  in  east  (Breckle,  in  Davis,  Harper 
and  Hedge,  1971). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Afghanistan  is  included  in  Flora  Iranica  (Rechinger, 
1963- ),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and  Flore  de  L'Iran  (1943-1952),  cited  under  Iran.  Other 
relevant  works: 

Grey-Wilson,  C.  (1974).  Some  notes  on  the  flora  of  Iran  and  Afghanistan.  Kew  Bull. 

29(1):  19-81.  (Annotated  checklist  of  plants  collected  during  1971  expedition;  notes 

on  vegetation  of  Makran,  Wakhan  and  Pamir  regions  of  north-east  Afghanistan.) 
Hedge,  I.  and  Wendelbo,  P.  (1964).  Studies  in  the  Flora  of  Afghanistan,  1.  Norwegian 

Univ.  Press,  Oslo.  56  pp.  (Annotated  list  of  7  ferns,  157  angiosperms  collected  on 

1962  expedition;  notes  on  vegetation.) 
Kitamura,  S.  (1960-1966).  Flora  of  Afghanistan,  3  vols.  Kyoto  University,  Japan.  (1,2 

-  Enumeration  of  plants  collected  during  the  Kyoto  Univ.  Scientific  Expedition  to 

Karakoram  and  Hindukush,  1955;  details  of  distributions,  Latin  diagnoses  of  new 

species;  3  -  additions  and  corrections.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  list  available.  Ulmus  wallichiana 
was  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Additional  References 

Breckle,  S.-W.,  Frey,  W.  and  Hedge,  I.C.  (1969,  1975).  Botanical  literature  of 

Afghanistan.  Notes  Roy.  Bot.  Card.  Edinburgh  29:  357-371;  33:  503-521.  (A  useful 
bibliography  of  botanical  literature  and  maps.) 

Davis,  P.H.,  Harper,  P.C.  and  Hedge,  I.C.  (Eds)  (1971).  Plant  Life  of  South-West 
Asia.  Botkny  Society  of  Edinburgh.  335  pp.  (See  in  particular  S.W.  Breckle  on  the 
vegetation  in  alpine  regions  of  Afghanistan,  pp.  107-116;  H.  Freitag  on  the  natural 
vegetation  of  Afghanistan,  pp.  89-106;  P.  Wendelbo  on  distributional  patterns 
within  the  Flora  Iranica  area,  pp.  29-41.) 

Freitag,  H.  (1971).  Die  Naturliche  Vegetation  Afghanistans.  Beitrage  zur  Flora  und 
Vegetation  Afghanistans,  1.  Vegetatio  22:  285-344. 

1 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Frey,  W.  and  Probst,  W.  (1978).  Vegetation  und  Flora  des  Zentralen  Hindukus 

(Afghanistan).  Reichart,  Weisbaden.  126  pp. 
Hedge,  I.C.  and  Wendelbo,  P.  (1970).  Some  remarks  on  endemism  in  Afghanistan. 

IsraelJ.  Bot.  19:  401-417. 
Podlech,  D.  and  Anders,  O.  (1977).  Florula  des  Wakhan  (Nordost-Afghanistan).  Mitt. 

Bot.  Miinchen  13:  361-502.  (Includes  annotated  checklist,  in  German.) 
Stewart,  R.R.  (1982).  History  and  exploration  of  plants  in  Pakistan  and  adjoining 

areas.  In  Nasir,  E.  and  Ali,  S.l.  (Eds),  Flora  of  Pakistan.  Pakistan  Agricultural 

Research  Council,  Islamabad.  186  pp.  (Published  as  a  separate  fascicle;  see  in 

particular  pp.  155-174.) 


Agalega  Islands 


Two  small  coralline  islands  c.  930  km  north  of  Mauritius  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  10°20'S 
56°20'E.  The  islands,  c.  10  and  c.  8  km  long,  are  connected  by  a  narrow  sand  bank.  They 
are  well  wooded  with  coconut  trees,  casuarinas,  and  other  trees;  the  cultivation  of 
coconuts  is  the  only  industry  on  the  islands.  91  species  of  plant  were  seen  by  the  late  J. 
Procter  in  1972  (unpublished  manuscript);  6  species  recorded  by  Hemsley  (1919),  but  60 
species  more  realistic  (Procter,  pers.  comm.  to  S.  Renvoize,  reported  in  Renvoize,  1979). 
The  islands  are  a  dependency  of  Mauritius. 

References 

Hemsley,  W.B.  (1919).  Flora  of  Aldabra:  with  notes  on  the  flora  of  neighbouring 

islands.  Bull.  Misc.  Inf.  Kew  1919:  108-153.  (Checklist,  with  descriptions  of  new 

species.) 
Lincoln,  G.  (1893).  Agalega  Islands:  a  report  to  Sir  H.E.  Jerringham.  Port  Louis, 

Mauritius.  Unpublished.  19  pp.  (Illus.) 
Renvoize,  S.A.  (1979).  The  origins  of  Indian  Ocean  island  floras.  In  Bramwell,  D. 

(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  107-129. 


Albania 

Area  28,748  sq.  km 

Population  2,985,000 

Floristics  3100-3300  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  24  national  endemics  (lUCN  figures);  c.  300  Balkan 
endemics.  Elements:  Central  European,  Mediterranean  and  alpine.  Floristically  diverse 
areas  include  serpentine  and  limestone  rocks  that  support  many  Tertiary  relict  species. 

Vegetation  Little  recent  data  on  present  extent  and  composition.  According  to 
Markgraf  (1932)  there  are  4  natural  vegetation  zones  stretching  north-scuth:  1  -  a  narrow 
coastal  belt,  now  largely  agricultural  with  some  maquis,  phrygana  and  secondary  steppe;  2 
-  a  broad  Mediterranean  and  transitional  deciduous  forest  zone  to  the  east;  3  -  central 
European  deciduous  montane  forests  of  beech  dominating  the  eastern  mountain  belt,  with 


Albania 

scattered  patches  of  Macedonian  Pine  (Pinus  pence);  4  -  at  highest  elevations,  mostly 
along  Yugoslav  border  in  the  north  and  east,  a  subalpine  and  alpine  zone. 

Checklists  and  Floras  One  of  the  least  known  countries  botanically  in  Europe, 
but  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980)  and  the  Med- 
Checklist  (both  cited  in  Appendix  1).  No  complete  national  Flora,  but  see  Hayek 
(1924-1933,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  although  the  area  delimited  as  Albania  there  does  not 
exactly  correspond  to  the  limits  of  the  modern  state. 

Most  recent  regional  Floras: 

Mitrushi,  I.  (1955).  Druret  dhe  Shkurret  e  Shqiperise.  Instituti  i  Shkencave,  Tirane. 

604  pp.  (Monocotyledons;  dicotyledons;  line  drawings;  maps.) 
Mitrushi,  1.  (1966).  Dendroflora  e  Shqiperise  (Tree  Flora  of  Albania).  Univ.  Shtetevor  i 

Tiranes,  Tirane.  519  pp.  (Partially  supercedes  above  work;  includes  cultivated 

species;  617  line  drawings.) 
Paparisto,  K.,  Qosja,  X.  and  Demiri,  M.  (1962,  1965).  Flora  e  Tiranes,  Ikonographia . 

2  vols.  Univ.  Shtetevor  i  Tiranes,  Tirane.  520  pp.,  515  pp.  (Covers  Tirana  region 

only;  habitats;  vol.  2  contains  1300  hne  drawings.) 

Checklists: 

Alston,  A.H.G.  and  Sandwith,  N.Y.  (1940).  Resuhs  of  two  botanical  expeditions  to 

south  Albania.  J.  Bot.  78:  119-126,  147-151,  167-174,  193-199,  219-224,  232-246. 

(Checklist  for  southern  Albania.) 
Bornmiiller,  J.  (1933).  Zur  flora  von  Montenegro,  Albanien  und  Mazedonien.  Magyar 

Bot.  Lapok  32(1/6):  109-142.  (Angiosperm  checklist.) 
Javorka,  A.  et  al.  (1926).  Adatok  Albania  florajahoz.  Additamenta  ad  floram 

Albaniae.  7.  Anthophyta.  A  Magyar  Tud.  Akad.  Balk.-Kutat.  tud.  ered.  3:  219-346. 

(Angiosperm  checklist.) 
Markgraf,  F.  (1931).  Pflanzen  aus  Albanien  1928.  Denkschrift.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien 

Math.-naturw.  102.  360  pp.  (Checklist  of  vascular  species  compiled  in  1928.) 

Relevant  botanical  journal:  Buletin  i  Universitet  Shtetevor  te  Tiranes,  Seria  Shkencat 
Natyrore  (Bulletin  of  the  State's  University  of  Tirana,  Series  of  Natural  Sciences). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  plant  Red  Data  Book.  Included 
in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 
but  for  Albania  this  is  based  upon  data  from  the  1920s;  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon 
this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  E:l,  V:2,  R:ll,  1:6,  K:2,  nt:2;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened 
worldwide  -  V:2,  R:59,  1:3  (world  categories). 

Useful  Addresses 

Botanical  Institute  of  the  University  of  Tirana,  Tirana. 

Additional  References 

Golz,  P.  and  Reinhard,  H.R.  (1984).  Die  Orchideenflora  Albaniens.  Mitt.  Bl. 

Arbeitskr.  Heim.  Orch.  Baden-Wurtt .  16(2):  193-394.  (Comprehensive  mapping 

register  of  the  orchid  flora  of  Albania;  includes  short  history  of  floristic  research.) 
Hayek,  A.  von  (1917,  1924).  Beitrag  zur  Kenntnis  der  Flora  des  Albanisch-Montene- 

Grinischen  Grenzgebietes.  Denkschrift.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien  Math.-naturw.  94  and  99. 

224  pp.  (Floristic  knowledge  about  the  flora  of  the  Albanian-Montene-Grinischen 

border  districts;  illus.) 
Markgraf,  F.  (1925).  Botanische  Reiseeindrucke  aus  Albanien.  Repert.  Spec.  Nov.  Reg. 

Veget.  36:  60-82.  (Botanical  journeys  in  Albania;  descriptive  account.) 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Markgraf,  F.  (1932).  Pflanzengeographie  von  Albanien.  Ihre  Bedeutung  fur  Vegetation 

und  Flora  der  Mittelmeerlander.  Bib.  Bot.  105.  132  pp.  (Map;  photographs.) 
Markgraf,  F.  (1970).  Die  floristische  Stellung  und  Gliederung  Albaniens.  Feddes 

Repert.  81(1-5):  215-222.  (A  descriptive  account  of  the  floristic  composition  and 

structure  of  the  Albanian  flora.) 
Markgraf,  F.  (1974).  Floristic  report  for  Albania.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(1):  5-7. 
Ubrizsy,  G.  and  Penzes,  A.  (1960).  Beitrage  zur  Kenntnis  der  Flora  und  der  Vegetation 

Albaniens.  Acta  Bot.  6(1/2):  155-170. 


Aleutian  Islands 


A  continuous  chain  of  about  12  large  and  50  small  islands,  extending  westwards  for  nearly 
2000  km  from  the  Alaska  Peninsula  to  172°W,  close  to  the  Commander  Islands 
(Komendorskiye  Ostrova  -  to  U.S.S.R.).  The  Aleutians  are  a  Territory  of  the  U.S.A., 
cover  17,666  sq.  km  and  have  around  6700  people.  Including  the  Commander  Islands,  the 
flora  comprises  533  taxa  of  native  and  introduced  vascular  plants.  "A  few  endemics." 
Floristic  affinities  to  the  Kamtchatka  Peninsula  of  eastern  U.S.S.R.  rather  than  to  the 
Arctic.  Vegetation  predominantly  of  heath,  dominated  by  Ericaceae,  with  meadows  in 
more  sheltered  places  and  fragments  of  alpine  meadows  in  upland  areas.  The  above  taken 
from: 

Hulten,  E.  (1960).  Flora  of  the  Aleutian  Islands.  Cramer,  Codicote,  Herts,  U.K.,  and 
Hafner,  New  York.  376  pp.,  plus  533  distributional  maps  and  32  plates.  (Includes 
westernmost  Alaska  Peninsula  and  with  notes  on  the  flora  of  the  Commander 
Islands.) 

For  information  on  threatened  plants,  see: 

Murray,  D.F.  (1980).  Threatened  and  Endangered  Plants  of  Alaska.  U.S.  Department 
of  Agriculture,  Forest  Service  and  U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  Bureau  of  Land 
Management.  59  pp.  (42  species,  dot  maps,  black  ink  drawings.) 


Algeria 

Area  2,381,745  sq.  km 

Population  21,272,000 

Floristics  3139  species  (Quezel  and  Santa,  1962-1963);  3150  species  (Le  Houerou, 
1975).  c.  250  endemic  species  (Quezel,  1964;  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  Ahaggar 
mountain  massif  in  the  south,  and  the  north  coast  are  especially  rich. 

Most  of  Algeria  has  a  Saharan  flora,  but  there  is  also  a  narrow  coastal  band  with  a 
Mediterranean  flora,  and  a  transition  zone  between  the  two.  Mediterranean  and  African 
elements  occur  together  on  the  Ahaggar  massif. 

Vegetation  Mostly  desert  with  little  or  no  perennial  vegetation,  and  semi-desert 
grassland  and  shrubland  in  the  north.  Coastal  band  of  Mediterranean  sclerophyllous 


Algeria 

forest.  Saharomontane  vegetation  occurs  on  the  Ahaggar  massif,  including  tree,  shrub  and 
grassland  communities.  Mediterranean  montane  forests  and  altimontane  shrubland  occur 
on  Grande  Kabylie  in  the  north. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Algeria  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  de  I'Afrique  du 
Nord,  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980),  Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and  is  being  covered  in 
Med-Checklist;  these  are  all  cited  in  Appendix  1 .  See  also: 

Lapie,  G.  and  Maige,  A.  (1915?).  Flore  Forestidre  d'Alg^rie.  Orlhac,  Paris.  359  pp. 

(Line  drawings  throughout.  Also  includes  the  more  common  woody  plants  of 

Tunisia,  Morocco  and  southern  France.) 
Quezel,  P.  and  Santa,  S.  (1962-1963).  Nouvelle  Flore  de  I'Algirie  et  des  Regions 

D4sertiques  Meridionales,  2  vols.  Centre  National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique, 

Paris.  1170  pp.  (Descriptive  keys,  distributions;  20  black  and  white  photographs  in 

each  volume.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Algeria  is  included  in  the  draft  list  for  North 
Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat 
(1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Faurel,  L.  0959).  Plantes  rares  et  menacees  d'Algerie.  In  Animaux  et  V4g4taux  Rares 
de  la  Region  Mediterraneenne.  Proceedings  of  the  lUCN  7th  Technical  Meeting, 
11-19  September  1958,  Athens,  vol.  5.  lUCN,  Brussels.  Pp.  140-155.  (Includes  lists 
of  rare  or  threatened  plants  in  different  parts  of  Algeria.) 

Mathez,  J.,  Quezel,  P.  and  Raynard,  C.  (1985).  The  Maghrib  countries.  In  G6mez- 
Campo,  C.  (Ed.),  Plant  Conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  Area. 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa-E:31,  V:22,  R:65, 1:6,  K:9,  nt:38;  non-endemic  taxa 
rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:2,  R:5,  1:9  (world  categories). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  d'Essais  du  Hamma,  Rue  de  Lyon,  Hamma. 
University  Botanic  Garden,  University  d' Alger,  Alger. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministere  de  I'Hydraulique,  de  I'Environnement  et  des 

Forets,  Ex  Grand  Seminaire,  Kouba,  Alger. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Institut  National  de  la  Recherche  Forestiere,  Arboretum  de 

Baienm,  B.P.  37,  Cheraga,  Alger. 

Additional  References 

Barry,  J. P.,  and  Faurel,  L.  (1973).  Notice  de  la  feuille  de  Ghardaia.  Carte  de  la 

vegetation  de  I'Algerie  au  1:500,000.  M^m.  Soc.  Hist.  Nat.  Afr.  N.,  n.s.  11:  1-125. 

(Map.) 
Barry,  J. P.,  Celles,  J.C.  and  Faurel,  L.  (1974).  Notice  de  la  carte  internationale  du 

tapis  vegeta}  et  des  conditions  ecologiques.  Feuille  d' Alger  au  1 : 1  ,(XX),000.  Universite 

d'Alger.  42  pp.  (Map.) 
Cannon,  W.A.  (1913).  Botanical  Features  of  the  Algerian  Sahara.  PubUcation  No.  178, 

Carnegie  Institute,  Washington.  81  pp.  (84  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Guinet,  P.  (1958).  Notice  detaillee  de  la  feuille  de  Beni- Abbes  (coupure  speciale  de  la 

carte  de  la  vegetation  de  I'Algerie  au  1:200,000).  Bull.  Serv.  Carte  Phytog4ogr.,  S4r. 

A..  Carte  de  la  vegetation  3:  21-96.  CNRS,  Paris. 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Le  Houerou,  H.-N.  (1975).  Etude  preliminaire  sur  la  compatibilite  des  flores  nord- 
africaine  et  palestinienne.  In  CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  345-350. 

Quezel,  P.  (1964).  L'endemisme  dans  la  flore  d'Algerie.  Compt.  Rend.  Somm.  Seanc. 
Soc.  Biogeogr.  361:  137-149. 

Quezel,  P.  and  Bounaga,  D.  (1975).  Aperfu  sur  la  connaissance  actuelle  de  la  flore 
d'Algerie  et  de  Tunisie.  In  CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  125-130. 


American  Samoa 


The  Samoan  Archipelago  is  a  chain  of  tropical,  volcanic  islands  extending  in  a  west- 
northwesterly  direction  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  4200  km  south-west  of  Hawaii  and 
1000  km  north-east  of  Fiji.  The  archipelago  is  divided  politically  into  American  (or 
Eastern)  Samoa  and  Western  Samoa.  American  Samoa,  an  unincorporated  territory  of  the 
United  States,  comprises  6  inhabited  islands  and  about  20  small  uninhabited  islets.  It 
includes  Swains  Island,  which  is  geographically  part  of  the  Tokelau  Islands.  Western 
Samoa  is  covered  separately. 

Area  197  sq.  km 

Population  34,000 

Floristics  489  vascular  plant  species,  including  naturalized  introduced  plants;  1 1 
endemic  species  (Amersen  et  al.,  1982).  Of  the  140  fern  species,  16  are  endemic  (Amersen 
et  al.,  1982).  Species  endemism  for  the  whole  of  the  Samoan  Archipelago  is  c.  25% 
(Whistler,  1980).  The  flora  of  American  Samoa  is  closely  allied  to  that  of  neighbouring 
Western  Samoa,  Fiji  and  Tonga. 

Vegetation  Lowland  tropical  evergreen  rain  forest,  with  Diospyros,  Dysoxylum. 
Pometia  and  Syzygium,  up  to  300  m;  montane  forest,  with  Dysoxylum,  at  300-700  m; 
Syzygium  samoense  cloud  forest  only  found  on  Tau  and  Olosega  at  500-930  m;  small  areas 
of  montane  scrub  on  Tutuila;  mangroves  and  swamps  near  the  coast.  About  two  thirds  of 
the  native  vegetation  has  been  disturbed  or  cleared  for  settlements  and  agriculture.  The 
area  of  disturbed  forest  (including  Rhus  secondary  forest)  was  estimated  to  be  c.  40  sq.  km 
(U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service  figures,  quoted  by  Whistler,  1980). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Amerson,  A.B.,  Whistler,  W.A.  and  Schwaner,  T.D.  (1982).  Wildlife  and  Wildlife 

Habitat  of  American  Samoa,  2  parts.  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  Washington, 

D.C.  (1  -  Environment  and  ecology,  with  list  of  15  "potentially  threatened  species"; 

2  -  flora  and  fauna,  with  checklist  of  489  vascular  plant  species,  most  of  which  are 

native  species;  notes  on  distribution,  endemics  indicated.) 
Christensen,  C.  (1943).  A  revision  of  the  pteridophyta  of  Samoa.  Bull.  Bernice  P. 

Bishop  Mus.  177.  138  pp.  (Covers  both  Western  Samoa  and  American  Samoa; 

revision  of  Selaginella  by  A.H.G.  Alston.) 
Christophersen,  E.  (1935,  1938).  Flowering  plants  of  Samoa.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop 

Mus.  128.  221  pp.;  154.  77  pp. 
Parham,  B.E.V.  (1972).  Plants  of  Samoa.  DSIR  Information  Series  no.  85,  Govt 

Printer,  WeUington,  N.Z.  162  pp.  (Short  descriptions  of  plants  from  Western 

Samoa,  arranged  alphabetically  by  local  names;  many  species  also  occur  on 

American  Samoa.) 


American  Samoa 

Information   on   Threatened   Plants   The   only   available   list   is   that  of   15 
"potentially  threatened  species",  in  Amerson,  Whistler  and  Schwaner,  cited  above. 

Additional  References 

Whistler,  W.A.  (1980).  The  vegetation  of  Eastern  Samoa.  Allertonia  2(2):  46-190. 
Whistler,  W.A.  (1983).  The  flora  and  vegetation  of  Swains  Island.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  262. 
25  pp. 


Andaman  and  Nicobar 
Islands 


The  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands  are  island  groups  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  the  former  of 
204  large  and  small  islands,  and  the  latter  of  about  22  smaller  islands.  The  islands  are 
administered  as  a  Union  Territory  of  the  Republic  of  India. 

Area  8120  sq.  km 

Population  185,254  (1981  census,  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  c.  2270  flowering  plant  species,  of  which  225  are  endemic 
(Balakrishnan,  1977;  Balakrishnan  and  Rao,  1984).  The  flora  of  the  Andamans  is  related 
to  that  of  Burma  and  north-east  India,  while  that  of  the  Nicobars  is  more  closely  related  to 
that  of  Sumatra  and  Malaysia. 

Vegetation  The  Andamans  have  tropical  evergreen  rain  forest,  rich  in 
Dipterocarpus  and  Pterocarpus,  tropical  semi-evergreen  rain  forest  and  tropical  moist 
deciduous  forest.  The  Nicobars  have  tropical  broadleaved  evergreen  rain  forest,  with 
Terminalia,  Mangifera,  Calophyllum,  Garcinia  and  Cyathea.  Remaining  areas  of  rain 
forest  are  under  severe  pressures  from  logging  and  agriculture,  particularly  on  the 
Andamans.  Coastal  areas  of  both  the  Andamans  and  Nicobars  support  mangrove  forests, 
beach  forests  and  httoral  communities;  scrub  forest  on  the  low  flat  islands  of  the  northern 
Nicobars. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands  are  included  in  the 
Flora  of  British  India  (Hooker,  1872-1897),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  For  ferns  see  Beddome 
(1892),  and  the  companion  volume  by  Nayar  and  Kaur  (1972),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Rather 
dated  accounts  include: 

Gamble,  J.S.  (1903).  A  Preliminary  List  of  the  Plants  of  the  Andaman  Islands.  Chief 

Commissioner's  Press,  Port  Blair.  51  pp. 
Kurz,  S.  (1870).  Report  on  the  Vegetation  of  the  Andaman  Islands.  Office  of  Govt 

Printing,  Calcutta.  75  pp.  (Includes  enumeration  of  660  phanerogams  and  50 

cryptogams;  notes  on  distributions  and  main  timber  trees.) 
Parkinson,  C.E.)(1923).  A  Forest  Flora  of  the  Andaman  Islands.  Govt  Central  Press, 

Simla.  325  pp.  (Reprinted  1972  by  Bishen  Singh  Mahendra  Pal  Singh,  Dehra  Dun. 

Keys,  short  descriptions  of  540  native  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Balakrishnan,  N.P.  (1977).  Recent  botanical  studies  in  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands. 
Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  19:  132-138.  (Lists  136  'rare'  and  'endangered'  endemic 
species.) 

7 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Balakrishnan,  N.P.  and  Rao,  M.V.K.  (1983).  The  dwindling  plant  species  of  Andaman 
and  Nicobar  Islands.  In  Jain,  S.K.  and  Rao,  R.R.  (Eds),  An  Assessment  of 
Threatened  Plants  of  India.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  Pp.  186-210.  (Lists 
110  threatened  endemic  taxa  and  136  threatened  non-endemics;  notes  on 
distribution.) 

Botanical  Survey  of  India  (undated).  Endangered  flora  of  Andaman  and  Nicobar 
Islands.  Mimeo,  5  pp.  (Issued  by  the  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Andaman  and 
Nicobar  Circle,  Port  Blair;  overview  of  vegetation  and  threats  to  species.) 

Jain,  S.K.  and  Sastry,  A.R.K.  (1980).  Threatened  Plants  of  India  -  A  State-of-the-Art 
Report.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  48  pp.  (Includes  accounts  of  11 
threatened  plants  from  the  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands.) 

Thothathri,  K.  (1960).  Studies  on  the  flora  of  the  Andaman  Islands.  Bull.  Bot.  Survey 
India  2:  357-373.  (281  species  listed,  with  notes  on  distribution  and  abundance  on 
the  islands.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Andaman-Nicobar  Circle,  Regional  Herbarium, 
Horticultural  Road,  Port  Blair  744102,  India. 

Additional  References 

Kurz,  S.  (1876).  A  sketch  of  the  vegetation  of  the  Nicobar  Islands.  J.  Asiatic  Soc. 

Bengal  45(2):  105-164.  (Includes  notes  on  624  vascular  plant  taxa.) 
Melville,  R.  (1970).  Endangered  plants  and  conservation  in  the  islands  of  the  Indian 

Ocean.  In  lUCN,  Ilth  Technical  Meeting  Papers  and  Proceedings,  2.  Problems  of 

Threatened  Species.  lUCN  New  Series  18,  Switzerland.  Pp.  103-107. 
Sahni,  K.C.  (1958).  Mangrove  forests  in  the  Andamans  and  Nicobar  Islands.  Indian 

Forester  84:  554-562. 
Thothathri,  K.  (1962).  Contribution  to  the  flora  of  Andaman  and  Nicobar  Islands. 

Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  4:  281-296.  (Floristic  analysis;  notes  on  vegetation.) 


Andorra 


The  principality  of  Andorra  is  situated  on  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Pyrenees,  between 
Spain  and  France.  It  is  surrounded  by  mountains,  2000-3500  m  high,  and  nowhere  falls 
below  900  m. 

Area  465  sq.  km 

Population  34,000 

Floristics  and  Vegetation  Over  1000  native  flowering  plant  species  (Losa  and 
Montserrat,  1950).  The  most  floristically  diverse  areas  occur  on  the  alkaline  rocks  at  Pic  de 
Casamanya,  in  the  centre  of  the  country,  and  in  the  north-west  around  Arinsal  and 
Ordino.  About  one-third  of  the  country  is  covered  by  forest  of  pine,  fir,  oak  and  birch,  but 
a  large  proportion  is  plantation.  Rich  alpine  meadows  are  widespread,  although  many 
mountain  slopes  have  been  developed  for  skiing,  causing  extensive  damage. 

Checklists  and  Floras  No  national  Flora.  See: 

Losa,  M.  and  Montserrat,  P.  (1950).  Aportacion  al  Conocimiento  de  la  Flora  de 
Andorra.  Botanica  6.  No.  53.  184  pp.  Consejo  Superior  de  Investigaciones 

8 


Andorra 

Cientificas,  Zaragoza.  (Without  keys;  an  annotated  checklist  and  floristic  account 
including  lower  plants;  black  and  white  photographs;  Une  drawings;  maps.) 
Stefenelli,  S.  (1979).  Guide  des  Fleurs  de  Montagne:  Pyrenees  -  Massif-Central  -  Aipes 
-  Apennins  (French  adaptation).  Duculot,  Paris-Gembloux.  160  pp.  (Colour 
photographs  and  ecological  data  for  each  species.) 

The  field-guides  of  Grey-Wilson  (1979)  and  Polunin  and  Smythies  (1973),  both  cited  in 
Appendix  1,  cover  the  flora. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Angola 

Area  1,246,700  sq.  km 

Population  8,540,000 

Floristics  (Excluding  Cabinda)  Estimates  of  size  of  flora  include  c.  5000  (Airy 
Shaw,  1947;  J. -P.  Lebrun,  1984,  pers.  comm.)  and  c.  4600  (calculated  from  figures  quoted 
in  Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Endemism  high;  c.  1260  endemics,  calculated  from 
a  sample  of  Conspectus  Florae  Angolensis  (Exell  and  Gongalves,  1973);  this  is  second  in 
Africa  only  to  Zaire.  Districts  with  highest  levels  of  endemism  are  Huilla,  Benguela  and 
Bie,  in  that  order. 

Flora  predominantly  Zambezian,  but  in  northern  third  of  country  flora  transitional 
between  Zambezian  and  Guinea-CongoHan.  South-west  coast  with  flora  of  Karoo-Namib 
and  Kalahari-Highveld  regions. 

Vegetation  Mostly  rather  uniform  Brachystegia-Julbernardia  (Miombo) 
woodland.  Airy  Shaw  (1947)  estimates  that  this  type  of  woodland,  together  with  other 
grassland  and  wooded  grassland  areas,  occupies  90%  of  Angola.  Only  on  the  coastal  belt 
and  at  the  southern  border  do  any  major  deviations  from  this  type  occur,  and  these  include 
rain  forest  in  the  north,  desert,  montane  forest,  dry  evergreen  forest.  Baobab  associations, 
and  various  types  of  dry  scrub.  Zonation  is  well  marked  only  in  the  south  and  south-west 
where  desert  and  subdesert  formations  (containing  the  famed  Welwitschia  mirabilis), 
Colophospermum  mopane  (Mopane)  bush  and  thorn  scrub  succeed  one  another  as  rainfall 
increases  inland.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  440  sq. 
km/annum  out  of  29,000  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Carrisso,  L.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1937-  ).  Conspectus  Florae  Angolensis,  4  vols  and  1  fascicle. 
Junta  de  Investigagoes  do  Ultramar,  and  later  Junta  de  Investiga?6es  Cientificas  do 
Ultramar,  Lisbpa.  (Fully  annotated  checklist  with  keys.  Pteridophytes  by  E.A. 
Schelpe,  1977.  i^'lora  now  produced  in  family  fascicles;  c.  45%  published.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants,  but  four  examples  of  Vulnerable  species  are  given  by  B.J.  Huntley  on  p.  99  of 
Hedberg  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

lUCN  has  records  of  808  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic,  including 
R:3,  1:16,  nt:8. 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Garden  of  Salazar  and  Floristic  Reserve  No.  1,  Instituto  de  Investiga^ao 
Agronomica  de  Angola,  C.P.  406,  Huambo. 

Additional  References 

Airy  Shaw,  J.K.  (1947).  The  vegetation  of  Angola.  J.  Ecol.  35:  23-48. 
Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1970).  Carta  Fitogeogrdfica  de  Angola.  Instituto  de 

Investiga?ao  Cientifica  de  Angola,  Luanda.  323  pp.  (With  coloured  vegetation  map 

1  .■2,500,000  and  numerous  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Exell,  A.W.  and  Gongalves,  M.L.  (1973).  A  statistical  analysis  of  a  sample  of  the  flora 

of  Angola.  Garcia  de  Orta,  Ser.  Bot.  1(1-2):  105-128. 
Monteiro,  R.F.R.  (1970).  Estudo  da  Flora  e  da  Vegetagao  das  Florestas  abertas  do 

Planalto  do  Bie.  Instituto  de  Investigagao  Cientifica  de  Angola,  Luanda.  352  pp. 

(With  35  black  and  white  photographs  and  coloured  vegetation  map  1:500,(XX).) 
Santos,  R.  Mendes  Dos  (1982).  Itinerarios  Flori'sticos  e  Carta  da  Vegetagao  do  Cuando 

Cubango.  Estudos,  Ensaios  e  Documentos  No.  137.  Instituto  de  Investiga^ao 

Cientifica  Tropical/Junta  de  Investigagoes  Cientificas  do  Ultramar,  Lisboa.  266  pp. 

(With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:1,000,000.) 
Teixeira,  J.  Brito  (1968).  Angola.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  193-197. 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  list  of  relevant  chapters. 


Anguilla 


A  flat  coralline  island  of  91  sq.  km  and  7000  inhabitants  in  the  Leeward  Islands  of  the 
Eastern  Caribbean,  1 13  km  north-west  of  St  Kitts.  It  is  administered  directly  by  the  United 
Kingdom  as  a  Dependent  Territory.  The  vegetation  is  mostly  tropical  evergreen  bush  and 
low  scrub.  For  botanical  information,  see  the  account  on  Antigua  and  Barbuda. 
References  specifically  on  Anguilla  are: 

Boldingh,  I.  (1909).  A  contribution  to  the  knowledge  of  the  flora  of  Anguilla,  B.W.I. 

Recueil  des  Travaux  Botaniques  Neerlandais  6:  1-36.  (List  of  50  vascular  plants, 

general  ranges  given.) 
Box,  H.E.  (1940).  Report  upon  collection  of  plants  from  Anguilla,  B.W.I.  J.  Bot.  78: 

14-16. 


Antarctica 


The  continent  of  Antarctica  covers  14  million  sq.  km.  Almost  the  entire  area  is 
permanently  covered  by  ice.  There  is  also  a  belt  of  pack  ice,  between  4  and  22  million  sq. 
km,  surrounding  the  continent.  In  addition,  there  are  a  number  of  island  groups  extending 
into  the  Southern  Ocean  and  southern  Indian  Ocean  (Crozet  Islands,  Kerguelen  Islands, 
New  Amsterdam,  Heard  and  Macdonald  Islands)  and  South  Atlantic  Ocean  (South 
Orkney  and  South  Shetland  Islands). 


10 


Antarctica 

The  Crozet  Islands,  Kerguelen  Islands,  New  Amsterdam,  Heard  and  Macdonald  Islands 
are  rocky  islets  with  mires  in  which  the  important  peat-forming  plants  are  bryophytes, 
tussock-forming  grasses,  cushion-forming  flowering  plants  and  other  herbaceous 
communities.  Much  of  the  land  is  covered  with  snow  throughout  the  year.  Maritime 
Antarctica,  the  South  Orkney  and  South  Shetland  Islands  are  even  more  barren  and  are 
within  the  limit  of  maximum  pack  ice  extension. 

For  South  Georgia  and  the  South  Sandwich  Islands,  see  under  the  Falkland  Islands  (Islas 
Malvinas).  Marion  and  Prince  Edward  Islands  are  covered  separately. 

Antarctic  Continent  2  indigenous  vascular  plants  (Deschampsia  antarctica  and 
Colobanthus  quitensis),  confined  to  the  vicinity  of  the  Antarctic  Peninsula  (Greene  and 
Holtom,  1971). 

Crozet  Islands  Area  505  sq.  km;  population  of  30,  permanent  mission  (1982); 
part  of  the  French  Southern  and  Antarctic  Territory.  28  vascular  plant  species  (Greene  and 
Walton,  1975). 

Heard  and  Macdonald  Islands  Area  412  sq.  km;  no  permanent  population; 
external  territories  of  Australia.  Heard  Island  has  8  vascular  plant  species,  the  Macdonald 
Islands  have  3  (Greene  and  Walton,  1975). 

Kerguelen  Islands  Area  7000  sq.  km;  population  of  76,  permanent  mission 
(1982);  part  of  the  French  Southern  and  Antarctic  Territory.  29  vascular  plant  species,  of 
which  Lyallia  kerguelensis  is  endemic  and  a  further  7  species,  including  the  famous 
Kerguelen  Cabbage  (Pringlea  antiscorbuticd),  are  confined  to  2  or  more  sub-antarctic 
islands  (Greene  and  Walton,  1975). 

New  Amsterdam  Area  55  sq.  km;  population  of  92  (1980),  permanent  mission 
(1982);  part  of  the  French  Southern  and  Antarctic  Territory.  55  vascular  plant  species  (J. 
Jeremie,  1984,  in  litt.). 

St  Paul  Area  7  sq.  km;  uninhabited;  part  of  the  French  Southern  and  Antarctic 
Territory.  Lowland  slopes  covered  by  Poa  novare  and  Spartina  arundinacea;  wetter  areas 
dominated  by  sedges,  mainly  Scirpus  nodosus. 

South  Orkney  Islands  Area  620  sq.  km;  uninhabited;  part  of  the  British  Antarctic 
Territory.  2  vascular  plants,  Colobanthus  quitensis  and  Deschampsia  antarctica  (Brown, 
Wright  and  Darbishire,  1908). 

South  Shetland  Islands  Area  4700  sq.  km;  uninhabited;  part  of  the  British 
Antarctic  Territory.  1  vascular  plant  (Deschampsia  antarctica). 

References 

Brown,  R.N.R.,  Wright,  C.H.  and  Darbishire,  O.V.  (1908).  The  botany  of  the  South 

Orkneys.  Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition.  Trans.  Bot.  Soc.  Edinburgh  23(1): 

101-111.  (Includes  account  of  mosses  and  lichens.) 
Chastain,  A.  (1958).) La  flore  et  la  vegetation  des  lies  de  Kerguelen.  M4m.  Mus. 

National  Hist.  Naturelle,  Ser.  B,  Bot.  11(1).  136  pp. 
Clark,  M.R.  and  Dingwall,  P.R.  (1985).  Cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Cour,  P.  (1959).  Flore  et  vegetation  de  I'Archipel  de  Kerguelen.  Terres  Australes  et 

Antarctiques  Frangais  8/9:  3-40. 
Greene,  S.W.  and  Holtom,  A.  (1971).  Studies  in  Colobanthus  quitensis  (Kunth)  Bartl. 

and  Deschampsia  antarctica  Desv.,  5.  Distribution,  ecology  and  performance  on 

Signy  Island.  Brit.  Antarctic  Survey  Bull.  28:  11-28. 

11 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Greene,  S.W.  and  Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  An  annotated  check  list  of  the  sub-antarctic 
and  antarctic  vascular  flora.  Polar  Record  17(110):  473-484. 

Hemsley,  W.B.  (1885).  Report  on  the  Scientific  Results  of  the  Voyage  of  H. M.S. 
Challenger  During  the  Years  1873-76.  Botany,  vol.  1,  part  2.  London.  (See  in 
particular  the  section  on  the  Crozets,  including  annotated  checklist  of  7  vascular 
plants,  pp.  207-211;  the  Kerguelen  Islands,  including  checklist  of  21  vascular  plants, 
pp.  211-243;  the  Macdonald  Group,  including  checklist  of  lower  plants  and  5 
vascular  plants  on  Heard  Island,  pp.  245-258;  New  Amsterdam  and  St  Paul, 
pp.  259-281.) 

Hooker,  J.D.  (1844-1847).  The  Botany  of  the  Antarctic  Voyage  of  H.M.  Discovery 
Ships  Erebus  and  Terror,  in  the  Years  1839-1843,  2  vols.  London.  (1  -  Flora 
Antarctica,  Lord  Auckland's  Group  and  Campbell's  Island;  2  -  Flora  Antarctica, 
the  Antarctic  Region.) 

lUCN  (1984).  Conservation  and  Development  of  Antarctic  Ecosystems.  lUCN, 
Switzerland.  36  pp. 

Skottsberg,  C.  (1954).  Antarctic  flowering  plants.  Bot.  Tidsskr.  51:  330-338. 

Young,  S.B.  (1971).  Vascular  flora  of  the  Kerguelen  Islands.  Antarctic  J.  United  States 
6(4):  110-111. 


Antigua  and  Barbuda 


Antigua  One  of  the  more  northerly  of  the  Leeward  islands  of  the  Lesser  Antilles; 
low-lying,  reaching  only  415  m  altitude;  mostly  under  sugar  cultivation.  About  45  km 
WSW  of  Antigua  is  Redonda  ("Round  Island"),  1.3  sq.  km,  a  fragment  of  a  volcano  and 
rising  to  3(X)  m;  uninhabited  apart  from  about  1(X)  feral  goats. 

Barbuda  40  km  north  of  Antigua;  flat,  only  30.5  m  altitude;  has  a  large  lagoon 
and  coastal  sand-dunes. 

Area  Antigua:  279  sq.  km;  Barbuda:  160  sq.  km 

Population  Antigua:  7300  (1979  estimate);  Barbuda:  1500  (1979  estimate) 

Floristics  724  angiosperms  with  0.7%  endemism  (Box,  1938,  see  below,  analysed 
by  CD.  Adams).  These  figures  are  likely  to  change  considerably  as  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser 
Antilles  is  published. 

Vegetation 

Antigua  Mostly  dry  scrub  woodland  and  man-made  grassland;  several  types  of 
seasonal  forest,  mostly  low  and  secondary;  in  areas  of  low  rainfall  and  limestone  soils, 
several  types  of  evergreen  thicket  and  scrub;  on  the  coast  some  mangrove  and  strand 
vegetation.  Area  of  cultivation  recorded  as  no  more  than  101  sq.  km  in  1960,  decreasing, 
being  replaced  by  secondary  vegetation  (Loveless,  1960).  According  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in 
Appendix  1),  15.9%  forested. 

Barbuda  Mostly  natural  bush,  with  trees  in  the  higher  terraces  and  more  stunted 
bushland  vegetation;  grassy  areas  towards  the  windward  coast;  lower  plains  cultivated  and 
grazed;  some  coastal  mangrove  and  sand  dunes. 


12 


Antigua  and  Barbuda 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles  (only 
monocotyledons  and  ferns  published  so  far;  Howard,  1974- ),  and  by  the  family  and 
generic  monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica.  (Both  are  cited  in  Appendix  1.)   See  also: 

Alston,  A.H.G.  and  Box,  H.E.  (1935).  Pteridophyta  of  Antigua.  J.  Bot.  73:  33-40. 
Beard,  J.S.  (1944).  Provisional  list  of  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  Lesser  Antilles. 

Caribbean  Forester  5(2):  48-67.  (428  species  in  a  table  showing  which  are  in  the 

Leeward  Is.  but  not  which  are  on  each  island  in  the  group.) 
Howard,  R.A.  (1962).  Botanical  and  other  observations  on  Redonda,  the  West  Indies. 

/.  Arnold  Arbor.  43:  51-66.  (Includes  account  of  vegetation  and  species  list.) 
Stehle,  H.  and  Stehle,  M.  (1947).  Liste  complementaire  des  arbres  et  arbustes  des 

petites  Antilles.  Caribbean  Forester  8:  91-123.  (A  further  328  species  to  Beard,  1944, 

in  similar  format.) 

In  1938,  H.E.  Box  prepared  a  check  list,  based  on  earlier  records  and  collections  and  his 
own  collections  in  Antigua  and  sight  records  in  Barbuda.  The  taxonomy  and  nomenclature 
were  revised  by  J.E.  Dandy.  Includes  an  historical  introduction  and  an  ecological 
description  of  the  vegetation.  Never  published  -  copies  at  University  of  the  West  Indies 
Library,  Mona,  Jamaica;  the  Institute  of  Jamaica,  Kingston;  and  the  National  Herbarium 
of  Trinidad  and  Tobago,  Trinidad.  (CD.  Adams,  1984,  pers.  comm.). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Antigua  Archaeological  Society,  P.O.  Box  103,  St  John's,  Antigua.  (Preparing  a  list  of 
some  of  the  plants  of  Antigua,  Barbuda  and  Redonda,  with  some  of  their  uses.) 

Additional  References 

Harris,  D.R.  (1960).  The  vegetation  of  Antigua  and  Barbuda,  Leeward  Islands,  West 

Indies.  Prelim.  Rep.  Dep.  Geog.  Univ.  Calif. 
Harris,  D.R.  (1965).  Plants,  Animals,  and  Man  in  the  Outer  Leeward  Islands,  West 

Indies.  An  ecological  study  of  Antigua,  Barbuda  and  Anguilla.  University  of 

California  Publications  in  Geography  vol.  18.  Univ.  California  Press,  Berkeley. 

164  pp.  (With  photographs  and  vegetation  maps.) 
Loveless,  A.R.  (1960).  The  vegetation  of  Antigua,  West  Indies.  J.  Ecol.  48(3):  495-527. 
Wheeler,  L.R.  (1916).  The  Botany  of  Antigua.  J.  Bot.  54:  41-52. 


Antipodes  Islands 


The  Antipodes  (21  sq.  km)  are  an  uninhabited,  outlying  island  group  of  New  Zealand,  in 
the  Pacific  subantarctic,  at  49°42'S,  178°50'E.  The  vegetation  consists  mainly  of  grassland 
and  is  relatively  little  disturbed.  62  vascular  plant  taxa  {Flora  of  New  Zealand,  1961,  cited 
under  New  Zealand).  One  endemic,  Gentiana  antipoda  (lUCN  category:  Rare).  The 
islands  were  declared  a  Nature  Reserve  in  1961.  For  more  information  see  Given,  1981a, 
cited  under  New  Zealand. 


13 


Argentina 

Area  2,777,815  sq.  km 

Population  30,094,000 

Floristics  Approximately  9000  species  of  vascular  plants  (J.  Hunziker,  1984, 
pers.  comm.),  most  in  the  tropical  region;  25-30%  endemic.  Botanically  the  best  known 
country  in  South  America  (Toledo,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Areas  of  high  endemism 
and  diversity  are:  Provinces  Patagonia,  Punena,  Altoandina,  del  Monte  and  Paranaense 
(Hunziker,  pers.  comm.).  The  flora  of  the  southern  Andes  has  affinities  to  the  flora  of 
New  Zealand. 

Vegetation  In  the  northeast,  rain  forest;  in  the  northwest  provinces  of  Jujuy  and 
Salta  subtropical  semi-deciduous  forest  and  subtropical  evergreen  seasonal  submontane 
broadleaved  forest  (Unesco,  1981,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  in  north  central  and  central 
Argentina,  the  Gran  Chaco,  a  mixture  of  xerophilous  forest  and  savannas,  with  many 
halophytic  and  swamp  associations.  To  the  south  the  Pampa,  a  vast  savanna  and  open 
prairie,  without  native  trees,  mostly  grazed  or  cultivated;  in  Patagonia,  the  southern 
quarter  of  the  country,  mainly  steppe  and  tundra,  with  coniferous  forest  in  the  west,  low 
deciduous  thicket  in  the  northeast  and  subdesert  deciduous  shrubland  and  tundra  in  the 
south  (Unesco,  1981).  In  the  Andes,  north  to  south,  vegetation  includes  cloud  forest  and 
dry  puna  in  the  north,  caespitose  herbaceous  communities  all  along  and  temperate  forest 
in  the  south. 

Ciiecklists  and  Floras  Recent  floristic  research  in  Argentina  has  focussed  on  the 
production  of  regional  Floras,  sponsored  by  the  Instituto  Nacional  de  Tecnologia 
Agropecuaria  (INT A): 

Burkart,  A.  (1969-  ).  Flora  Ilustrada  de  Entre  Ri'os  (Argentina).  Coleccion  Cientifica 

del  INTA,  Buenos  Aires.  6  vols  planned,  3  completed:  2  -  grasses  (1969);  5  - 

Primulales  to  Plantaginales  (1978);  6  -  Rubiales  to  Campanulales  (1974). 
Cabrera,  A.L.  (1963-1970).  Flora  de  la  Provincia  de  Buenos  Aires,  6  vols.  INTA, 

Buenos  Aires. 
Cabrera,  A.L.  (1977-  ).  Flora  de  la  Provincia  de  Jujuy,  Republica  Argentina.  INTA, 

Buenos  Aires.  3  vols  published  out  of  10;  includes  Pteridofitas  (1977)  and 

Compositae  (1978).  (To  cover  an  estimated  3500  species.) 
Cabrera,  A.L.  and  Zardini,  E.M.  (1978).  Manual  de  la  Flora  de  los  Alrededores  de 

Buenos  Aires,  2nd  Ed.  Acme,  Buenos  Aires.  755  pp. 
Correa,  M.N.  (1969- ).  Flora  Patagonica.  INTA,  Buenos  Aires.  4  vols  published, 

8  projected. 
Dimitri,  M.J.  (1962).  La  flora  andino-patagonica.  Anal.  Parques  Nacionales  9:  1-130. 
Dimitri,  M.J.  (1974).  Pequena  Flora  Ilustrada  de  los  Parques  Nacionales  Andino- 

Patagdnicos.  Publicacion  Tecnica  No.  46,  Separada  de  los  Anales  de  Parques 

Nacionales,  Tomo  13.  122  pp. 
Meyer,  T.  et  al.  (1977).  Flora  Ilustrada  de  la  Provincia  de  Tucumdn.  Fundacion  Miguel 

Lillo,  Tucuman.  305  pp. 

Toledo  (1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  refers  to  the  following  additional  Floras  as  in  progress: 
Centro  de  Argentina  by  A.T.  Humziker  (Museo  Botanico  de  Cordoba),  Provincia  de 
Corrientes  by  A.  Krapovickas  (started  in  1979),  the  Chaco  by  A.  Digilio  and  the  Pampa  by 
G.  Covas.  A  1984  checklist  of  1538  native  genera  is  also  referred  to. 

See  also: 
14 


Argentina 

Boelcke,  O.,  Moore,  D.M.  and  Roig,  F.A.  (1985).  La  Transecta  Botdnica  de  Patagonia 
Austral.  CONICET,  Buenos  Aires.  (Vegetation,  floristics,  geology,  human  impact 
and  climate  for  the  Atlantic  to  Pacific  Oceans  between  51°  and  52°S.;  includes 
2-sheet  vegetation  map;  shorter  English  version  being  prepared  for  Phil.  Trans. 
(London),  1985-6.) 

Cabrera,  A.  and  Ferrario,  M.  (1970).  Bibliografia  Botdnica  de  la  Provincia  de  Buenos 
Aires,  Plantas  Vasculares.  Comision  de  Investigaciones  Cienti'ficas,  Buenos  Aires. 
96  pp. 

Descole,  H.R.  (1943-1956).  Genera  et  Species  Plantarum  Argentinarum.  Instituto 
Miguel  Lillo.  5  vols,  few  families  published. 

Dimitri,  M.J.  (1972).  La  Region  de  los  Bosques  Andino-Patagonicos.  Coleccion 
Cientifica  del  INTA,  Buenos  Aires. 

Moore,  D.M.  (1983).  Flora  of  Tierra  del  Fuego.  Nelson,  U.K.,  and  Missouri  Botanical 
Garden.  396  pp.  (545  species,  3%  endemic;  illus.,  dot  maps.) 

Seckt,  H.  (1929-1930).  Flora  Cordobensis.  Universidad  Nacional,  Cordoba.  632  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  The 
following  articles  and  papers  contain  information  on  threatened  plants: 

Endangered  and  Threatened  Plants  in  the  Republic  of  Argentina.  Botanic  Garden 

Journal  of  the  Polish  Academy  of  Sciences,  Warsaw.  (Not  seen.) 
Pingitore,  E.J.  (1976).  The  Republic  of  Argentina  tree  ferns.  Los  Angeles  Int.  Fern 

Soc.  3(10):  198-203;  3(11):  222-225;  3(12):  246-249.  (Includes  list  of  8  Endangered 

and  2  Rare  species.) 
Pingitore,  E.J.  (1981).  Especies  vegetales  en  vfas  de  extincion  de  la  Repiiblica 

Argentina.  Sociedad  Horticola  Argentina  37:  10-13.  (Tentative  list  of  69  threatened 

species.) 
Pingitore,  E.J.  (1982).  Especies  interesantes  de  La  Tierra  del  Fuego  e  Islas  del 

Antarctico  Sur.  Bol.  Soc.  Hort.  Argentina  38:  10-12.  (Tentative  list  of  38  threatened 

species.) 
Pingitore,  E.J.  (1983).  Rare  palms  in  Argentina.  Principes  26(1):  9-18.  (10  native 

palms,  7  listed  as  rare.) 
Prance,  G.T.  and  EUas,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  A. 

Cabrera  on  endangered  plants  of  Argentina,  pp.  245-247;  E.  de  la  Sota  on 

endangered  plants  and  communities,  pp.  240-244;  J.  Mickel  on  endangered 

pteridophytes,  pp.  323-328;  P.  Ravenna  on  threatened  bulbous  plants,  pp.  257-266. 

Lists  of  threatened  plants  and  plant  communities,  arranged  by  region,  are  given  in 
Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited  in  Appendix  1 .  24  plants  are  listed  in 
the  Annex  to  the  Convention  on  Nature  Protection  and  Wildlife  Preservation  in  the 
Western  Hemisphere  (1940). 


Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  information.  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined 
cupressoidesy  co 
Endangered  Species  Act. 


Fitzroya  cupressoides.  confined  to  Chile  and  Argentina,  as  'Threatened'  under  the  U.S 


Voluntary  Organizations 

Associacion  Natura,  25  de  Mayo  749,  1°  Piso,  Buenos  Aires. 

Centro  de  Ecologia  y  Recursos  Naturales  Renovables,  Universidad  Nacional  de 

Cordoba,  C.C.  395,  5000  Cordoba. 
Comite  Argentino  de  Conservacion  de  la  Naturaleza,  Avenida  Santa  Fe  1145,  Buenos 

Aires. 


15 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Institute  de  Investigaciones  de  las  Zonas  Aridas  y  Semidridas,  Parque  Gral,  San 
Martin,  Mendoza. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Departamento  de  Botanica  Agricola,  Institute  Nacidnal  de  Tecnologia  Agropecuaria, 

1712  Castelar,  Provincia  Buenos  Aires. 
Jardin  Agrobotanico  de  Santa  Catalina,  Institute  Fototecnico  de  Santa  Catalina, 

Llavallol,  FNGR. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Carlos  Thays",  Institute  Municipal  de  Botanica,  Av.  Santa  Fe  3951, 

1425  Buenos  Aires. 
Jardin  Botanico  de  la  Facultad  de  Agronomia  y  Veterinaria,  Av.  San  Martin  4453, 

1417  Buenos  Aires. 

An  account  of  Argentinian  botanic  gardens  is  given  in: 

Sota,  E.  de  la  (1979).  Argentina:  the  conservation  of  endemic  and  threatened  plant 
species  within  botanic  gardens.  In  Synge,  H.  and  Townsend,  H.  (Eds),  Survival  or 
Extinction.  Bentham-Moxon  Trust,  Kew.  Pp.  95-99. 

Useful  Addresses 

Fundacion  Vida  Silvestre  Argentina,  Leandro  N.  Alem  968,  1001  Capital  Federal, 

Buenos  Aires. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Direccion  Nacional  de  Fauna  Silvestre, 

Paseo  Colon  922-2°,  Piso  Oficina  201,  1063  Buenos  Aires;  also  (Scientific  Authority 

only)  Museo  Argentine  de  Ciencias  Naturales  "Bernardino  Rivadavia",  Avenida 

Angel  Gallardo  470,  1405  Buenos  Aires. 

Additional  References 

Cabrera,  A.L.  (1972).  Estado  actual  del  conocimiento  de  la  Flora  Argentina.  Mem.  I 

Congreso  Latinoamericano  de  Botanica.  Pp.  183-197.  (Not  seen.) 
Cabrera,  A.L.  (Ed.)  (1977).  Evolucion  de  las  Ciencias  en  la  Reptiblica  Argentina. 

1923-1972.  Tomo  VI.  Botanica.  Sociedad  Cientifica  Argentina.  (Not  seen.) 
Grassi,  N.  (Ed.)  (1982).  Conservacidn  Natural  en  la  Rep.  Argentina.  Simposio  de  las 

XVIII  Jornadas  Argentinas  de  Botanica.  Tucuman.  130  pp. 
La  vegetacion  de  la  Republica  Argentina  (1951-1968).  Various  authors.  9  fascicles 

reported.  INTA,  Series  Fitogeografica.  Buenos  Aires. 


Ascension  Island 


A  barren  volcanic  island  of  94  sq.  km  in  the  South  Atlantic,  c.  1300  km  north-west  of  St 
Helena,  7°57'S  14°22'W.  About  1050  residents,  plus  about  450  military  personnel.  An 
Island  Dependency  of  St  Helena,  itself  a  Dependent  Territory  of  the  U.K.  The  highest 
point  is  the  peak  on  the  east/west  ridge  of  Green  Mountain  (860  m).  Flora  of  about  25 
native  vascular  plants;  these  include  6  endemic  fern  species  and  5  endemic  flowering  plant 
species;  of  these  1  is  Extinct,  5  Endangered,  4  Rare  and  1  Insufficiently  Known.  About  300 
plants  introduced  deliberately  or  by  accident;  also  goats,  rabbits,  donkeys,  sheep.  The 
status  of  the  endemics  is  outlined  in  detail  in: 

Cronk,  Q.C.B.  (1980).  Extinction  and  survival  in  the  endemic  vascular  flora  of 
Ascension  Island.  Biol.  Conserv.  17(3):  207-219. 

16 


Ascension  Island 
Other  useful  references: 

Atkins,  F.B.,  Baker,  P.E.,  Bell,  J.D.  and  Smith,  D.G.W.  (1964).  Oxford  Expedition  to 

Ascension  Island,  1964.  Nature  204:  722-724. 
Duffey,  E.  (1964).  The  terrestrial  ecology  of  Ascension  Island.  J.  Appl.  Ecol.  1: 

219-251.  (Maps;  includes  outline  of  such  vegetation  as  exists  and  assesses  the  impact 

of  man.) 
Packer,  J.E.  (1974).  Ascension  Handbook:  a  concise  guide  to  Ascension  island,  south 

Atlantic,  2nd  Ed.  (1st  Ed.,  1968).  Published  privately,  Georgetown.  Unpaginated, 

but  1st  Ed.  68  pp.  (Includes  a  checklist  of  the  flora,  with  line  drawings.) 
Rudmose  Brown,  R.N.  (1906).  Contributions  towards  the  botany  of  Ascension.  Trans. 

Bat.  Soc.  Edinburgh.  23:  199-204. 


Auckland  Islands 


An  outlying  island  group  of  New  Zealand,  comprising  7  uninhabited  volcanic  islands  in 
the  Pacific  subantarctic.  Total  land  area  of  625  sq.  km  of  which  Auckland,  the  largest 
island,  is  464  sq.  km.  187  native  flowering  plant  taxa,  including  6  endemics.  The 
vegetation,  which  has  been  modified  by  introduced  goats,  cattle,  sheep,  pigs  and  rabbits, 
includes  coastal  Metrosideros  forest,  scrub  and  grassland  on  higher  ground  and,  above 
500  m,  exposed  peatland.  Adams  Island  was  declared  a  Nature  Reserve  in  1910;  the  rest  of 
the  Auckland  Islands  were  included  in  the  reserve  in  1934.  There  is  a  programme  to  reduce 
the  numbers  of  introduced  mammals  (Clark  and  Dingwall,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

The  Auckland  Islands  are  included  in  the  Flora  of  New  Zealand  (1961,  1970,  1980),  cited 
under  New  Zealand. 

For  information  on  threatened  plants,  see  Given  (1981a),  cited  under  New  Zealand.  Latest 
lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  R:l;  non-endemic  taxa  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  - 
V:l,  R:4  (world  categories). 

Additional  References 

Godley,  E.J.  (1969).  Additions  and  corrections  to  the  flora  of  the  Auckland  and 

Campbell  Islands.  N.Z.  J.  Bot.  7:  336-348.  (Covers  45  taxa.) 
Johnson,  P.N.  and  Campbell,  D.J.  (1975).  Vascular  plants  of  the  Auckland  Islands. 

N.Z.  J.  Bot.  13:  665-720.  (Annotated  checklist  of  257  taxa  including  adventives.) 


Australia 

Area  7,682,300  sq.  km 

Population  15,519,000 

Floristics  c.  18,000  known  native  vascular  plant  species  with  an  estimated  7000 
yet  to  be  named  or  recorded  {Flora  of  Australia,  1981-  ).  80%  species  endemism;  over  500 
endemic  genera.  Species-rich  areas  include  the  Cape  York  Peninsula  of  northern 
Queensland,  the  South-Western  Province  and  the  Coolgardie  region  of  Western  Australia, 

17 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

the  northern  part  of  Northern  Territory,  the  coastal  regions  of  N.S.W.,  north-east 
Victoria  and  the  Central  Tablelands. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  desert  (receiving  less  than  250  mm  mean  annual 
rainfall)  and  semi-desert  (250-500  mm  rainfall).  There  are  2  extremely  arid  regions  -  the 
Nullarbor  Plain  in  the  south,  and  the  Lake  Eyre  Basin/Simpson  Desert  in  central 
Australia.  Acacia  and  Eucalyptus  shrublands  cover  20%  of  Australia,  mainly  in  centre  and 
west;  Mitchell  Grass  plains,  dominated  by  Astrebla,  cover  vast  areas  of  the  north, 
extending  into  northern  N.S.W.;  Kangaroo  Grass  {Themeda  australis)  grassland  in  south- 
east, extensively  modified  for  grazing;  heathland  in  south,  west  and  parts  of  Queensland 
and  Tasmania,  much  has  been  cleared  or  drained  (Leigh,  Boden  and  Briggs,  1984);  alpine 
communities  in  Tasmania,  Victoria  and  N.S.W.  (Beadle,  1981);  open  forests,  dominated 
by  Eucalyptus,  Callitris  and  Melaleuca,  cover  large  areas  of  inland  Australia,  from  the 
Kimberleys  in  Western  Australia,  extending  across  the  north  to  Queensland  and  west  of 
the  Great  Dividing  Range  in  N.S.W. ;  open  forests  of  Eucalyptus,  Acacia  and  Casuarina, 
in  south-west  Western  Australia,  Northern  Territory  to  Queensland,  Cape  York  to 
Victoria  and  Tasmania;  cool  temperate  rain  forest  dominated  by  Nothofagus  in  Victoria, 
N.S.W.  and  Tasmania;  subtropical  and  temperate  rain  forest  mixtures  in  N.S.W.  and 
outliers  in  north  Queensland;  subtropical  rain  forest  in  south  Queensland  and  north  New 
South  Wales,  in  places  .educed  to  small  pockets;  tropical  rain  forest  and  tropical  monsoon 
forest  in  northern  Australia. 

c.  20,000  sq.  km  of  all  types  of  rain  forest  remain,  out  of  an  estimated  80,000  sq.  km  prior 
to  European  settlement.  Clearing  of  forests  continuing,  mainly  for  agriculture,  grazing 
and  forest  plantations;  nearly  all  subtropical  lowland  forests  destroyed  and  only  a  few 
thousand  hectares  of  tropical  lowland  forest  remain  (Groves,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Bentham,  G.  (1863-1878)  Flora  Australiensis:  A  Description  of  the  Plants  of  the 
Australian  Territory,  1  vols.  Reeve,  London.  (Reprinted  1967  by  Asher  and  Reeve, 
Amsterdam.) 

Flora  of  Australia  (1981-  ).  60  vols  (including  non-vascular  plants)  to  be  published  over 
a  20-year  period.  Co-ordinated  and  edited  by  the  Bureau  of  Flora  and  Fauna, 
Department  of  Arts,  Heritage  and  Environment.  Australian  Government  Publishing 
Service,  Canberra.  (5  vols  published  so  far.  1  -  Introduction,  origin  and  evolution, 
keys  to  families;  4  -  Phytolaccaceae  to  Chenopodiaceae,  5  families;  8  - 
Lecythidaceae  to  Bataceae,  19  families;  22  -  Rhizophoraceae  to  Celastraceae,  17 
families;  29  -  Solanaceae.) 

Checklists  of  large  genera  and  families  include: 

Chippendale,  G.M.  and  Wolf,  L.  (1981).  The  Natural  Distribution  of  Eucalyptus  in 

Australia.  Australian  National  Parks  and  Wildlife  Service  Special  Publication  no.  6. 

192  pp.  (Checklist  of  550  taxa,  grid  maps  showing  distributions.) 
Clements,  M.A.  (1982).  Preliminary  Checklist  of  Australian  Orchidaceae.  National 

Botanic  Gardens,  Canberra.  216  pp.  (List  of  over  600  accepted  species  names,  with 

synonyms.) 
Jones,  D.L.  and  Clemensha,  S.C.  (1981).  Australian  Ferns  and  Fern  Allies,  2nd  Ed. 

Reed,  Sydney. 

There  are  many  Floras  at  State  and  regional  level;  only  a  selection  are  cited  here.  For  a 
comprehensive  bibliography  see  Leigh,  Boden  and  Briggs  (1984)  and  the  Flora  of 
Australia,  1  (1981). 

18 


Australia 

Bailey,  F.M.  (1899-1905).  The  Queensland  Flora  with  Plates  Illustrating  Some  Rare 

Species.  Brisbane.  (6  parts,  General  Index.) 
Beadle,  N.C.W.,  Evans,  O.D.,  Carolin,  R.C.  and  Tindale,  M.D.  (1982).  Flora  of  the 

Sydney  Region,  3rd  Ed.  Reed,  Sydney.  724  pp.  (Covers  coastal  N.S.W.;  with  line 

drawings  and  colour  illus.) 
Black,  J.M.  (1943-1957).  Flora  of  South  Australia,  2nd  Ed.,  4  parts.  Govt  Printer, 

Adelaide.  (Part  1  -  Lycopodiaceae  to  Orchidaceae  has  been  revised  and  edited  by 

J. P.  Jessop,  1978,  Woolman,  Adelaide.  A  Supplement  to  the  Flora  by  H.  Eichler 

has  been  published  by  the  Govt  Printer,  Adelaide,  1965.) 
Burbidge,  N.T.  and  Gray,  M.  (1970).  Flora  of  the  Australian  Capital  Territory. 

Australian  National  Univ.  Press,  Canberra.  447  pp.  (Includes  outline  of  vegetation 

of  southern  Tablelands;  with  line  drawings.) 
Curtis,  W.M.  (1956-1979).  Student's  Flora  of  Tasmania,  parts  1-4,  4A.  Govt  Printer, 

Hobart. 
Ewart,  A.J.  and  Davies,  O.B.  (1917).  The  Flora  of  the  Northern  Territory.  Govt 

Printer,  Melbourne.  387  pp.  (Annotated  list  with  keys.) 
Flora  of  New  South  Wales  (1961-1978).  National  Herbarium  of  New  South  Wales. 

(Discontinued;  covers  ferns,  gymnosperms  and  16  flowering  plant  families,  including 

grasses.  Prior  to  1971  published  as  a  'Flora  Series'  in  Contributions  from  the  New 

South  Wales  National  Herbarium.) 
Green,  J.W.  (1981).  Census  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  Western  Australia.  Western 

Australian  Herbarium,  South  Perth.  113  pp.  (Checklist  of  ferns,  gymnosperms  and 

angiosperms.) 
Jacobs,  S.W.L.  and  Pickard,  J.  (1981).  Plants  of  New  South  Wales:  A  Census  of  the 

Cycads,  Conifers  and  Angiosperms.  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Sydney.  226  pp. 

(Checklist  of  c.  6000  taxa,  distributions  indicated.) 
Jessop,  J. P.  (Ed.)  (1981).  Flora  of  Central  Australia.  Reed,  Sydney.  (Includes  c.  2000 

species.) 
Jessop,  J. P.  (Ed.)  (1983).  A  List  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  South  Australia.  Adelaide 

Botanic  Gardens,  State  Herbarium  and  Dept  of  Environment  and  Planning.  87  pp. 

(Checklist  of  accepted  names  and  synonyms.) 
Stanley,  T.D.  and  Ross,  E.M.  (1983- ).  Flora  of  South-eastern  Queensland.  Dept  of 

Primary  Industries,  Brisbane.  545  pp.  (3  vols  projected;  1  -  keys  to  dicotyledon 

families,  treatments  of  79  flowering  plant  families,  1983;  2  &  3  -  in  prep.) 
Willis,  J.H.  (1962,  1972).  A  Handbook  to  Plants  in  Victoria,  2  vols.  University  Press, 

Melbourne.  (1  -  Ferns,  conifers,  monocotyledons;  2  -  dicotyledons.) 

Field-guides 

Blombery,  A.M.  (1977).  Australian  Native  Plants.  Angus  and  Robertson,  Sydney. 

481  pp.  (Keys  to  genera,  line  drawings  and  descriptions  of  selected  plants.) 
Francis,  W.D.  (1970).  Australian  Rain-forest  Trees,  3rd  Ed.  Australian  Govt  Publ. 

Service,  Canberra.  468  pp.  (Keys,  descriptions  and  field  characters  of  mainly 

subtropical  trees,  covering  mainly  eastern  Australia.) 
Galbraith,  J.  (1977).  A  Field  Guide  to  the  Wild  Flowers  of  South-East  Australia. 

Collins,  Sydney.  450  pp.  (Includes  temperate  regions  of  N.S.W.,  Victoria, 

Tasmania,  S.  Australia  and  Queensland.) 
Grieve,  B.J.  and  Blackall,  W.E.  (1954-1975).  How  to  Know  Western  Australian 

Wildflowers:  A  Key  to  the  Flora  of  the  Temperate  Regions  of  Western  Australia, 

4  parts.  Univ.  of  Western  Australia  Press,  Nedlands. 
Harris,  T.Y.  (1979).  Wild  Flowers  of  Australia,  8th  Ed.  Angus  and  Robertson,  Sydney. 

207  pp.  (Keys  to  families,  over  250  species  illustrated  in  colour.) 

19 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Hodgson,  M.  and  Paine,  R.  (1971).  A  Field  Guide  to  Australian  Wild/lowers.  Rigby, 

Adelaide.  251  pp. 
HoUiday,  1.  and  Hill,  R.  (1974).  A  Field  Guide  to  Australian  Trees.  Rigby,  Adelaide. 

229  pp.  (Revised  edition.) 
Holliday,  I.  and  Walton,  G.  (1975).  A  Field  Guide  to  Banksias.  Rigby,  Adelaide. 

141  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  national  list  of  threatened  Australian 
plants  has  been  revised  twice;  the  first  version  was  Specht  et  al.  (1974),  the  second  Hartley 
and  Leigh  (1979)  and  the  third  Leigh  e/  o/.  (1981). 

Hartley,  W.  and  Leigh,  J.  (1979).  Plants  at  Risk  in  Australia.  Australian  National 

Parks  and  Wildlife  Service  Occ.  Paper  no.  3.  Canberra.  (Provisional  list  of  2053 

plants  at  risk.) 
Leigh,  J.,  Briggs  J.,  and  Hartley,  W.  (1981).  Rare  or  Threatened  Australian  Plants. 

Australian  National  Parks  and  Wildlife  Service  Special  Publication  no.  7,  Canberra. 

178  pp.  (2206  species  listed  as  rare  or  threatened.  Separate  lists  for  Lord  Howe, 

Macquarie,  Norfolk,  Philip  and  Christmas  Islands;  briefly  reviewed  in  Threatened 

Plants  Committee  Newsletter  No.  9:  18,  1982.) 
Specht,  R.L.,  Roe,  E.M.  and  Boughton,  V.H.  (Eds)  (1974).  Conservation  of  Major 

Plant  Communities  in  Australia  and  Papua  New  Guinea.  Australian  J.  Bot.  Supp. 

Series  7.  667  pp.  (Detailed  assessment  of  conservation  status  of  all  the  major  plant 

communities  and  species  under  threat  in  each  State.) 

Also  relevant: 

Good,  R.B.  and  Leigh,  J.H.  (1983).  The  criteria  for  assessment  of  rare  plant 

conservation.  In  Given,  D.R.  (Ed.),  Conservation  of  Plant  Species  and  Habitats. 

Nature  Conservation  Council,  Wellington,  N.Z.  Pp.  5-28. 
Leigh,  J.  and  Boden,  R.  (1979).  Australian  Flora  in  the  Endangered  Species 

Convention  -  CITES.  Australian  National  Parks  and  Wildlife  Service  Special 

Publication  no.  3,  Canberra.  93  pp.  (Checklist  of  taxa  covered  then  by  CITES;  Hst 

has  since  been  revised;  reviewed  and  outlined  in  Threatened  Plants  Committee 

Newsletter  No.  1:  19-20,  1981.) 
Leigh,  J.,  Boden,  R.  and  Briggs,  J.  (1984).  Extinct  and  Endangered  Plants  of 

Australia.  Macmillan,  Melbourne.  369  pp.  (Includes  detailed  case  studies  of  76 

species  presumed  extinct  and  203  which  are  endangered.) 
Parsons,  R.F.,  Scarlett,  N.H.  and  Stuwe,  J.  (1981).  A  register  of  rare  and  endangered 

native  plants  in  Victoria.  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Newsletter  No.  7:  22-23. 

(Outline  of  a  project  to  survey  and  document  rare  and  threatened  plants.) 
Pryor,  L.D.  (1981).  Australian  Endangered  Species:  Eucalypts.  Australian  National 

Parks  and  Wildlife  Service  Special  Publication  no.  5,  Canberra.  139  pp.  (Data 

sheets,  maps  and  photographs  of  124  species  at  risk.) 

A  number  of  State  lists  of  threatened  plants  have  also  been  produced,  including: 

Rye,  B.L.  (1982).  Geographically  Restricted  Plants  of  Southern  Western  Australia. 

Report  no.  49.  Dept  of  Fisheries  and  Wildlife,  Perth.  63  pp. 
Rye,  B.L.  and  Hopper,  S.D.  (1981).  A  Guide  to  the  Gazetted  Rare  Flora  of  Western 

Australia.  Report  no.  42.  Dept  of  Fisheries  and  Wildlife,  Perth.  211  pp. 

A  series  of  illustrated  data  sheets  entitled  Rare  Western  Australian  Plants  has  been 
prepared  by  B.L.  Rye  for  the  Department  of  Fisheries  and  Wildlife,  Perth,  in  1982.  (8 
seen;  notes  on  ecology,  conservation  measures;  dot  maps.) 

20 


Australia 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  total  rare  and  threatened  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:  117,  E:215,  V:570, 
R:812,  1:2,  K:505,  nt:  not  known;  of  these,  statistics  for  State  endemic  taxa  are  -  Ex:  110, 
E:196,  V:503,  R:716,  1:2,  K:467,  nt:  not  known. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  There  is  legislation  in  each  State  and  Territory  for  the 
protection  of  flora.  Legislation  is  the  most  detailed  in  Western  Australia,  where  128 
species  are  listed  as  'Protected  Flora'  under  the  Wildlife  Conservation  Act  Amendment 
Act  1979  of  Western  Australia.  65  of  them  are  orchids.  A  further  100  taxa  have  been  listed 
as  'Rare  Flora'  which  are  considered  to  be  in  danger  of  extinction,  rare  or  otherwise  in 
need  of  special  protection;  they  can  be  taken  from  the  wild  only  with  the  approval  of  the 
Minister  for  Fisheries  and  Wildlife.  In  Victoria  the  flora  legislation  is  administered  by  the 
Forestry  Commission  while  in  all  other  States  and  Territories  it  is  administered  by  the 
relevant  nature  conservation  agency. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Australian  Conservation  Foundation,  672B  Glenferrie  Road,  Hawthorn,  Victoria  3122. 

Australian  Flora  Foundation,  c/o  Botanic  Gardens,  Adelaide. 

Society  for  Growing  Australian  Plants,  c/o  The  Editor  'Australian  Plants',  860  Henry 

Lawson  Drive,  Picnic  Point,  N.S.W.  2213. 
Tropical  Rainforest  Society,  Box  5918  CMC,  Cairns  4870,  Queensland. 
WWF-Australia,  Level  17,  St  Martins  Tower,  31  Market  Street,  Sydney,  N.S.W.  2000. 

Botanic  Gardens  Many;  for  full  list  see  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
See  also: 

Royal  Australian  Institute  of  Parks  and  Recreation  (1984).  A  Report  on  the  Collection 
of  Native  Plants  in  Australian  Botanic  Gardens  and  Arboreta.  Canberra.  69  pp. 
(Lists  55  botanic  gardens  and  arboreta  growing  native  plants,  with  details  of  area, 
important  plant  groups  in  cultivation,  and  potential  for  extending  collections.) 

The  principal  botanic  gardens  include: 

Adelaide  Botanic  Garden,  North  Terrace,  Adelaide,  S.  Australia  5000. 
Australian  National  Botanic  Gardens,  P.O.  Box  158,  Canberra,  A.C.T.  2601. 
Kings  Park  and  Botanic  Garden,  Kings  Park  Road,  West  Perth  6005,  W.  Australia. 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Mrs  Macquaries  Road,  Sydney,  New  South  Wales  2000. 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens  of  Melbourne,  Birdwood  Avenue,  South  Yarra,  Victoria  3141. 
Royal  Tasmanian  Botanic  Gardens,  Queen's  Domain,  Hobart,  Tasmania  7000. 

Useful  Addresses 

Division  of  Plant  Industry,  CSIRO,  P.O.  Box  1600,  Canberra  City,  A.C.T.  2601. 

TRAFFIC  Australia,  P.O.  Box  371,  Manly  2095,  N.S.W. 

Western  Australian  Wildlife  Authority,  Department  of  Fisheries  and  Wildlife,  108 

Adelaide  Terrace,  Perth,  W.  Australia  6000. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authority:  Australian  National  Parks  and  Wildlife 

Service,  P.O.  Box  636,  Canberra,  A.C.T.  2601. 

The  Council  of  Nature  Conservation  Ministers  (CONCOM)  Working  Group  on 
Endangered  Flora  provides  a  channel  for  enquiries  from  overseas.  The  CONCOM 
Secretariat  is  at  the  Department  of  Arts,  Heritage  and  Environment,  G.P.O.  Box  1252, 
Canberra,  A.C.T.  2601. 

Additional  References 

Beadle,  N.C.W.  (1981).  The  Vegetation  of  Australia.  Cambridge  Univ.  Press.  690  pp. 
Groves,  R.H.  (Ed.)  (1981).  Australian  Vegetation.  Cambridge  Univ.  Press.  449  pp. 

21 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Morley,  B.D.  and  Toelken,  H.R.  (Eds)  (1983).  Flowering  Plants  in  Australia.  Rigby, 
Adelaide.  416  pp.  (Overview  of  more  than  250  flowering  plant  families;  keys  to 
genera;  distribution  maps.) 

Tracey,  J.G.  (1982).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Humid  Tropical  Region  of  North 
Queensland.  CSIRO,  Melbourne.  124  pp. 

For  vegetation  maps  of  Western  Australia  see: 

Beard,  J.S.  et  al.  (1972-  ).  Vegetation  Survey  of  Western  Australia,  1:1.000,000 
Vegetation  Series.  Univ.  of  Western  Australia  Press,  Nedlands.  (1  -  Kimberley;  2 

-  Great  Sandy  Desert;  3  -  Great  Victoria  Desert;  4  -  Nullarbor;  5  -  Pilbara;  6 

-  Murchison;  7  -  Swan  area;  each  map  with  explanatory  notes.) 


Austria 

Area  83,853  sq.  km 

Population  7,489,0(X) 

Floristics  2900-3 1(X)  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  35  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures).  Elements:  Central 
European  (Pannonian),  sub-Mediterranean  and  alpine.  Areas  of  diversity:  alpine 
grasslands  and  dry  steppe  regions  bordering  Hungary  in  the  east. 

Vegetation  Most  remaining  semi-naturai  vegetation  in  west  and  central  Alps  and 
close  to  Hungarian  border  in  far  east.  Central  Alps:  forest  relicts  of  Arolla  Pine  (Pinus 
cembra)  and  European  Larch  (Larix  decidua);  eastern  Alps:  forests  of  beech  and  Norway 
Spruce  (Picea  abies)  with  relict  stands  of  Black  Pine  (Pinus  nigra),  interspersed  with 
meadows,  pastures  and  arable  land.  In  subalpine  zone.  Mountain  Pine  (Pinus  mugo)  and 
alder,  with  alpine  heaths.  On  hills  and  lowlands  north  of  Alps,  patches  of  beech  and 
hornbeam  forests,  amongst  arable  land  and  spruce  plantations.  Some  riverine  forests  with 
poplars;  those  along  Danube  and  March  (Morava)  rivers,  recently  threatened  by 
construction  of  hydro-electric  power  stations.  Eastern  Austria  mainly  arable  with 
vineyards,  but  with  relicts  of  dry  Pannonian  steppe  grassland  and  oak  forests.  Small  sub- 
Mediterranean  influence  in  south  with  Ostrya  carpinifolia  and  Fraxinus  ornus  (M.A. 
Fischer,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Total  tree  cover  39.1%;  permanent  pasture  26.7%  (includes  alpine  grasslands,  meadows 
and  steppe);  arable  20%  (Poore  and  Gryn-Ambroes,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  For  maps 
of  vegetation  and  phytogeography  see  Wagner  (1971). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Austria  is  covered  by  the  3  regional  Floras,  Flora 
Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980),  Illustrierte Flora  von  Mitteleuropa  (Hegi,  1935- ),  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1  and  Flora  von  Deutschland  und  seinen  Angrenzenden  Gebieten 
(Schmeil  and  Fitschen,  1976,  cited  under  F.R.G.).  No  modern  national  Flora,  but  see: 

Fritsch,  K.  (1922).  Exkursionsflora  fUr  Osterreich  und  die  Ehemals  Osterreichischen 
Nachbargebiete,  3rd  Ed.  C.  Ceroid,  Wien.  824  pp.  (Includes  adjacent  countries,  but 
excludes  the  Province  of  Burgenland  in  eastern  Austria;  reprinted  1973  by  Cramer, 
Liechtenstein.) 

For  a  modern  national  checklist  see: 
22 


Austria 

Janchen,  E.  (1956-1967).  Catalogus  Florae  Austriae,  1  vol.  and  4  supplements. 

Springer-Verlag,  Wien. 
Janchen,  E.  (1977).  Flora  von  Wien,  Niederosterreich  and  Nordburgenland,  2nd  Ed. 

Verein  fur  Landeskunde  von  Niederosterreich  und  Wien,  Wien.  757  pp. 

See  also: 

Dalla  Torre,  K.W.  and  Sarnthein,  L.G.  von  (1900-1913).  Flora  von  Tirol,  Vorarlberg 

und  Liechtenstein,  6  vols.  Wagner'schen  Univ.,  Innsbruck. 
Hayek,  A.  von.  (1908-1956).  Flora  von  Steiermark,  2  vols.  Gebr.  Borntraeger,  Berlin 

and  Naturwissenschaftlichen  Verein  fur  Steiermark,  Graz. 

For  bibliographies  see  Hamann  and  Wagenitz  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and: 

Ehrendorfer,  F.,  Fiirnkranz,  D.,  Gutermann,  W.  and  Niklfeld,  H.  (1974).  Fortschritte 
der  Gefasspflanzensystematik,  Floristik  und  Vegetationskunde  in  Osterreich, 
1961-1971.  Verh.  Zool.-Bot.  Ges.  Wien.  114:  63-143. 

Relevant  journal:  Linzer  Biologische  Beitrage,   Linz.   (Formerly  Mitt.   Bot.   Arbeits- 
gemeinschaft  am  Oberosterreichischen  Landesmuseum,  Linz.) 

Field-guides  See  Oberdorfer  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and: 

Hegi,  G.,  Merxmiiller,  H.  and  Reisigl,  H.  (1977).  Alpenflora.  Die  Wichtigeren 

Alpenpflanzen  Bayerns,  Osterreichs  und  der  Schweiz.  Parey,  Berlin.  194  pp. 

(Introduction  includes  ecological  descriptions  of  plant  communities;  lists  protected 

plants;  maps;  illus.) 
Hopflinger,  F.  and  Schliefsteiner,  H.  (1981).  NaturfUhrer  Osterreich.  Styria,  Graz. 

480  pp.  (Flora  and  fauna;  colour  illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  National  threatened  plant  list: 

Niklfeld,  H.  and  Karrer,  G.  (in  prep.).  Rote  Liste  Gefahrdeter  Pflanzen  Osterreichs. 
Bundesministerium  ftir  Gesundheit  und  Umweltschutz,  Wien. 

See  also: 

Kux,  S.,  Kasperowski-Schmid,  E.  and  Katzmann,  W.  (1981).  Naturschutz  - 
Empfehlungen  zur  Umweltgestaltung  und  Umweltpflege  II.  Osterreichisches 
Bundesinstitut  fiir  Gesundheitswesen,  Wien.  125  pp.  (Includes  principles  and 
problems  of  nature  conservation  and  countryside  management;  species  protection; 
habitat  protection;  lists  threatened  animals,  plants  and  protected  areas;  illus.) 

There  are  threatened  plant  lists  for  4  of  the  9  Provinces  -  Burgenland,  Karnten,  Salzburg 
and  Steiermark: 

Bach,  H.  (1978).  Karntner  Naturschutzhandbuch,  Vol.  1.  Kartner,  Klagenfurt.  779  pp. 
(Includes  threatened  and  protected  plants,  and  threatened  habitats  in  the  Province  of 
Karnten;  illus.) 

Traxler,  G.  (1978).  Verschollene  und  gefahrdete  Gefasspflanzen  im  Burgenland:  Rote 
Liste  bedrohter  Gefasspflanzen  (Extinct  and  endangered  vascular  plants  in 
Burgenland:  Red  list  of  threatened  vascular  plants).  Natur  und  Umwelt  im 
Burgenland  1:  1-24.  (Lists  619  regionally  threatened  flowering  plants  in  Burgenland; 
conservation  categories  similar  but  not  identical  to  those  of  lUCN.) 

Traxler,  G.  (1980-1982,  1984).  Zur  Roten  Liste  der  Gefasspflanzen  des  Burgenlandes. 
Nachtrage,  Erganzungen  und  Berichtigungen  (l)-(IV),  (About  the  Red  List  of 
vascular  plants  in  Burgenland.  Additions,  completions  and  corrections  (I)-(IV).) 

23 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Natur  und  Umwelt  im  Burgenland  3(1):  9-14;  4(1):  22-25;  5(112):  3,4  and  Volk  und 

Heimat  (1984)  3:  42-43. 
Traxler,  G.  (1982).  Liste  der  Gefasspflanzen  des  Burgenlandes  (List  of  vascular  plants 

in  the  Burgenland).  Veroffent.  Internat.  Clusius-Forschungsges.  Giissing  6:  1-32. 

(Checklist;  includes  conservation  categories.) 
Weiskirchner,  O.  (1979).  Rote  Liste  Bedrohter  Farn-  und  Bliitenpflanzen  in  Salzburg 

(Red  List  of  Threatened  Ferns  and  Flowering  plants  in  Salzburg).  Amt  d.  Salzburger 

Landesregierung,  Naturschutzreferat,  Salzburg.  41  pp.  (Lists  c.  720  taxa.) 
Zimmermann,  A.  and  Kniely,  G.  (1980).  Liste  verschollener  und  gefahrdeter  Farn-  und 

Bliitenpflanzen  fiir  die  Steiermark  (List  of  missing  and  endangered  ferns  and 

flowering  plants  for  Steiermark).  Mitt.  Inst.  Umweltwiss.  Naturschutz  3:  3-29.  (Lists 

over  540  taxa  including  not  threatened  endemics.) 
Zimmermann,  A.,  Kniely,  G.,  Maurer,  W.  and  Melzer,  H.  (in  prep.).  Atlas  zur  Liste 

Verschollener  und  Gefahrdeter  Farn-  und  Bliitenpflanzen  fiir  die  Steiermark.  Graz. 

(Distribution  maps  of  species  treated  in  Zimmermann  and  Kniely,  1980.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  V:l,  R:7,  1:1, 
K:6,  nt:20;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  Ex:l,  E:l,  V:17,  R:9,  1:5  (world 
categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  federal  legislation  for  plant  species  protection,  but 
150  taxa  are  protected  by  laws  and  ordinances  issued  by  each  of  the  9  Provinces.  Within 
each  Province  (Bundesland)  there  are  4  levels  of  protection;  outlined  in  Kux  et  al.  (1981) 
above.  This  supercedes  the  earlier  publication: 

Plank,  S.  (1975).  Gesetzlich  Geschtitzte  Pflanzen  in  Osterreich.  Ludwig  Boltzmann- 
Institut  fur  Umweltwissenschaften  und  Naturschutz,  Graz.  50  pp. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Osterreichischer  Naturschutzbund  (ONB),  Haus  der  Natur,  5010  Salzburg.  (National 
Headquarters  of  the  9  Nature  Protection  Associations  of  the  respective  Provinces.) 

WWF- Austria  (Osterreichischer  Stiftverband  fur  Naturschutz),  Ottakringer  Str.  120, 
Postfach  1,  1162  Wien. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Alpengarten  Franz  Mayr-Melnhof,  8130  Frohnleiten. 

Alpengarten  im  Oberen  Belvedere  (Verwaltung  der  Bundesgarten),  Prinz-Eugen-Strasse 

27,  1030  Wien  111. 
Botanischer  Garten  des  Landes  Karnten,  Klinkstrasse  6,  9020  Klagenfurt. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  fiir  Bodenkultur,  Gregor-Mendel-Strasse  33,  1180 

Wien. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Graz,  Holteigasse  6,  8010  Graz. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Innsbruck,  Sternwartestrasse  15,  6020  Innsbruck. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Wien,  Rennweg  14,  1030  Wien. 
Botanischer  Garten  und  Arboretum  der  Stadt  Linz,  Bancalariweg  41,  4020  Linz. 
Schlosspark  Schonbrunn,  Verwaltung  der  Bundesgarten,  Schonbrunn,  1130  Wien. 

Useful  Addresses 

Institut  fiir  Botanik  und  Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Wien,  Rennweg  14,  1030 

Wien. 
Institut  fur  Umweltwissenschaften  und  Naturschutz,  Osterreichischen  Akademie  der 

Wissenschaften,  Heinrichstrasse  5,  8010  Graz. 

24 


Austria 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Bundesministerium  fur  Handel,  Gewerbe  und 
Industrie,  Abteilung  II/3,  Landstrasser  Hauptstrasse  55-57,  1031  Wien. 

Additional  References 

Fischer,  M.A.  (1976).  Osterreichs  Pflanzenwelt.  Naturgeschichte  Oslerreichs.  104  pp. 

(Vegetation  descriptions;  illus.) 
Gutermann,  W.  and  Niklfeld,  H.  (1974).  Floristic  report  on  Austria  (1961-1971).  Mem. 

Soc.  Brot.  24:  9-23. 
Maurer,  W.  (1981).  Die  Pflanzenwelt  der  Steiermark.  Verlag  fur  Sammler,  Graz. 

147  pp.  (Includes  geology,  climate,  floristics,  vegetation  and  species  case-studies  in 

Steiermark  Province;  photographs;  line  drawings.) 
Niklfeld,  H.  (1973).  Uber  Grundzuge  der  Pflanzenverbreitung  in  Osterreich  und  einigen 

Nachargebieten.  Verh.  Zool.-Bot.  Ges.  113:  53-69. 
Scharfetter,  R.  (1938).  Das  Pflanzenleben  der  Ostalpen.  Wien.  419  pp.  (Survey  of 

vegetation  of  eastern  Alps,  covering  most  of  Austria.) 
Wagner,  H.  (1956).  Die  Pflanzengeographische  Gliederung  Osterreichs.  Mitt.  Geogr. 

Ges.  Wien.  98(1):  78-92. 
Wagner,  H.  (1971).  Natiirliche  Vegetation.  In  Bobek,  H.  (Ed.)  Atlas  der  Republik 

Osterreich.  Map  IV/3.  Osterr.  Akad.  d.  Wissensch.  Freytag-Berndt  and  Artaria. 

(Map  of  potential  natural  vegetation  of  Austria,  1:  100,000,  with  distribution  maps 

for  90  taxa,  including  endemics,  at  1:  3,000,000.) 
Wolkinger,  F.  et  al.  (1981).  Die  Natur-  und  Landschaftsschutz-gebiete  Osterreichs. 

Osterreichische  Gesellschaft  fiir  Natur-  und  Umweltschutz,  Wien. 


Azores 


A  group  of  9  volcanic  islands  (Flores,  Corvo,  Terceira,  Sao  Jorge,  Pico,  Faial,  Graciosa, 
Sao  Miguel  and  Santa  Maria)  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  about  1500  km  from  Lisbon  and  1900 
from  Newfoundland. 

Area  2235  sq.  km 

Population  259,800  (1979  estimate,  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  About  600  native  plants,  55  endemic;  many  introduced  exotics,  some 
harmful  to  the  native  flora  (e.g.  Pittosporum  undulatum  at  low  altitudes). 

Vegetation  Along  the  coast  a  cultivated  zone,  in  which  the  shrub  Myrica  faya  is 
characteristic.  At  500-1350  m  is  a  zone  of  scrub  woodland,  dominated  by  Juniperus  and 
Erica,  with  Laurus,  Ilex  and  other  shrubs  (Sjogren,  1973b).  Laurel  forest  principally 
remains  in  the  Pico  da  Vara  area  on  eastern  Sao  Miguel,  but  also  in  small  areas  on  Pico, 
Faial  and  Sao  Jorge. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Azores  are  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea 
(Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980)  and  the  Flora  of  Macaronesia  checklist,  both  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Also  relevant: 

Fernandes,  A.  and  R.B.  (1980,  1983).  Iconographia  Selecta  Florae  Azoricae.  2  fascicles 
so  far.  Conimbriga.  (Descriptions  and  line  drawings;  only  pteridophytes  and 
gymnosperms  to  date.) 


25 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Franco,  J. A.  (1971-  ).  Nova  Flora  de  Portugal  (Continente  e  Agores).  Sociedade 

Astoria,  Lisboa.  647  pp.  (Incomplete,  1  vol.  to  date:  Lycopodiaceae  to 

Umbelliferae;  covers  mainland  Portugal  and  the  Azores.) 
Hansen,  A.  (1970).  A  Botanical  Bibliography  of  the  Azores.  Copenhagen.  Mimeo. 

(Very  comprehensive.) 
Palhinha,  R.T.  (1966).  Catalogo  das  Plantas  Vasculares  dos  Agores.  Sociedade  de 

Estudos  Agorianas  Afonso  Chaves,  Lisboa.  186  pp.  (Annotated  checklist.) 
Sjogren,  E.  (1973a).  Vascular  plants  new  to  the  Azores  and  to  individual  islands  in  the 

Archipelago.  Bol.  Museu  Municipal  Funchal  11:  94-120.  (New  records  since 

Palhinha's  1966  catalogue.) 

For  a  floristic  study  see: 

Pinto  da  Silva,  A.R.  (1963).  L'etude  de  la  flore  vasculaire  du  Portugal  continental  et 
des  Agores  les  dernieres  annees  (1955-1961).  Webbia  18:  397-412. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  only  known  list  is  that  produced  by  the 
lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980)  for  North  Africa  and  the  Middle 
East,  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  on  this  work:  endemic  taxa  - 
Ex:l,  V:5,  R:18,  1:6,  K:ll,  nt:14;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:l,  R:2 
(world  categories). 

Botanic  Gardens  lUCN/WWF  have  been  asked  by  staff  at  the  University  of  the 
Azores  to  fund  the  creation  of  a  small  botanic  garden  on  Sao  Miguel  in  which  endangered 
plants  would  be  propagated. 

Additional  References 

Pinto  da  Silva,  A.R.  (1975).  L'etat  actuel  des  connaissances  floristiques  et 

taxonomiques  du  Portugal,  de  Madere  et  des  Azores,  en  ce  qui  concerne  les  plantes 

vasculaires.  In  CNRS,  1975,  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  19-28. 
Sjogren,  E.  (1973b).  Recent  changes  in  the  vascular  flora  and  vegetation  of  the  Azores 

Islands.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  13.  453  pp.  (Includes  details  on  414  taxa  of  vascular 

plants.) 
Sjogren,  E.  (1973c).  Conservation  of  natural  plant  communities  on  Madeira  and  in  the 

Azores.  In  Proc.  1  Intern.  Congress  pro  Flora  Macaronesica.  Pp.  148-153.  (Not 

seen.) 
Tutin,  T.G.  (1953).  The  vegetation  of  the  Azores.  J.  Ecol.  41(1):  53-61. 
Tutin,  T.G.  and  Warburg,  E.F.  (1964).  A  vegetagao  dos  Azores.  Agoreana  6:  1-32. 
Virville,  A.D.  de  (1965).  L'endemisme  vegetale  dans  les  lies  Atlantides.  Rev.  Gen.  Bot. 

11  (857):  377-602. 


Bahamas 


A  low-lying  archipelago  in  a  1223  km  long  arc  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  extending  from  the 
coast  of  Florida  on  the  north-west  almost  to  Haiti  on  the  south-east;  30  major  islands,  661 
cays  and  nearly  2400  rocks. 

Area  13,864  sq.  km 

Population  221,000 


26 


Bahamas 

Floristics  1350  species  of  vascular  plants;  121  taxa  (8.83%)  endemic  to  the 
archipelago  (including  Turks  and  Caicos  islands)  (Correll  and  Correll,  1982).  Floristic 
relationships  are  with  Florida,  Cuba,  Hispaniola  and  Yucatan. 

Vegetation  Some  open  pine  forest  on  Grand  Bahama,  Abaco,  New  Providence; 
on  the  so-called  Blackland  soils,  High  and  Low  Coppice  formations,  the  richest  vegetation 
type  in  the  islands,  but  now  greatly  modified  for  agriculture;  on  the  coast,  coppice  on  sand 
soils  and  stunted  trees  and  shrubs  on  flat  elevated  rocks;  some  tidal  flats  and  salt  marshes; 
mangrove  in  protected  locations  of  lee  shores  in  all  the  larger  islands  and  cays.  Vegetation 
severely  modified  on  the  main  islands  (Correll  and  Correll,  1982).  23.2%  forested  (FAO, 
1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Flora  is: 

Correll,  D.S.  and  Correll,  H.B.  (1982).  Flora  of  the  Bahama  Archipelago.  Cramer, 
FL-9490  Vaduz,  Liechtenstein.  1692  pp.  (715  illus.  by  Priscilla  Fawcett;  includes  the 
Turks  and  Caicos  Islands.) 

Also  relevant: 

Britton,  N.  and  Millspaugh,  C.F.  (1920).  The  Bahama  Flora.  Lancaster.  New  Era 
Printing  Co.,  New  York.  695  pp.  (Reprinted  1962,  by  Hafner,  New  York.) 

Patterson,  J.  and  Stevenson,  G.  (1977).  Native  trees  of  the  Bahamas.  Privately 
published.  128  pp.  (Colour  illus.,  map.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  Red  Data  Book.  The  only  known 
reference  is: 

Popenoe,  J.  (1984).  Rare  and  threatened  plants  of  the  Bahamas.  Threatened  Plants 
Newsletter  No.  13:  11.  (Lists  21  species  considered  to  be  rare  or  threatened.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

The  Bahamas  National  Trust,  Nassau. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Fisheries  and  Local 
Government,  P.O.  Box  N-3028,  Nassau. 

Additional  References 

Byrne,  R.  (1980).  Man  and  the  variable  vulnerability  of  island  life:  a  study  of  recent 

vegetation  change  in  the  Bahamas.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  240.  200  pp.  (Illus.,  maps.) 
Campbell,  D.G.  (1978).  The  Ephemeral  Islands:  A  Natural  History  of  the  Bahamas. 

Macmillan  Education  Ltd.,  London.  151  pp. 
Coker,  W.C.  (1905).  Vegetation  of  the  Bahama  Islands.  In  Shattuck,  G.B.,  The 

Bahama  Islands.  Geogr.  Soc.  Baltimore,  John  Hopkins  Univ.  Press.  Pp.  185-270. 
GilHs,  W.T.,  Byrne,  R.  and  Harrison,  W.  (1975).  Bibliography  of  the  natural  history  of 

the  Bahama  Islands.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  191:  1-123. 
Howard,  R.A.  (1950).  Vegetation  of  the  Bimini  Island  group.  Bahamas,  B.W.I.  Ecol. 

Monogr.  20(4):  317-349. 
Taylor,  N.  (1921).  Endemism  in  the  Bahama  flora.  Ann.  Bot.  35:  523-532. 


27 


Bahrain 


A  small  island  sheikdom  of  one  island  with  several  smaller  satellite  islands  c.  30  km  from 
the  coast  of  Saudi  Arabia  about  half  way  down  the  southern  shore  of  the  Persian  Gulf, 
26°N  50°30'E. 

Area  661  sq.  km 

Population  414,000 

Floristics  Flora  small,  no  endemics  known;  according  to  Good  (1955),  unlikely  to 
be  much  over  175  species  of  vascular  plants.  Virgo  (1980)  quotes  collecting  lists  of  between 
70  and  200  species.  Affinities  with  the  flora  of  Iraq. 

Vegetation  Mostly  desert  plant  communities,  with  many  sub-halophytic  species. 
Two  other  localized  communities:  adventive  flora  of  date  gardens  in  cultivated  northern 
part  of  island;  halophytic  vegetation  of  muddy  shores  (salt  marsh  and  mangrove  swamp). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Bellamy,  D.A.  (1984).  Additional  flowering  plants  of  Bahrain.  In  Hill,  M.  and 
Nightingale,  T.  (Eds),  Wildlife  in  Bahrain.  Third  Biennial  Report  of  the  Bahrain 
Natural  History  Society.  Pp.  90-96.  (Additions  to  the  checklist  of  Virgo,  1980;  with 
4  colour  photographs.) 

Good,  R.  (1955).  The  flora  of  Bahrain.  In  Dickson,  V.,  The  Wild  Flowers  of  Kuwait 
and  Bahrain.  Allen  and  Unwin,  London.  Pp.  126-140.  (Includes  account  of 
vegetation  and  checklist  of  vascular  plants.) 

Virgo,  K.J.  (1980).  An  introduction  to  the  vegetation  of  Bahrain.  In  Hallam,  T.J. 
(Ed.),  Wildlife  in  Bahrain.  Bahrain  Natural  History  Society  Annual  Reports  for 
1978-1979,  Bahrain  Natural  History  Society.  Pp.  65-109.  (Includes  an  annotated  and 
illustrated  checklist  of  the  flora.) 

Most  of  the  plants  of  Bahrain  are  included  in  the  Flora  of  Saudi  Arabia  (Migahid,  1978, 
cited  under  Saudi  Arabia).  Descriptions  of  86  plants  recorded,  mostly  from  the  north,  are 
given  in  Virgo  (1980),  see  above. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Bahrain  Natural  History  Society,  P.O.  Box  20336,  Manama. 

Additional  References 

Vesey-Fitzgerald,  D.F.  (1957).  The  vegetation  of  central  and  eastern  Arabia.  J.  Ecol. 

45:  779-798.  (With  four  black  and  white  photographs  and  small-scale  vegetation 

map.) 
Zakis,  M.M.  (Ed.)  (1978).  Comprehensive  Study  of  Plant  Ecology  and  Investigation 

into  Possibility  of  Establishing  a  Botanic  Garden  in  Bahrain.  Univ.  Arab.  States, 

Khartoum.  (In  Arabic;  cited  by  Virgo,  1980.) 


28 


Bangladesh 

Area  143,998  sq.  km 

Population  98,464,000 

Floristics  c.  5000  angiosperm  species  (Khan  and  Huq,  1972).  The  flora  is  mainly 
related  to  that  of  India;  however,  the  flora  of  Chittagong  and  the  Chittagong  Hill  Tracts  is 
more  related  to  that  of  Indo-China  (S.  Khan,  1984,  in  lift.). 

Vegetation  Mostly  low-lying  alluvial  plains  of  the  Ganges  and  Brahmaputra  river 
systems  with  extensive  marsh  and  sedge-land,  much  of  the  plains  under  rice  and  jute 
cultivation.  Tropical  semi-evergreen  rain  forest,  on  Chittagong  hills  in  the  south-east  and 
in  Sylhet;  tropical  moist  semi-evergreen  Sal  (Shorea  robusta)  forest  north  of  Dhaka,  now 
mostly  secondary.  Extensive  mangroves  in  the  Sunderbans  region  at  the  mouth  of  Ganges, 
covering  6000  sq.  km,  the  largest  such  tract  in  the  world  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix 
1).  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forests  80  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
a  total  of  9270  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 
includes  the  tropical  forests  of  Bangladesh  as  "undergoing  broad-scale  conversion  at  rapid 
rates"  and  predicts  little  forest  could  be  left  "by  1990  if  not  earlier". 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Datta,  R.N.  and  Mitra,  J.N.  (1953).  Common  plants  in  and  around  Dacca.  Bull.  Bot. 

Soc.  Bengal  7:  1-110.  (Keys  and  descriptions  of  plants  found  in  16  km  radius  from 

Dhaka.) 
Khan,  S.  and  Huq,  A.M.  (Eds)  (1972).  Flora  of  Bangladesh.  Bangladesh  Agric.  Res. 

Council,  Dhaka.  (27  fascicles  to  date  covering  34  small  families;  no.  4  includes  notes 

on  vegetation  types.) 
Prain,  D.  (1903).  Bengal  Plants,  2  vols.  Calcutta.  (Reprinted  by  Botanical  Survey  of 

India,  Calcutta,  1963.) 
Prain,  D.  (1903).  Flora  of  the  Sundribuns.  Rec.  Bot.  Survey  India  2:  231-370. 

Bangladesh  is  also  covered  by  the  Flora  of  British  India  (Hooker,  1872-1897),  cited  in 
Appendix  1 .  For  ferns  see  Beddome  (1892)  and  the  companion  volume  by  Nayar  and  Kaur 
(1972),  both  of  which  are  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  lUCN  has  a  preliminary  list  of  35  threatened 
plants,  prepared  in  1984  by  S.  Khan,  Bangladesh  National  Herbarium. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Baldah  Garden,  Wari,  Dhaka. 
Mirpur  Botanic  Garden,  Dhaka. 

Useful  Addresses 

Bangladesh  National  Herbarium,  229  Green  Road,  Dhaka. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Chief  Conservator  of  Forests,  Government  of 
Bangladesh,  Bana  Bhaban,  Gulshan  Road,  Mohakhali,  Dhaka- 12. 


29 


Barbados 


Barbados,  33.8  km  long  and  22.5  km  broad,  is  the  most  easterly  of  the  Caribbean  islands. 
It  is  low-lying,  coral  and  fertile,  with  a  dense  population  and  intensively  cultivated  for 
sugar  cane. 

Area  430  sq.  km 

Population  262,000 

Floristics  c.  700  native  species,  6  endemic;  over  10,000  introduced  species  and 
hybrids,  many  of  which  have  become  naturalized  (National  Conservation  Commission, 
1984,  pers.  comm.). 

Vegetation  Almost  the  entire  island  has  been  modified  for  cultivation,  grazing 
and  development;  a  few  patches  of  coastal  woodland  remain  as  do  a  few  isolated  areas  of 
mangrove  swamp  vegetation  at  Graeme  Hall  and  St  Lawrence;  the  greatest  variety  of 
plants  on  Barbados  are  in  steep  clefts  in  the  upper  coralline  levels  (the  Gullies);  sparse 
climbing  xerophytic  vegetation  on  rocky  land  and  inland  cliffs;  dune  vegetation  of  grass 
and  sandy  bushland  of  low  shrub  and  trees  nearly  to  the  sea. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  Leeward  and 
Windward  Islands  (only  monocotyledons  and  ferns  published  so  far;  Howard,  1974- ), 
and  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica.  (Both  are  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  The  Island's  Flora  is: 

Gooding,  E.G.B.,  Loveless,  A.R.  and  Proctor,  G.R.  (1965).  Flora  of  Barbados. 
H.M.S.O.,  London.  486  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Caribbean  Conservation  Association,  Savannah  Lodge,  The  Garrison,  St  Michael. 
National  Conservation  Commission,  Codrington  House,  P.O.  Box  807E,  St  Michael. 
The  Barbados  National  Trust,  Ronald  Tree  House,  No.  2,  10th  Avenue,  Belleville, 
St  Michael. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Andromeda  Gardens,  St  Joseph. 
Farley  Hill  National  Park,  St  Peter. 
Welchman  Hall  Gully,  St  Thomas. 

Useful  Addresses 

The  Bellairs  Research  Institute,  McGill  University,  St  James. 

Additional  References 

Gooding,  E.G.B.  (1974).  The  Plant  Communities  of  Barbados.  Ministry  of  Education, 
Barbados.  243  pp. 


30 


Belgium 

Area   30,519  sq.  km 

Population   9,877,000 

Floristics  1600-1800  native  vascular  plant  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb 
(1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  c.  1300  according  to  J. -P.  d'Huart  {in 
lift.,  1984).    One  extinct  endemic  (lUCN  figure). 

Vegetation  Little  natural  vegetation.  Relicts  of  acid  oakwoods  and  oak/beech- 
woods  with  birch  in  the  north  and  east.  In  central  Belgium  original  beechwoods  now 
largely  replaced  by  agriculture  but  with  occasional  patches  of  coppiced  oak  and  hornbeam. 
Dry  grassland  drastically  reduced;  remaining  pockets  in  south  and  east  on  sandy  and 
calcareous  soils.  Some  extensive  areas  of  raised  bog  and  moor  survive  in  the  east.  Salt- 
marshes  and  dunes,  once  extensive  along  north  coast,  have  almost  completely  been 
destroyed. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al., 
1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Selected  national  and  regional  Floras: 

De  Langhe,  J.-E.  et  al.  (1983).  Nouvelle  Flore  de  la  Belgique,  du  Grand-Duche  de 
Luxembourg,  du  Nord  de  la  France  et  des  Regions  Voisines,  3rd  Ed.  Jardin 
Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Meise.  1100  pp.  (Ferns  and  flowering  plants.) 

Robyns,  W.  (Ed.)  (1950- ).  Flore  Generate  de  Belgique,  several  parts.  Ministere  de 
I'Agriculture,  Jardin  Botanique  de  L'Etat,  Rruxelles.  (Incomplete;  ferns, 
gymnosperms,  angiosperms  to  Thymelaeaceae,  by  A.  Lawalree;  maps;  illus.) 

Atlas: 

Rompaey,  E.  van  and  Delvosalle,  L.  (1978-1979).  Atlas  de  la  flore  Beige  et 
Luxembourgeoise,  Pteridophtyes  et  Spermatophytes,  2nd  Ed.,  2  vols.  Jardin 
Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Bruxelles.  116  pp;  293  pp;  1542  maps.  (Distribution 
maps  of  majority  of  Belgian  vascular  plants,  except  the  most  widespread;  4  sq.  km 
grid  and  explanatory  text.) 

National  botanical  journal:  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  Royale  de  Botanique  de  Belgique, 
Brussels. 

Field-guides 

De  Sloover,  J.  and  Goossens,  M.  (1981).  Guide  des  Herbes  Sauvages.  Duculot, 

Gembloux.  217  pp. 
Tercafs,  R.  and  Thiernesse,  E.  (1978).  Guide  Nature  de  I'Ardenne.  Duculot, 

Gembloux.  400  pp. 

See  also:  Fitter,  Fitter  and  Blamey  (1974),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  One  of  the  first  countries  to  publish  a  national 
plant  Red  Data  Book: 

Delvosalle,  L.,  Demaret,  F.,  Lambinon,  J.  and  Lawalree,  A.  (1969).  Plantes  Rares, 
Disparues  ou  Menacees  de  Disparition  en  Belgique:  L  'Appauvrissement  de  la  Flore 
Indigene.  Ministere  de  I'Agriculture,  Service  des  Reserves  Naturelles  domaniales  et 
de  la  Conservation  de  la  Nature,  No.  4.  129  pp.  (Lists  over  300  extinct  and 
threatened  vascular  plants,  and  148  threatened  bryophytes;  describes  threats  to  the 
flora;  maps.) 

31 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 
Other  references: 

D'Hose,  R.  and  De  Langhe,  J.E.  (1974-  ).  Nieuwe  Groeiplaatsen  van  zeldzame  Planten 
in  Belgie  (New  locations  of  rare  plants  in  Belgium).  Bull.  Soc.  Roy.  Bot.  Belg. 
107(1):  107-114.  (Numerous  papers  in  Dutch,  starting  with  that  given.) 

Delvosalle,  L.  and  Vanhecke,  L.  (1982).  Essai  du  notation  quantitative  de  la  rarefaction 
d'especes  aquatiques  et  palustres  en  Belgique  entre  1960  et  1980.  In  Symoens,  J. J., 
Hooper,  S.S.  and  Compere,  P.  (Eds),  Studies  on  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants, 
Proceedings  of  the  International  Colloquium  on  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  23-25 
January  1981,  Brussels.  Societe  Royale  de  Botanique  de  Belgique,  Brussels. 
Pp.  403-409.  (Quantifies  the  decline  of  aquatic  and  marsh  plants  using  floristical 
data  gathered  by  the  Institut  Floristique  Belgo-Luxembourgeois.) 

Lawalree,  A.  (1971).  L'appauvrissement  de  la  flore  beige.  Bull.  Jard.  Bot.  Nat.  Belg. 
41:  167-171. 

Petit,  J.  (1979).  Chromique  de  la  Montagne  Saint-Pierre:  2.  Un  liste  rouge  de  plantes 
menacees.  Rev.   Vervietoise  Hist.  Nat.  36(7-9):  54-57. 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l;  non- 
endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:2,  V:5,  R:2,  1:1  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  includes  data  sheets  on  4  Endangered  plants  in  Belgium. 

In  spring  1984  WWF-Belgium  launched  a  national  Plants  Campaign  in  the  Jardin 
Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Meise,  as  part  of  their  contribution  to  the  International 
lUCN/WWF  Plants  Programme  1984-85.  Further  details  available  from  WWF-Belgium 
and  the  Garden  (addresses  below). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  National  legislation  in  1976  (Arrete  royal  du  16  fevrier 
1976  relatif  aux  mesures  de  protection  en  faveur  de  certaines  especes  vegetales  croissant  a 
I'etat  sauvage)  provides  complete  protection  for  45  plant  taxa  and  all  Lycopodiaceae. 
Partial  protection  is  given  to  a  further  22  species  and  selected  genera  and  families.  For 
details  see: 

l^awalree,  A.  (1981).  Plantes  sauvages  protegees  en  Belgique.  Jardin  Botanique 

National  de  Belgique,  Meise.  32  pp.  (Describes  habitats  and  threats  of  64  protected 
species;  colour  photographs.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Societe  Royale  de  Botanique  de  Belgique,  Domaine  de  Bouchout,  1860  Meise. 
WWF-Belgium,  Chaussee  de  Waterloo  608,  1060  Brussels. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Arboretum  Geographique  de  Tervuren,  Administration  de  la  Donation  Royale,  Avenue 

du  Derby  57,  1050  Bruxelles. 
Arboretum  Kalmthout,  Weidestraat  60,  2600  Berchem. 
Jardin  Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Domaine  de  Bouchout,  1860  Meise. 
Jardin  Botanique  de  I'Universite  de  Liege,  Sart  Tilman,  4000  Liege. 
Jardin  Experimental  Jean  Massart,  Universite  Libre  de  Bruxelles,  Chaussee  de  Wavre 

1850,  1160  Bruxelles. 
Plantentuin  der  Rijksuniversiteit,  K.L.  Ledeganckstraat  35,  9000  Gent. 
Station  de  Recherches  des  Eaux  et  Forets,  1990  Groenendaal-Hoeilaart. 

32 


Belgium 

Useful  Addresses 

Centre  d'Education  pour  la  Protection  de  la  Nature,  Rue  de  la  Paix  83,  6168  Chapelle- 

lez  Herlaimont. 
Institut  Royal  des  Sciences  Naturelles  de  Belgique,  Rue  Vautier  31,  1040  Bruxelles. 
Ministere  de  I'Agriculture,  Service  de  la  Protection  des  Vegetaux,  Manhattan  Centre, 

21  Avenue  du  Boulevard,  1000  Brussels. 
TRAFFIC-Belgium,  WWF-Belgium,  see  above. 

Additional  References 

Lawalree,  A.  (1963).  Apergu  sur  I'etude  de  la  flore  vasculaire  de  la  Belgique  depuis 

1945.  Webbia  18:  107-127. 
Lawalree,  A.  (1978).  Introduction  a  la  Flore  de  la  Belgique.  Jardin  Botanique  National 

de  Belgique,  Meise.  67  pp.  (Descriptive  account;  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Noirfalise,  A.  (1971).  La  conservation  des  biocoenoses  en  Belgique.  Bull.  Jard.  Bot. 

Nat.  Belg.  41:  219-230. 
Tanghe,  M.  (1975).  Atlas  de  Belgique:  Phytogeographie  (Commentaire) .  Vaillant- 

Carmanne,  Liege.  75  pp.  (Detailed  vegetation  account  with  line  drawings.) 
Vanden  Berghen,  C.  (1982).  Initiation  a  I'etude  de  la  vegetation,  3rd  Ed.  Jardin 

Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Meise.  263  pp.  134  figs. 
Vanhecke,  L.  and  Charlier,  G.  (1982).  The  regression  of  aquatic  and  marsh  vegetation 

and  habitats  in  the  north  of  Belgium  between  1904  and  1980:  some  photographic 

evidence.  In  Symoens,  J.J.,  Hooper,  S.S.  and  Compere,  P.  (Eds),  Studies  on 

Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Colloquium  on  Aquatic 

Vascular  Plants,  23-25  January  1981,  Brussels.  Societe  Royale  de  Botanique  de 

Belgique,  Brussels.  Pp.  410-411. 


Belize 


Area  22,963  sq.  km 

Population  156,000 

Floristics  Toledo  (1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  from  pubHshed  checklists,  quotes 
3240  species  of  vascular  plants.  (Gentry,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1,  quoting  D.L. 
Spellman,  pers.  comm.,  had  estimated  2500-3000  species.)  150  endemic  species  (lUCN 
figures).  Flora  is  similar  to  that  of  the  Yucatan  peninsula  in  Mexico  and  of  Peten  in 
Guatemala. 

Vegetation  Over  most  of  the  country,  broadleaved  rain  forest;  in  the  northern 
half,  where  rainfall  is  lower,  sometimes  called  semi-  or  quasi-rain  forest;  on  river  banks 
and  in  lowlands  forest  of  Cohune  palm  (Orbignya  cohune)  associated  with  mahogany 
Swietenia  macrophylla,  which  has  been  exploited  almost  to  extinction;  most  of  the  rain 
forest  is  secondary  due  to  effect  of  Mayan  and  present  civilizations  (D'Arcy,  1977);  on  the 
poor  soils  of  the  coastal  plain  and  interior  up  to  1000  m,  savannas  and  pine  forests,  mainly 
of  Pinus  caribaea;  on  the  coast  wet  savannas  and  mangrove.  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  90  sq.  km/annum  out  of  12,570  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981);  this  is  similar  to  the  NAS  estimate  that  "some  11,000  sq.  km  may 
still  support  good-quality  forest,  albeit  subject  to  some  disruption  through  light-impact 
timber  harvesting"  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

33 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras  Belize  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericana  Project, 
described  in  Appendix  1 ,  and  by  the  completed  Flora  of  Guatemala  and  related  articles  in 
Fieldiana  (cited  under  Guatemala),  as  well  as  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of 
Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  Country  Floras  and  checklists  are: 

Dwyer,  J.D.  and  Spellman,  D.L.  (1981).  A  list  of  the  Dicotyledoneae  of  Belize. 
Rhodora  83:  161-236. 

Spellman,  D.L.,  Dwyer,  J.D.  and  Davidse,  G.  (1975).  A  list  of  the  Monocotyledoneae 
of  Belize  including  a  historical  introduction  to  plant  collection  in  Belize.  Rhodora 
77(809):  105-140.  (Collections  since  1959  with  annotations  for  new  country  records.) 

Standley,  P.C.  and  Record,  S.J.  (1936).  The  forests  and  flora  of  British  Honduras. 
Field  Mas.  Nat.  Hist.,  Bot.  Ser.  12:  1-432.  (Description  of  forest  types  and 
annotated  species  list;  1981  angiosperms  and  gymnosperms,  134  pteridophytes.) 

Williams,  L.O.  (1956).  An  enumeration  of  the  Orchidaceae  of  Central  America,  British 
Honduras,  and  Panama.  Ceiba  5:  1-256.  (List  of  97  species  from  Belize.) 

See  also: 

Carnegie  Institute  of  Washington  (1936-1940).  Botany  of  the  Maya  Region: 

Miscellaneous  Papers  1-21.  Washington,  D.C.  2  vols.  802  pp. 
Fosberg,  F.R.,  Stoddart,  D.R.,  Sachet,  M.-H.  and  Spellman,  D.L.  (1982).  Plants  of 

the  Belize  Cays.  Atoll  Research  Bull.  258.  77  pp.  (Annotated  checklist  of  182  species 

of  vascular  plants.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN  is 
preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  list  of  rare, 
threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this 
work:  endemic  taxa  -  R:6,  1:1,  K:141,  nt:2;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  - 
E:l,  V:5,  R:6,  L6  (world  categories). 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  W.G. 
D'Arcy  on  endangered  landscapes  in  the  region  (pp.  89-104)  and  J.T.  Mickel  on  rare 
and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Belize  Audubon  Society,  P.O.  Box  101,  Belmopan.  (Membership  includes 
knowledgeable  botanists.) 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  implementation:  Chief  Forest  Officer,  Department  of  Forestry,  Ministry  of 
Natural  Resources,  Belmopan.  (Note:  Belize  adheres  to  CITES,  but  is  not 
considered  a  Party  because  it  has  not  separately  ratified  the  Convention  since 
independence  from  the  U.K.  in  1981.) 

Additional  References 

Hartshorn,  G.  et  al.  (1984).  Belize:  Country  Environmental  Profile.  R.  Nicolait  & 
Assoc,  Belize  City.  2  parts  -  Executive  Summary  (8  pp.)  and  Field  Study  (151  pp.). 
(Latter  contains  list  of  tree  species  by  G.  Hartshorn  (pp.  146-151)  derived  from 
works  cited  under  Floras  and  Checklists,  above,  augmented  by  personal 
observations.) 

Lundell,  C.L.  (1945).  The  vegetation  and  natural  resources  of  British  Honduras.  In 
Verdoorn,  F.  (Ed.)  (1945),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  270-273.  (Includes  vegetation 
map.) 

34 


Belize 

Romney,  D.H.  (Ed.)  (1959).  Land  in  British  Honduras.  Colonial  Research  Publications 
no.  24,  HMSO,  London.  327  pp. 

Benin 

Area  112,622  sq.  km 

Population  3,890,000 

Floristics  c.  2000  species  (H.  Ern,  1984,  in  litt.)\  11  endemic  (Brenan,  1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1). 

Floristic  affinities  predominantly  Sudanian;  in  southernmost  third  of  country  affinities 
Sudanian  and  Guinea-Congolian. 

Vegetation  Mostly  Sudanian  woodland  with  Isoberlinia,  with  a  small  area  of 
Sudanian  woodland  without  characteristic  dominants  in  extreme  north,  and,  in  the  south, 
lowland  rain  forest  interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cuhivation.  In  eastern  Benin 
there  is  semi-deciduous  rain  forest,  but  this  is  now  represented  only  by  some  very  small 
reserves.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  12  sq.  km/annum 
out  of  470  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Benin  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa, 
cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hedberg,  I.  (Ed.)  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Benin,  pp.  91-92,  by  E.J. 
Adjanohoun,  contains  48  species  threatened  in  Benin:  E:10,  V:20,  R:18.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  13  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  no 
categories  given. 

Botanic  Gardens 

University  Botanic  Garden,  Abomey-Calavi,  near  Cotonou. 

Useful  Addresses 

Ministere  du  Developpement  Rural  et  de  I'Environnement,  Cotonou. 
Universite  Nationale  du  Benin,  Herbier  National  du  Benin,  B.P.  526,  Cotonou. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Direction  des  Eaux,  Forets  et  Chasse, 
Ministere  des  Fermes  d'Etat,  d'Elevage  et  de  la  Peche,  B.P.  393,  Cotonou. 

Additional  References 

Adjakidje,  V.  (1984).  Contribution  a  I'etude  botanique  des  savanes  guineennes  de  la 

Republique  Populaire  du  Benin.  Unpublished  thesis.  University  of  Bordeaux. 
Adjanohoun,  E.  (1968).  Le  Dahomey.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix 

1.  Pp.  86-91. 
Akoegninou,  A.  (1984).  Contribution  a  I'etude  botanique  des  ilots  de  forets  denses 

humides  semi-decidues  en  Republique  Populaire  du  Benin.  Unpublished  thesis. 

University  of  Bordeaux. 
Aubreville,  A.  (1937).  Les  forets  du  Dahomey  et  du  Togo.  Bull.  Com.  Etud.  Hist. 

Sclent.  Afr.  Occid.  Fr.  20.  112  pp.  (With  18  black  and  white  photographs.) 

35 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Paradis,  G.  (1983).  A  phytogeographic  survey  of  southern  Benin.  In  Killick,  D.J.B. 
(1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  579-585. 


Bermuda 


The  Bermudas  or  Somers  islands  comprise  1(X)  small  limestone  islands,  c.  20  of  them 
inhabited,  in  the  west  of  the  Atlantic  Ocean,  917  km  east  of  the  coast  of  North  Carolina, 
U.S.A.  They  are  a  self-governing  dependent  territory  of  the  United  Kingdom. 

Area  54  sq.  km 

Population  54,670 

Floristics  146  native  species  of  flowering  plants  and  19  species  of  ferns,  with 
8.7<Vo  endemism  (Britton,  1918).  17  endemic  species  recorded  by  B.  PhilHps,  see  below. 
Affinities  with  both  the  Old  World  Tropics  and  the  Neotropics. 

Vegetation  Most  of  the  vegetation  has  been  modified;  only  small  areas  of  natural 
vegetation  remain,  e.g.  Paget  and  Devonshire  marsh  and  the  upland  hills  of  Castle 
Harbour  and  Walsingham.  Originally  the  endemic  Bermuda  Cedar  (Juniperus 
bermudiana)  was  dominant,  but  96%  of  its  population  was  devastated  by  an  introduced 
scale  insect  in  1942.  A  few  mature  trees  survived  and  pockets  of  young  Bermuda  cedars  are 
re-emerging  in  protected  areas.  To  compensate,  many  exotic  trees  and  shrubs  were 
introduced  in  the  1950s  and  1960s.  Areas  of  protected  mangroves  exist  in  tidal  inlets  and 
around  some  sheltered  bays.  (B.  Phillips,  1984,  in  litt.) 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Britton,  N.  (1918).  Flora  of  Bermuda.  Scribners,  New  York.  585  pp.  (Illustrations  and 
list  of  endemic  species.) 

Field-guides 
Curtis,  E.W.  (1978).  Bermuda  -  a  floral  sampler.  Privately  published.  54  pp.  (Includes 
note  on  conservation,  drawn  illus.,  photographs.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  has  one  data 
sheet  for  Bermuda,  on  Juniperus  bermudiana.  In  1981,  B.  Phillips,  of  the  Bermuda 
Department  of  Agriculture,  prepared  a  set  of  data  sheets  on  30  Bermudan  plants,  17 
endemic,  2  of  them  mosses. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Tree  Preservation  Orders  and  Woodland  Preservation 
Orders  are  used  to  protect  areas  of  natural  beauty  or  specimen  trees.  All  remaining 
mangroves  are  so  protected. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Bermuda  Aquarium,  Natural  History  Museum  and  Zoo  (BAMZ),  Conservation 

Volunteers,  P.O.  Box  FL  145,  Flatts,  Smith's  3. 
Bermuda  National  Trust,  P.O.  Box  61,  Hamilton  5. 
Walsingham  Trust,  Hamilton  Paris. 

Botanic  Gardens 

The  Bermuda  Botanical  Gardens,  Point  Finger  Road,  Paget  East. 


36 


Bermuda 


Useful  Addresses 

Conservation  Officer,  Department  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries,  P.O.  Box  834, 
Hamilton  5. 

Additional  References 

Hayward,  S.J.,  Gomez,  V.H.  and  Sterrer,  W.  (Eds)  (1981).  Bermuda's  delicate 
balance:  People  and  environment.  The  Bermuda  National  Trust.  402  pp. 


Bhutan 

Area  46,620  sq.  km 

Population  1,388,000 

Floristics  Provisional  estimate  of  5000  vascular  plant  species  (D.  Long,  1984,  in 
lift.).  Country  endemism  very  low,  but  10-15%  endemic  to  Eastern  Himalayas.  The 
subtropical  flora  has  affinities  with  that  of  S.E.  Asia,  the  temperate  flora  with  that  of 
China  and  Japan;  Tibetan  and  Euro-Siberian  species  are  also  present  (Grierson  and  Long, 
1983). 

Vegetation  Tropical  semi-evergreen  forests  in  lowlands,  temperate  forests  and 
scrub  at  high  altitudes.  Subtropical  and  tropical  moist  deciduous  forests  predominantly  of 
Sal  (Shorea  robusta)  on  southern  foothills  of  Himalayas  at  200-1000  m,  almost  totally 
destroyed  at  low  altitudes;  warm  temperate  broadleaved  forest  at  1000-2000  m  (some 
cleared  for  agriculture  and  timber);  xerophytic  Chir  Pine  (Pinus  roxburghii)  forest  in  deep 
dry  valleys  at  900-1800  m;  cool  temperate  broadleaved  forest  at  2000-2900  m  with 
evergreen  Quercus  and  Castanopsis  in  drier  areas,  replaced  by  mixed  forest  in  wetter  areas; 
evergreen  oak  forest  in  central  Bhutan,  especially  around  Tongsa  and  on  the  hills  above 
Mongar,  between  1800-2600  m;  various  types  of  coniferous  forests  to  3800  m; 
juniper/rhododendron  scrub  and  dry  alpine  scrub  up  to  4600  m  (Grierson  and  Long, 
1983).  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forests  10  sq.  km/annum  out 
of  a  total  of  14,900  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Most  clearance  has  taken  place  in  the  rich 
subtropical  belt  (Long,  in  litt.). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Bhutan  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  Eastern  Himalaya 
(1966-  )  and  the  Flora  of  British  India  (Hooker,  1872-1879),  both  of  which  are  cited  in 
Appendix  1. 

Grierson,  A.J.C.  and  Long,  D.G.  (1980).  A  Provisional  Checklist  of  the  Trees  and 
Major  Shrubs  (Excluding  Woody  Climbers)  of  Bhutan  and  Sikkim.  Royal  Botanic 
Garden,  Edinburgh.  51  pp. 

Grierson,  A.J.C.  and  Long,  D.G.  (1983-  ).  Flora  of  Bhutan:  Including  a  Record  of 
Plants  from  Sikkim.  Royal  Botanic  Garden,  Edinburgh.  (2  parts  so  far.  Vol.  1(1)  - 
vegetation,  phytogeography,  botanical  bibliography  of  Bhutan  and  Sikkim; 
taxonomic  treatments  of  all  gymnosperms  and  16  angiosperm  families  from 
Myricaceae  to  Polygonaceae;  1(2)  -  Phytolaccaceae-Moringaceae,  40  families.) 

Subramanyam,  K.  (Ed.)  (1983).  Materials  for  the  Flora  of  Bhutan.  Records  Bot. 
Survey  India  22(2).  278  pp.  (Enumeration  of  c.  200  vascular  plants;  notes  on 
distribution,  uses.) 


37 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

There  is  additional  information  on  the  Bhutan  flora,  with  newly  described  species,  in  the 
series  'Notes  relating  to  the  flora  of  Bhutan'  in  Notes  Royal  Botanic  Garden,  Edinburgh. 
Published  parts  -  36:  139-150  (1978);  37:  341-354  (1979);  38:  297-310  (1980);  38:  311-314 
(1980);  40:  115-138  (1982). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None,  except  for: 

Sahni,  K.C.  (1979).  Endemic,  relict,  primitive  and  spectacular  taxa  in  eastern 
Himalayan  flora  and  strategies  for  their  conservation.  Indian  J.  Forestry  2(2): 
181-190.  (Mentions  30  taxa  rare  or  threatened  in  the  Himalayan  region,  including 
Bhutan;  notes  on  vegetation.) 

Additional  References  For  useful  background  information  on  the  Himalayan 
region  see  Lall  and  Moddie  (1981),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 


Bismarck  Archipelago 


The  Bismarck  Archipelago,  politically  a  part  of  Papua  New  Guinea,  is  situated  east  of  the 
island  of  New  Guinea,  in  the  Bismarck  Sea,  south-west  Pacific  Ocean.  The  Bismarcks 
comprise  volcanic  islands,  raised  coral  islands  and  low  coral  reefs.  Area  49,658  sq.  km  (of 
which  New  Britain,  the  largest  island,  is  36,5(X)  sq.  km). 

The  vegetation  consists  of  lowland  tropical  rain  forest,  extensive  on  New  Britain;  the  lower 
limit  of  montane  rain  forest  is  900  m  (Whitmore,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  Nothofagus 
abundant  between  1500-2800  m,  in  parts  of  central  New  Britain  and  eastern  New  Ireland; 
swamp  forests  with  Campnosperma  and  Terminalia  on  coastal  north-central  New  Britain; 
mangroves  in  north  New  Britain,  New  Ireland  and  New  Hanover.  Atoll/beach  forest  and 
large  areas  of  coastal  grasslands  on  New  Britain.  Bamboo  and  cloud  forest  probably 
present  (Dahl,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

The  Bismarck  Archipelago  is  included  on  the  Vegetation  Map  of  Malaysia  (van  Steenis, 
1958)  and  on  the  vegetation  map  of  Malesia  (Whitmore,  1984),  both  covering  the  Flora 
Malesiana  region  at  scale  1:5,000,000  and  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

No  recent  figure  for  size  of  flora.  No  information  on  threatened  plants. 

References 

Peekel,  G.  E.  (1947).  lUustrierte  Flora  des  Bismarck-Archipels  fur  Naturfreunde. 

(Unpublished  ms,  Lae.) 
Schumann,  K.  and  Lauterbach,  K.  (1901,  1905).  Die  Flora  der  Deutschen  Schutzgebiete 

in  der  Siidsee,  2  vols.  Leipzig.  (Also  covers  north-east  New  Guinea;  in  German.) 
Wagner,  W.H.,  Jr.  and  Grether,  D.F.  (1948).  The  pteridophytes  of  the  Admiralty 

Islands.  Univ.  Calif.  Publ.  Bot.  23(2):  17-110.  (Keys,  annotated  enumeration, 

mainly  covering  Manus  Island,  with  notes  on  localities,  habitats,  frequency.) 


38 


Bolivia 

Based  upon  material  by  J.C.  Solomon 

Area  1,098,575  sq.  km 

Population  6,200,000 

Floristics  Estimated  at  15,000  to  18,000  species,  of  which  about  9000  recorded  so 
far,  reflecting  the  great  diversity  of  vegetation  in  Bolivia  (J.C.  Solomon,  1984,  pers. 
comm.).  Probably  the  least  collected  country  in  South  America  (Prance,  1977).  Floristic 
affinities  with  neighbouring  countries:  the  upland  Central  Andean  flora  with  Peru  and 
Chile,  the  north-east  flora  with  Brazilian  Amazonia,  the  Pampus  with  Argentina,  and  the 
Chaco  with  Paraguay.  Endemism  uncertain  but  likely  to  be  highest  in  the  eastern  Andean 
slopes  (Yungas)  and  interior  valleys  (Solomon,  pers.  comm.). 

Vegetation  The  Andes,  stretching  down  western  Bolivia,  fall  into  three  regions: 
the  western  Cordilleras  (adjoining  the  Atacama  Desert  of  Chile  and  Peru)  with  high  alpine 
vegetation;  the  eastern  Cordilleras,  similar  alpine  vegetation  but  interspersed  with 
temperate  valleys;  between  them,  at  3400-4300  m,  cold  semi-arid  steppe  (the  Altiplano) 
dominated  by  low  puna  grassland  with  low  shrubs,  the  northern  part  mostly  cultivated.  On 
the  eastern  flanks  of  the  Eastern  Cordilleras  are  very  steep  valleys  with  montane  moist  to 
pluvial  forest  and  cloud  forest  (the  Yungas);  further  south  subtropical  evergreen  forest 
(the  Tucumano-Boliviana  forest);  both  these  vegetation  types  lead  into  the  evergreen 
seasonal  lowland  forest  of  the  north-east,  abutting  Brazilian  Amazonia;  this  extends 
650,(X)0  sq.  km  (9.1%  of  the  total  Amazon  forest)  (Unesco,  1981,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  In 
Santa  Cruz  (south-central  Bolivia)  are  Pampas;  in  the  south-east  corner  is  the  impenetrable 
thorn  scrub  and  swamp  of  the  Chaco  Boreal,  the  northernmost  part  of  the  Gran  Chaco  of 
Argentina  and  Paraguay.  In  the  extreme  east  this  abuts  the  Pantanal  of  Brazil  and 
Paraguay. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  870  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
440,100  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Bolivia  is  covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of 
Flora  Neotropica,  described  in  Appendix  1.  Country  accounts  include: 

Adolfo,  H.  (1962,  1966).  Plantas  del  valle  de  Cochabamba.  Editorial  Canelas, 

Cochabamba.  2  fascicles. 
Foster,  R.C.  (1958).  A  catalogue  of  the  ferns  and  flowering  plants  of  Bolivia.  Contr. 

Gray  Herb.  184:  1-223.  (196  families  hsted.) 
Foster,  R.C.  (1966).  Studies  in  the  Flora  of  Bolivia  -  IV.  Gramineae.  Rhodora  68: 

97-120,  223-358. 
Hitchcock,  A.S.  (1927).  The  grasses  of  Ecuador,  Peru  and  Bohvia.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat. 

Herb.  24(8):  291-556.     \ 
Kempff,  N.  (1976).  Flora  Amazonica  Boliviana.  Academia  Nacional  de  Ciencias  de 

Bolivia,  La  Paz.  71  pp. 
Standley,  P.C.  (1931).  The  Rubiaceae  of  Bolivia.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  Bot.  Ser.  7(3): 

255-339. 
Vasquez,  R.  and  Dodson,  C.  (1982).  Orchids  of  Bolivia.  Icones  Plantarum  Tropicarum 

6:  501-600.  (Descriptions,  illustrations,  dot  maps.) 

The  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  and  the  Bolivian  Academy  of  Sciences,  through  the 
Bolivian  National  Museum  of  Natural  History,  began  a  long-term  floristic  study  of  Bolivia 

39 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

in  1981.  The  first  phases  are  a  3-year  survey  of  two  valleys  above  1000  m  in  the  Yungas 
near  La  Paz  and  an  inventory  of  the  Tariquia  Podocarpus  forest. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Four  species  are  listed  as  threatened  in 
Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  whereas  a  further  9 
are  listed  in  the  annex  to  the  Convention  on  Nature  Protection  and  Wildlife  Preservation 
in  the  Western  Hemisphere  (1940).  Also  relevant: 

Ravenna,  P.  (1977).  Neotropical  species  threatened  and  endangered  by  human  activity 
in  Iridaceae,  Amaryllidaceae  and  allied  bulbous  families.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias, 
T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  257-266. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Ley  General  Forestal  de  la  Nacion  (Decreto  22686  of  13 
August  1974),  which  covers  the  management  and  exploitation  of  forest  resources  and 
provided  for  the  creation  of  the  Centre  Desarrollo  Forestal  (CDF)  to  administer  Bolivian 
forestry,  contains  provisions  that  relate  to  forest  inventories  as  well  as  to  the  creation  of 
protected  areas  (Solomon,  pers.  comm.). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Asociacion  Boliviana  Pro-Defensa  de  la  Naturaleza  (PRODENA),  Casilla  989,  La  Paz. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardi'n  Botanico  de  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Sierra,  Casilla  123,  Santa  Cruz. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Martin  Cardenas",  Casilla  538,  Cochabamba. 

Useful  Addresses 

Herbario  Nacional  de  Bolivia,  Cajon  Postal  20127,  La  Paz. 

Museo  Nacional  de  Historia  Natural,  Casilla  5829,  La  Paz. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministerio  de  Asuntos  Campesinos  y  Agropecuarios, 
Centro  de  Desarrollo  Forestal,  Jefatura  Nacional  de  Vida  Silvestre,  Parques 
Nacionales,  Caza  y  Pesca,  Av.  Camacho  1471  6°  Piso,  Casilla  de  Correa  No.  1862, 
La  Paz. 

Additional  References 

Aliaga  de  Vizcarra,  I.  (1978).  Bibliografia  Boliviana  de  Recursos  Vegetales.  Academia 

Nacional  de  Ciencias  de  Bolivia,  La  Paz.  14  pp. 
Beck,  S.  (1982).  Inventario  y  estudio  de  la  flora  Boliviana.  Ecologi'a  en  Bolivia  1: 

14-21.  (New  journal;  back  cover  contains  simplified  map  of  'ecoregions'  of  Bolivia.) 
Cardenas,  M.  (1969).  Manual  de  Plantas  Economicas  de  Bolivia.  Imprenta  Ichtus, 

Cochabamba.  421  pp.  (Not  seen.) 
Freeman,  P.H.,  Cross,  B.,  Flannery,  R.D.,  Harcharik,  D.A.,  Hartshorn,  G.S., 

Simmonds,  G.  and  Williams,  J.D.  (1980).  Bolivia:  State  of  the  environment  and 

natural  resources,  a  field  study.  US-AID  contract  PDC-C-Q247.  (Unpaged.) 
Herzog,  T.  (1923).  Die  Pflanzenwelt  der  bolivischen  Anden  und  ihres  ostlichen 

Vorlandes.  In  Engler,  A.  and  Drude,  O.  (Eds),  Die  Vegetation  der  Erde,  15. 

Leipzig.  258  pp. 
Prance,  G.  (1977).  Floristic  inventory  of  the  tropics:  Where  do  we  stand?  Ann. 

Missouri  Bot.  Card.  64(4):  659-684. 
Tosi,  J.,  Unzueta,  O.,  Holdridge,  L.  and  Gonzalez,  A.  (1975).  Mapa  Ecologico  de 

Bolivia.  Ministerio  de  Asuntos  Campesinos  y  Agropecuarios,  La  Paz. 
Unzueta,  O.  (1975).  Memoria  Explicativa:  Mapa  Ecologico  de  Bolivia.  Ministerio  de 

Asuntos  Campesinos  y  Agropecuarios,  La  Paz.  312  pp. 

J.C.  Solomon,  at  Missouri  Botanical  Garden,  has  compiled  an  extensive  bibliography  on 
the  botany  of  Bolivia. 

40 


Botswana 

Area  575,000  sq.  km 

Population  1,042,000 

Floristics  Number  of  species  unknown.  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 
estimates  17  endemic  species,  from  a  sample  oi  Flora  Zambesiaca . 

Split  between  Zambezian  (north-eastern  third  of  country),  and  Kalahari-Highveld  regions. 

Vegetation  Mostly  Kalahari  Acacia  wooded  grassland  and  deciduous  bushland 
(south-west),  and  Zambezian  woodland  without  characteristic  dominants  (north-east), 
with  a  wide  transition  band  between  the  two.  In  extreme  south-west  an  area  of  sand-dunes 
with  sparse  grassland  or  wooded  grassland.  The  Okavango  delta  in  the  north  is  occupied 
by  herbaceous  swamp  and  aquatic  vegetation,  while  the  Makarikari  depression  is 
surrounded  by  halophytic  vegetation. 

For  vegetation  maps  see  Wild  and  Barbosa  (1967,  1968),  and  White  (1983),  both  cited  in 
Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Botswana  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  Zambesiaca, 
cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Miller,  O.B.  (1952).  The  Woody  Plants  of  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate.  Reprinted 
from  the  J.  S.  Afr.  Bot.  18.  National  Botanic  Gardens  of  South  Africa, 
Kirstenbosch.  100  pp.  {Corrigenda  in  J.  S.  Afr.  Bot.  19:177-182.)  (Short 
descriptions,  specimen  citations.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hall,  A.V.  et  al.  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Botswana  on  p.  79  contains  15 
non-endemic  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  -  V:l  (regional  category),  R:6,  K:8.) 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authority:  Ministry  of  Agriculture  (Parks  and 
Nature  Conservation),  Private  Bag  (X)3,  Gaborone. 

Additional  References 

Simpson,  CD.  (1975).  A  detailed  vegetation  study  on  the  Chobe  River  in  north-east 

Botswana.  Kirkia  10:  185-227. 
Weare,  P.R.  and  Yalala,  A.  (1971).  Provisional  vegetation  map  of  Botswana.  Botswana 

Notes  Rec.  3:  131-147.  (With  vegetation  map  in  colour.) 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  list  of  relevant  chapters. 
Wild,  H.  (1968).  Bechuanaland  Protectorate.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  198-202. 


Bougainville 


Bougainville  is  an  island  group,  politically  part  of  Papua  New  Guinea,  situated  north-west 
of  the  Solomon  Islands  in  the  south-west  Pacific  Ocean.  Area  10,619  sq.  km;  population 
77,880  (1970  census.  Times  Atlas,  1983).  Bougainville,  the  largest  island,  reaches  2743  m  at 
Mt  Balbis.  Large  areas  in  the  south  have  freshwater  swamp  forests.  Bougainville  also  has 
lowland   ridge  forest,   mixed  lowland  rain   forest,   mangroves,   coastal   forests  (with 

41 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Calophyllum,  Casuarina  and  Terminalia),  secondary  scrub  and  grasslands  (Foreman, 
1971).  No  figure  for  size  of  flora.  No  information  on  threatened  plants. 

References 

Foreman,  D.B.  (1971).  A  Check  List  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  Bougainville  with 
Descriptions  of  Some  Common  Forest  Trees.  Botany  Bull.  no.  5.  Dept  of  Forests, 
Lae.  194  pp.  (List  of  herbarium  specimens;  58  trees  described  with  line  drawings.) 

Heyligers,  P.C.  (1967).  Vegetation  and  ecology  of  Bougainville  and  Buka  Islands. 
CSIRO  Land  Resources  Series  20:  121-145. 

Thorne,  A.  and  Cribb,  P.  (1984).  Orchids  of  the  Solomon  Islands  and  Bougainville:  a 
preliminary  checklist.  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew.  33  pp.  (Compiled  from 
herbarium  and  literature  records  at  Kew.) 


Bounty  Islands 


The  Bounty  Islands  (1.3  sq.  km)  are  an  outlying  island  group  of  New  Zealand,  consisting 
of  about  13  rocky  islets,  stacks  and  wave-lashed  rocks  in  the  Pacific  subantarctic,  at 
47°40'S,  179°10'E.  No  human  interference.  No  vascular  species  (D.  Given,  1984,  m ////.). 


Brazil 

Area  8,511,965  sq.  km 

Population  132,648,000 

Floristics  Prance  (1979)  estimates  over  55,000  species  of  flowering  plants, 
considerably  more  than  any  other  country  in  the  world;  of  these,  25,000  to  30,000  occur 
only  in  Amazonia  (G.  Prance,  pers.  comm.,  quoted  in  Gentry,  1977,  cited  under  Ecuador); 
in  Bahia  alone  there  are  129  genera  and  850-950  species  of  Leguminosae  (G.  Lewis,  1984, 
pers.  comm.). 

Vegetation  The  main  vegetation  types  of  this  vast  country  are  Amazon  rain 
forests,  Caatinga,  Cerrado,  Pantanal  and  Atlantic  coastal  forests. 

The  Brazilian  part  of  the  Amazon  forest  covers  5,057,490  sq.  km  (Prance,  1979),  63%  of 
the  total  Amazon  forest  and  nearly  60%  of  Brazil;  the  largest  extent  of  primary  tropical 
rain  forest  in  the  world  and  botanically  the  least  known  part  of  Brazil;  species  composition 
very  varied;  besides  the  forests  on  high,  non-flooded  ground  ("terra  firme"),  which 
occupies  90%  of  the  area,  are  "savannas,  Amazonian  campinas  on  white  sand,  campina 
...  forests  of  the  upper  Rio  Negro,  swamp  forest,  transition  forest,  and  montane  forest" 
(Prance,  1977). 

In  the  northeast  is  the  caatinga,  a  semi-arid  region  dominated  by  succulents,  drought- 
resistant  deciduous  thorny  trees  and  shrubs.  Central  Brazil  is  mainly  cerrado,  which  varies 
from  dense  evergreen  lowland  forest  to  medium-tall  grassland  with  broadleaved  evergreen 
trees;  on  the  mountain  chain  up  east  central  Brazil,  above  900  m,  is  the  floristically  rich 
Campo  Rupeste,  mainly  herbaceous  vegetation  on  outcropping  rocks  and  on  sites  of 

42 


Brazil 

restricted  drainage.  Between  the  Amazon  and  the  Chaco,  on  the  border  of  BoHvia  and 
reaching  south  to  Paraguay  and  Argentina,  is  the  Pantanal,  a  large  swampland  of  c. 
100,000  sq.  km  drained  by  the  Rio  Paraguay;  it  is  a  mixture  of  open  swamp,  flooded  and 
deciduous  forest,  Cerrado  and  Chaco;  little  known  botanically  (Prance  and  Schaller, 
1982).  Along  the  Atlantic  coast  from  north  of  Porto  Alegre  south  to  Bahia  is  a  strip  of 
species-rich  rain  forests,  reduced  to  relicts  covering  only  2-4%  (S.J.  Mayo,  1984,  pers. 
comm.)  of  original  extent;  perhaps  the  most  endangered  tropical  rain  forests  in  the  world. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  13,600  sq.  km/annum,  out 
of  a  total  of  3,562,800  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  I) 
gives  an  analysis  of  the  complex  figures  for  deforestation  in  Brazil. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  part  of  Brazil  north  of  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn  is 
covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica,  described  in 
Appendix  1.  The  only  published  country-wide  Flora  is: 

Martins,  K.F.P.,  Eichler,  A.W,  and  Urban,  I.  (1840-1906).  Flora  Brasiliensis .  Facsimile 
reprint  by  Cramer,  New  York  (1965). 

More  recent  works  are: 

Angely,  J.  (1965).  Flora  Analitica  do  Parana.  Edi?6es  Phyton,  Curitiba,  Parana. 

728  pp.  (Annotated  list  of  5287  species.) 
Angely,  J.  (1969-1970).  Flora  Analitica  e  Fitogeogrdphica  do  Est  ado  de  Sao  Paulo, 

6  vols.  Edi?oes  Phyton,  Sao  Paulo.  (7251  species  listed  with  dot  maps.) 
Flora  Ecologica  de  Restingas  do  Sudeste  do  Brasil  (1965-1978)  (Various  authors). 

Museu  Nacional,  Rio  de  Janeiro.  (23  fascicles  covering  24  families  so  far.) 
Harley,  R.M.  and  Mayo,  S.J.  (1980).  Towards  a  Checklist  of  the  Flora  of  Bahia.  Royal 

Botanic  Gardens,  Kew.  250  pp.  (A  progress  report  on  the  Kew-CEPEC  expeditions 

to  Bahia  in  1974  and  1977;  systematic  list  of  1596  species;  predicts  "a  total  of 

10,0(X)  species  for  Bahia  seems  a  conservative  estimate".) 
Luis,  I.T.  (1960).  Flora  Analitica  do  Porto  Alegre.  Instituto  Geobiologico  "La  Salle". 

(Not  seen.) 
Pabst,  G.F.J,  and  Dungs,  F.  (1975-1977).  Orchidaceae  Brasilienses,  2  vols.  Briicke- 

Verlag  K.  Schmersow,  Hildesheim,  Germany.  926  pp.  In  Portuguese,  German  and 

English.  (Watercolours  of  selected  species.) 
Reitz,  P.R.  (Ed.)  (1965-  ).  Flora  Ilustrada  Catarinense.  Herbario  "Barbosa 

Rodrigues",  Itajai,  Santa  Catarina.  (Includes  dot  maps;  by  1983  had  covered  2759 

species  in  109  families  (117  fascicles),  including  Bromeliaceae,  1983.) 
Rizzo,  J.  (1981-  ).  Flora  do  Estado  de  Golds,  Colegao  Rizzo.  Universidade  Federal  de 

Goias,  Goiania.  4  vols  so  far  -  Plan  of  Collection;  Meliaceae  by  L.  Graga  Amaral; 

Araliaceae  by  A.B.  Peixoto;  Myristicaceae  by  W.  Rodrigues.  (Dot  maps.)  Author 

estimates  9605  species  (1978,  quoted  in  Toledo,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1.) 
Schultz,  A.R.H.  and  Homrich,  M.H.  (1955-1977).  Flora  Ilustrada  do  Rio  Grande  do 

Sul.  Universidade  Federal  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul,  Porto  Alegre.  12  vols.  Complete. 

(Dot  maps.) 
Sobrinho,  R.J.  and  Bresolin,  A.  (Eds)  (1970-1977).  Fldrula  da  Ilha  de  Santa  Catarina. 

Universidade  Federal  de  Santa  Catarina,  Santa  Catarina.  18  fascicles  so  far. 
Teodoro  Luis,  I.  (1960).  Flora  Analitica  de  Porto  Alegre.  Instituto  Geobiologica  "La 

Salle".  Canoas.  (Unpaged.) 

In  1976  Brazil  started  Programa  Flora,  an  inventory  of  vegetation  and  a  computerized 
label  data  bank  of  Brazilian  herbaria.  The  Programme  is  divided  into  regional  projects: 
Projeto  Flora  Amazonica  begun  in  1977  and  some  20  expeditions  between  then  and  1983 

43 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

have  collected  over  45,000  numbers;  Projeto  Flora  Nordeste  has  also  begun.  The  data 
bank  for  the  Amazonian  herbaria  is  now  functional  and  enquiries  about  Amazonian  plants 
can  be  made  through  the  Conselho  Nacional  de  Desenvolvimento  Cientifico  e 
Technologico  in  Brasilia. 

Toledo  (1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  reports  as  "in  progress"  a  Flora  of  Minas  Gerais, 
by  J.  Angely,  for  a  reported  11,156  species. 

Field-guides 

Centre  de  Pesquisas  Florestais  e  Conserva?ao  da  Natureza  (1960,  1965).  Flores  da 
Restinga  (54  pp.);  Arboreto  carioca  (4  vols).  CPFCN,  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

Ferri,  M.  Guimaraes  (1969).  Plantas  do  Brasil:  Especies  do  Cerrado.  Edgard  Bliicher, 
Sao  Paulo.  239  pp.  (Illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book;  in  1985 
FBCN  (see  below)  start  work  on  preparing  a  threatened  plant  list,  grant-aided  by 
lUCN/WWF  (Project  3310).  8  plants  are  listed  as  threatened,  with  explanatory  notes,  in 
Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  whereas  45  plant 
species  are  listed  in  the  annex  to  the  Convention  on  Nature  Protection  and  Wildlife 
Preservation  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  (1940).  Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in 
several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  D.  de 
Andrade-Lima  on  preservation  of  the  flora  of  north-eastern  Brazil  (pp.  234-239), 
J.T.  Mickel  on  rare  and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328),  H.E.  Moore  Jr.  on 
endangerment  in  palms  (pp.  267-282),  P.  Ravenna  on  endangered  bulbous  species 
(pp.  257-266). 

Other  references: 

Carvalho,  J. CM.  (1968).  Lista  das  especies  de  animais  e  plantas  ameagadas  de  extingao 

no  Brasil.  Fundagao  Brasil.  Conserv.  Natureza.  Bel.  Inform.  3:  11-16.  (13  species 

listed.) 
Casari,  M.B.  et  al.  (1980).  Nove  especies  amea?adas  ou  em  perigo  de  desaparecimento 

no  Brasil.  Resumes  do  31  Congresso  Nacional  de  Botanica.  Sociedade  Botanica  do 

Brasil,  Ilheus.  p.  123. 
Cavalcanti,  D.F.  (1981).  Plantas  em  extingao  no  Brasil.  Fundagao  Brasil.  Conserv. 

Natureza,  Bol.  Inform.  16:  115-119. 
Liddell,  R.  (1980).  Collections  and  conservation  of  Brazilian  orchids.  In  Sukshom, 

M.R.  (Ed.),  Proceedings  of  the  9th  World  Orchid  Conference.  Amarin  Press, 

Thailand.  Pp.  283-285. 
Mori,  S.,  Boom,  B.  and  Prance,  G.  (1981).  Distribution  patterns  and  conservation  of 

eastern  Brazilian  coastal  forest  tree  species.  Brittonia  33(2):  233-245. 

Many  individual  case  studies  on  endangered  plants  have  been  published  in  Cadernos 
FEEMA  Ser.  Trab.  Techn.,  the  Bulletin  of  the  Centro  de  Botanica  do  Rio  de  Janeiro,  e.g. 
Scaevola  plumieri  in  18:  7-11  (1982);  Bumelia  obtusifolia  in  18:  1-9  (1982);  Ficus 
lanuginosa  in  18:  3-35  (1982);  Dorstenia  in  1:  29-65  (1982). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Portaria  No.  303  of  29  May  1968  is  a  regulation  to 
implement  the  principal  wildlife  law  in  force  (Lei  No.  5197  of  3  January  1967);  all  trade, 
transport  or  export  of  13  listed  plants  is  prohibited,  with  the  exception  of  scientific 
collection,  for  which  a  license  is  required  from  IBDF.  The  principal  forestry  law  (Lei  No. 
4771  of  15  September  1965)  covers  trade  in  live  plants  and  plant  products;  it  is 
administered  by  IBDF  (Fuller  and  Swift,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1;  lists  the  13  species). 

44 


Brazil 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Associa^ao  de  Defesa  do  Meio  Ambiente  (ADEMA),  Rua  Pedroso  Alvarenga  1245-4°, 

and  Sao  Paulo,  SP  04.531. 
Associa?ao  Gaiicha  de  Protegao  ao  Ambiente  Natural  (AGAPAN),  Caixa  Postal  1996, 

Porto  Alegre,  RS  90.000. 
Associa?ao  de  PreservagSo  da  Flora  e  da  Fauna  (APREFFA),  Caixa  Postal  1176, 

Curitiba,  PR  80.000. 
Centro  de  Conserva?ao  da  Natureza  de  Brasilia,  Edificio  Antonio  Venancio  da  Silva, 

sala  512,  Brasilia,  D.F. 
Centro  para  Conserva^ao  da  Natureza  de  Minas  Gerais,  Caixa  Postal  2475,  Belo 

Horizonte,  MG  30.000. 
Funda?ao  Brasileira  para  a  Conserva?ao  da  Natureza  (FBCN),  Rua  Miranda  Valverde 

103,  CEP  22281,  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
Uniao  dos  Defensores  da  Terra  (OIKOS),  Caixa  Postal  51.570,  Sao  Paulo,  SP  01.000. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Horto  Botanico,  Divisao  de  Botanico  do  Museu  Nacional,  Quinta  da  Boa  Vista,  Rio  de 

Janeiro,  Guanabara. 
Jardim  Botanico  da  Funda?ao  Zoobotanica  do  Rio  Grande  do  Sul  (FZM),  Caixa  Postal 

1188,  P6rto  Alegre,  RS  90.000. 
Jardim  Botanico,  Instituto  Basico  de  Biologia  Medica  e  Agricola  (IBBMA),  Caixa 

Postal  526,  18.610  Botucatu,  Sao  Paulo. 
Jardim  Botanico  do  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Rua  Jardim  Botanico  1.008,  22.460  Rio  de 

Janeiro. 
Jardim  Botanico  de  Sao  Paulo,  Instituto  de  Botanica,  Caixa  Postal  4005,  01000  Sao 

Paulo. 
Museu  de  Historia  Natural,  Rua  Gustavo  da  Silveira,  1035  Horto,  Belo  Horizonte, 

Minas  Gerais. 
Museu  Paraense  "Emilio  Goeldi",  Av.  Magalhaes  Barata  376,  Caixa  Postal  399, 

66.000  Belem,  Para. 
Parque  Botanico  do  Morro  Bau,  Av.  Marcos  Ronder  800,  88.300  Itajai,  Santa 

Catarina. 
Reserva  Ecol6gia  de  IBGE,  Edificio  Venancio  II,  1°  Andar,  70.302  Brasilia,  D.F. 

Useful  Addresses 

FEEMA-DECAM,  Herbario  A.  Castellanos,  Estrada  da  Vista  Chinesa  741,  Alto  da 

Boa  Vista,  20531  Rio  de  Janeiro. 
Instituto  Brasileiro  de  Desenvolvimento  Florestal  (IBDF),  Esplanada  dos  Ministerios, 

Brasilia  70.000. 
Instituto  Nacional  de  Pesquisas  Amazonia  (INPA),  CP  478,  Manaus,  Amazonas, 

69.000. 
Museo  Nacional,  Quinta  da  Boa  Vista,  Rio  de  Janeiro,  RJ  CEP  20940. 
SEMA,  Ministerio  do  Interior,  Esplanada  dos  Ministerios,  Brasilia,  D.F.  70054. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Departamento  de  Parques  Nacionais  e  Reservas 

Equivalentes,  IBDF,  Sain-Av.  L4  Norte,  Brasilia,  D.F. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority  (for  flora):  Jardim  Botanica  do  Rio  de  Janeiro,  see  above. 

Additional  References 

Ducke,  A.  and  Black,  G.A.  (1953).  Phytogeographical  notes  on  the  Brazilian  Amazon. 

An.  Acad.  Brasil.  Ciencias  25(1):  1-46. 
Eiten,  G.  (1972).  The  cerrado  vegetation  of  Brazil.  Bot.  Rev.  38:  301-341. 


45 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Gentry,  A.  (1979).  Extinction  and  conservation  of  plant  species  in  Tropical  America:  a 

phytogeographical  perspective.  In  Hedberg,  I.  (Ed.),  Systematic  Botany,  Plant 

Utilization  and  Biosphere  Conservation.  Almqvist  &  Wiksell  International, 

Stockholm,  Sweden.  Pp.  110-126.  (Includes  map  of  principal  vegetation  types.) 
Pires,  J.M.  (1973).  Tipos  de  vegeta^ao  de  Amazonia.  Publ.  Avulsas  Museu  Goeldi. 

Belem  20:  179-202. 
Pires,  J.M.  (1978).  The  forest  ecosystems  of  the  Brazilian  Amazon:  description, 

functioning  and  research  needs.  In  Unesco/UNEP/FAO,  Tropical  Forest 

Ecosystems.  Unesco,  Paris.  Pp.  601-621.  (Substantial  bibliography.) 
Prance,  G.T.  (1977).  The  phytogeographic  subdivisions  of  Amazonia  and  their 

influence  on  the  selection  of  biological  reserves.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S. 

(Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  195-213. 
Prance,  G.T.  (1979).  The  present  state  of  botanical  exploration:  South  America.  In 

Hedberg,  I.  (Ed.),  Systematic  Botany,  Plant  Utilization  and  Biosphere  Conservation. 

Almqvist  &  Wiksell  International,  Stockholm,  Sweden.  Pp.  55-70. 
Prance,  G.T.  and  Schaller,  G.B.  (1982).  Preliminary  study  of  some  vegetation  types  of 

the  Pantanal,  Mato  Grosso,  Brazil.  Brittonia  34:  228-251. 
Rizzini,  C.T.  (1976,  1979).  Tratado  de  fitogeografia  do  Brasil.  Sao  Paulo. 

HUCITEP/USP.  2  vols. 
Veloso,  H.P.  (1966).  Atlas  Florestal  do  Brasil.  Ministerio  da  Agricultura,  Rio  de 

Janeiro.  82  pp. 


British  Indian  Ocean  Terri- 
tory (Chagos  Archipelago) 


The  British  Indian  Ocean  Territory  is  situated  to  the  south  of  the  Maldive  Islands  between 
latitudes  5-10°S  and  longitudes  70-75°E.  It  includes  the  coral  islands  of  the  Chagos 
Archipelago  (60  sq.  km)  of  which  Diego  Garcia  (47  sq.  km)  is  the  largest.  Population  2000. 
Approximately  150  species  of  vascular  plants  (Fosberg  and  Bullock,  1971),  of  which  about 
100  are  indigenous,  mostly  with  pantropical  or  Indo-Pacific  distributions.  The  vegetation 
consists  of  Casuarina  woodland,  mixed  coconut  woodland  ("Cocos  Bon-Dieu"),  Scaevola 
scrub,  marshland  and  relict  broadleaved  woodland  with  Ficus,  Morinda,  and  Terminalia; 
some  areas  cleared  for  coconut  plantations. 

Three  checklists  of  the  flora  are: 

Fosberg,  F.R.  and  Bullock,  A.A.  (1971).  List  of  Diego  Garcia  vascular  plants.  In 
Stoddart,  D.R.  and  Taylor,  J.D.  (Eds),  Geography  and  ecology  of  Diego  Garcia 
Atoll,  Chagos  Archipelago.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  149.  143-160.  (Annotated  Hst  of  142 
taxa  from  Diego  Garcia.) 

Willis,  J.C.  and  Gardiner,  J.S.  (1901).  The  botany  of  the  Maldive  Islands.  Annals 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens  Peradeniya  1:  45-164.  (Includes  annotated  list  of  359  species 
recorded  from  Chagos  Archipelago,  Laccadives  and  Maldives.) 

Willis,  J.C.  and  Gardiner,  J.S.  (1931).  Flora  of  the  Chagos  Archipelago.  Trans.  Linn. 
Soc.  Zoology  19:  301-306.  (Annotated  checklist.) 


46 


British  Virgin  Islands 


A  Dependent  Territory  of  the  U.K.,  comprising  30  small  islands,  mostly  uninhabited.  The 
largest  is  the  mountainous  island  of  Tortola,  19  km  long  by  5.6  km  wide.  Other  principal 
islands  are  Virgin  Gorda,  Jost  Van  Dyke  and  Anegada.  The  islands  are  hilly  and  volcanic, 
except  for  Anegada  which  is  flat  and  formed  of  limestone  and  sand. 

Area  153  sq.  km 

Population  13,000 

Floristics  No  estimate  for  number  of  plant  species.  The  Smith  manuscript  (see 
below)  includes  an  analysis  of  the  endemic  taxa.  Anegada  has  floristic  affinities  with 
Barbuda  and  Anguilla. 

Vegetation  Severely  modified  by  man  to  mostly  dry  scrub  woodland;  scrub, 
principally  of  Croton  spp.  and  thorny  bushes  are  dominant  where  there  is  heavy  grazing  of 
feral  goats  and  cattle;  on  higher  ground  'xerophytic  rain  forest',  a  reduced  type  of 
evergreen  forest;  on  Gorda  Peak  a  better  developed  forest  than  anywhere  else  on  the 
islands;  vegetation  of  Anegada  reduced  to  sandy  scrub  in  the  west  and  limestone  scrub  in 
the  east  (C.  Pannell,  1976,  in  lift.);  6.7%  forested  (FAO,  1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Britton,  N.  and  Wilson,  P.  (1923-1930).  Botany  of  Porto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands. 
Scientific  survey  of  Porto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands,  5  (626  pp.)  and  6  (663  pp.). 
New  York  Academy  of  Sciences,  New  York.  (Keys,  descriptions,  general  ranges  and 
distributions  by  island.) 

J.  Smith,  of  Treasure  Island  Botanic  Garden,  Tortola,  has  prepared  a  manuscript  entitled 
Native  and  naturalised  flowering  plants  of  the  British  Virgin  Islands.  It  includes  an  outline 
of  the  vegetation,  descriptions  of  endemic  plants  and  summary  of  recorded  species. 

See  also: 

D'Arcy,  W.G.  (1967).  Annotated  checkHst  of  the  dicotyledons  of  Tortola,  Virgin 

Islands.  Rhodora  69:  385-450. 
D'Arcy,  W.G.  (1975).  Anegada  Island:  Vegetation  and  Flora.  Atoll.  Res.  Bull.  188. 

40  pp.  (Illus.  and  maps.) 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1965).  Nomenclatural  changes  and  additions  to  Britton  and  Wilson's 

"Botany  of  Porto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands".  Rhodora  67(772):  315-361. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1967).  Further  changes  and  additions  to  the  flora  of  Porto  Rico  and  the 

Virgin  Islands.  Rhodora  69  (779):  372-376. 
Little,  E.L.,  Jr.  and  Wadsworth,  F.H.  (1964).  Common  trees  of  Puerto  Rico  and  the 

Virgin  Islands.  Agriculture  Handbook  No.  249,  U.S.D.A.  Forest  Service, 

Washington,  D.C.  548  pp,  (Keys,  mainly  to  families;  descriptions,  illus., 

distributions.)  Spanish  edition  by  authors  and  J.  Marrero,  Editorial  UPR,  Puerto 

Rico,  1967. 
Little,  E.L.,  Jr.  et  al.  (1974).  Trees  of  Puerto  Rico  and  the  Virgin  Islands,  Second 

volume.  Agriculture  Handbook  No.  449,  U.S.D.A.  Forest  Service,  Washington, 

D.C.  1024  pp.  (2nd  vol.  to  Little  and  Wadsworth,  1964,  above;  includes  endemic, 

rare  and  endangered  tree  species.) 
Little,  E.L.,  Jr.,  Woodbury,  R.O.  and  Wadsworth,  F.H.  (1976).  Flora  of  Virgin  Gorda 

(British  Virgin  Islands).  U.S.  Forest  Service  Research  Paper  21.  Institute  of  Tropical 

Forestry,  Rio  Piedras,  Puerto  Rico.  36  pp.  (Illus.  and  map.) 

47 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Little,  E.L.,  Jr.  (1969).  Trees  of  the  Jost  Van  Dyke  (British  Virgin  Islands).  U.S. 

Forest  Service  Research  Paper  9.  Institute  of  Tropical  Forestry,  Rio  Piedras,  Puerto 
Rico.  12  pp.  (Illus.,  checklist  of  69  native  and  18  introduced  tree  species,  with  notes 
on  vegetation.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Ayensu,  E.S.  and  DeFilipps,  R.A.  (1978).  Endangered  and  Threatened  Plants  of  the 
United  States.  Smithsonian  Institution  and  WWF-U.S.,  Washington,   D.C. 
Pp.  225-232  (Lists  102  'Endangered'  and  'Threatened'  taxa  from  Puerto  Rico  and 
the  Virgin  Islands,  both  U.S.  and  British,  with  a  useful  bibliography;  9  of  them 
from  the  British  Virgin  Is.) 

Little,  E.L.,  Jr.  and  Woodbury,  R.O.  (1980).  Rare  and  Endemic  Trees  of  Puerto  Rico 
and  the  Virgin  Islands.  Conservation  Research  Report  No.  27,  U.S.D.A.  Forest 
Service,  Washington,  D.C.  26  pp. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

The  Virgin  Islands  Conservation  Society  (address  not  known). 

Additional  References 

Anon  (1960).  Forestry.  Extract  from  Report:  British  Virgin  Islands,  H.M.S.O.,  London 

1957/58,  (24).  (A  brief  account  of  the  preservation  and  conservation  of  the  few 

existing  fragments  of  forest.) 
Eraser,  H.  (1958).  Forest  conservation  in  the  British  Virgin  Islands.  In  Willan,  R.L., 

Forestry  Development  in  the  British  Virgin  Islands.  FAO,  Rome.  26  pp. 
Pannell,  C.  (1976).  Section  on  vegetation.  In  Report  of  the  Cambridge  Ornithological 

expedition  to  the  British  Virgin  Islands  1976.  Cambridge  University.  Pp.  26-38. 


Brunei 


Area  5765  sq.  km 

Population  269,000 

Floristics  No  overall  figure  for  size  of  flora,  but  an  estimated  2000  tree  species 
(M.  Jacobs,  quoted  in  Unesco,  1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Vegetation  Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest,  rich  in  dipterocarps,  up  to  1300  m; 
tropical  montane  rain  forest  to  18(X)  m;  heath  (kerangas)  forest  usually  on  sandy  alluvial 
soils  and  high-altitude  sandstone  ridges  (Brunig,  1974;  Whitmore,  1975b,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  mangrove  and  peat  swamp  forest  (with  Shorea  albida)  occupy  almost  the 
entire  coastline.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  50  sq.  km  out 
of  a  total  of  3230  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  estimates 
c.  43(K)  sq.  km  are  still  covered  by  relatively  undisturbed  primary  forest,  while  secondary 
forests  cover  a  further  1170  sq.  km. 

Brunei  is  included  on  the  Vegetation  Map  of  Malaysia  (van  Steenis,  1958),  and  on  the 
vegetation  map  of  Malesia  (Whitmore,  1984),  both  covering  the  Flora  Malesiana  region  at 
scale  1:5,000,0(X)  and  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Brunei  is  included  in  the  incomplete,  but  very  detailed 
Flora  Malesiana  (1948- ),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  National  accounts  include: 

48 


Brunei 

Ashton,  P.  (1965).  Manual  of  the  Dipterocarp  Trees  of  Brunei  State.  Oxford  Univ. 

Press.  242  pp.  (Keys,  descriptions,  notes  on  distribution.) 
Browne,  F.G.  (1955).  Forest  Trees  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei  and  Their  Products.  Govt 

Printer,  Kuching,  Sarawak.  369  pp.  (Descriptions  of  timber  trees  with  notes  on 

distribution  and  wood  properties.) 
Pukul,  H.B.  and  Ashton,  P.S.  (1966).  A  Checklist  of  Brunei  Trees.  Govt  of  Brunei 

State.  132  pp.  (List  of  trees,  not  including  dipterocarps,  arranged  alphabetically  by 

vernacular  name;  botanical  names  and  notes  on  distribution  within  Brunei.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Additional  References 

Anderson,  J.A.R.  (1963).  The  flora  of  the  peat-swamp  forests  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei, 
including  a  catalogue  of  all  recorded  species  of  flowering  plants,  ferns  and  fern 
allies.  Card.  Bull.  Singapore  20:  131-228.  (Enumeration  of  33  pteridophytes  and  395 
flowering  plant  species;  short  descriptions  and  notes  on  distribution.) 

Ashton,  P.S.  (1964).  Ecological  Studies  in  the  Mixed  Dipterocarp  Forests  of  Brunei 
State.  Oxford  Forestry  Memoirs  25.  Clarendon  Press,  Oxford.  75  pp. 

Briinig,  E.F.  (1974).  Ecological  Studies  in  the  Kerangas  Forest  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei. 
Borneo  Literature  Bureau,  Kuching,  Sarawak.  237  pp. 


Bulgaria 

Area  110,912  sq.  km 

Population  9,182,000 

Floristics  3500-3650  native  vascular  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  53  endemics  (lUCN  figures).  Elements:  Atlantic, 
Central  European  and  alpine,  with  Mediterranean  and  sub-Mediterranean  influence  in  the 
south. 

Areas  of  high  endemism:  Mt  Slavjanka;  Mt  Pirin;  Rhodope  mountains;  Stara  Planina; 
north-eastern  Bulgaria;  Thracian  Plain;  Black  Sea  coast;  Strandja  Mts;  Tundza  hill  region; 
and  Mt  Rila  (Polunin,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Many  Tertiary  rehcts  (e.g.  Haberlea 
rhodopensis),  especially  in  Rhodope  Mts  and  Strandja  and  Slavyanka  Mts  (Stefanov, 
1936). 

Vegetation  To  the  north  of  the  Stara  Planina  (mountains  running  east-west 
across  Bulgaria),  Central  European  vegetation  with  steppe  elements  (Stipa,  Astragalus, 
Phlomis  spp.).  On  the  Stara  Planina,  coniferous  forest  to  2000-2300  m  with  juniper  and 
pine-scrub  at  higher  altitudes  and  alpine  flora  {Dryas,  Empetrum  and  Salix  spp.). 
Deciduous  oak  and  beech  forests  extend  from  the  north-west  with  conifer  forests  of  Pinus 
heldreichii  and  P.  pence  in  the  south  and  south-west.  Forests  of  P.  peuce  particularly  well- 
developed  in  Bulgaria,  forming  pure  stands  above  1700  m  in  the  Rila,  Pirin  and  western 
Rhodope  Mts.  They  cover  11,600  ha,  about  3%  of  the  country's  conifer  forests  (Polunin 
and  Walters,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  To  the  south,  in  the  plain  of  Thrace,  sub- 
Mediterranean  maquis  of  Quercus  coccifera,  Phillyrea,  Cistus. 


49 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras  Bulgaria  is  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea 
(Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980)  and  the  Med-Checklist  (both  cited  in  Appendix  1).  National 
Floras: 

Jordanov,  D.  et  al.  (Ed.)  (1963-  ).  Flora  Reipublicae  Popularis  Bulgaricae,  8  vols. 

Bulgarskata  Akad.,  Sofiya.  (Incomplete,  a  further  2-3  vols  planned;  vol.  1  contains 

an  extensive  historical  account  of  Bulgarian  floristic  research;  introductory  text  also 

in  English;  habitat  and  ecology  details;  Hne  drawings.) 
Stojanov,  N.  and  Stefanov,  B.  (1966-1967).  Flora  na  Balgariya,  4th  Ed.  by  B.  Kitanov. 

2  vols.  Nauka  i  Izkustvo,  Sofia.  (Includes  habitat  and  ecological  details;  illus.) 

For  a  bibliography  see: 

Kitanov,  B.  (1975).  Literature  about  the  Flora  and  Plant  Geography  of  Bulgaria. 

1959-1968.  Bulgarische  Akademie  der  Wissenschaften,  Sofia.  270  pp.  (In  Bulgarian.) 

National  botanical  journal:  Izvestiya  na  Botanicheskiya  Institut  (Bulletin  of  the  Institute 
of  Botany),  Bulgarian  Academy  of  Sciences,  Sofia. 

Field-guides 

Delipavlov,  D.  et  al.  (1983).  Opredelobal  na  Rastenijaba  v  Balgeorija.  Zemisdat,  Sofia. 

431  pp. 
Gramatikov,  D.  (1974).  Identification  of  Wild  and  Cultivated  Trees  and  Shrubs  in 

Bulgaria.  Sofia.  (In  Bulgarian.) 
Stojanov,  N.  and  Kitanov,  B.  (1966).  Plants  of  the  High  Mountains  in  Bulgaria. 

Nauka,  Izkustvo,  Sofia.  149  pp.  (In  Bulgarian;  illus.) 
Valev,  S.,  Gancev,  I.  and  Velcev,  V.  (1960).  Ekskurzionna  Flora  na  Balgarija.  Narodna 

Prosveta,  Sofia.  736  pp.  (Native,  naturalized  and  commonly  cultivated  plants; 

covers  c.  2250  species.) 

Also  see  Polunin  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  national  plant  Red  Data  Book  is: 

Velchev,  V.,  Kozuharov,  S.,  Bondev,  I.,  Kuzmanov,  B.  and  Markova,  M.  (1984).  Red 
Data  Book  of  the  People's  Republic  of  Bulgaria.  Volume  1.  Plants.  Bulgarian 
Academy  of  Sciences,  Sofia.  447  pp.  (Describes  763  threatened  species;  includes  data 
about  distribution,  habitats,  ecology;  maps;  line  drawings.) 

See  also: 

Kuzmanov,  B.  (1978).  About  the  "Red  Book  of  Rare  Bulgarian  Plants".  Phytology 
(Bulgarian  Academy  of  Sciences)  9:  17-32.  (In  Bulgarian,  English  summary;  lists  150 
rare  Bulgarian  plants.) 

Other  relevant  publications  include: 

Dimitrov,  D.  (1977).  Rare  plant  species  of  the  Bulgarian  Black  Sea  Coast.  Priroda 

26(3):  95-96. 
Kruscheva,  R.  and  Pirbanov,  R.  (1978).  Album  of  Protected  and  Rare  Plants.  (In 

Bulgarian.) 
Kuzmanov,  B.  (1981a).  Mapping  and  protection  of  the  threatened  plants  in  the 

Bulgarian  flora.  In  Velcev,  V.I.  and  Kozuharov,  S.I.  (1981),  Mapping  the  Flora  of 

the  Balkan  Peninsula.  247  pp.  (Not  seen.) 
Kuzmanov,  B.  (1981b).  Balkan  endemism  and  the  problem  of  species  conservation, 

with  particular  reference  to  the  Bulgarian  flora.  Bot.  Jahrb.  Syst.  102(1-4):  255-270. 

(Lists  Bulgarian  and  Balkan  endemic  vascular  species;  maps;  illus.) 

50 


Bulgaria 

Stanev,  S.  (1975).  The  Stars  are  Becoming  Extinct  in  the  Mountains:  Stories  about  our 
Rare  Plants.  Zemizdat,  Sofia.  129  pp.  (In  Bulgarian;  stories  describing  searches  for 
rare  plants.) 

Stefanov,  B.  and  Bankov,  M.  (1978).  Plants  that  are  very  rare  in  Bulgaria  or  that  have 
recently  disappeared  and  the  cause  of  their  decline.  Gorskostoponska  Nauka  15(6): 
3-10. 

Veltchev,  V.  and  Stoeva,  M.  (1985).  Population  approach  to  the  investigation  of  the 
threatened  and  rare  species  in  the  Bulgarian  flora  in  connection  with  their 
conservation.  In:  MAB,  Conservation  of  Natural  Areas  and  the  Genetic  Material 
they  Contain,  International  Symposium  under  Project  8  -  MAB,  23-28  September 
1985,  Sofia.  (In  Bulgarian;  English  summary.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:4,  V:10, 
R:18,  1:8,  K:2,  nt:10;  doubtfully  endemic  taxa  -  R:3,  nt:3;  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  V:16,  R:23,  1:10  (world  categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  1967  Law  on  Nature  Protection  prohibits  the 
picking,  damage,  sale  of,  destruction  to  or  digging  up  of  67  listed  plant  species. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Bulgarian  Botanical  Society,  Institute  of  Botany,  Acad.  G.  Bonchev  Str.,  1113  Sofia. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Sofia,  ul.  Moskowska  49,  P.O.  Box  157,  1090  Sofia. 
Hortus  Botanicus  Academia  Scientiarum  Bulgaricae,  Str.  "Akad.  G.  Bontshev,"  Clou 
I,  1113  Sofia. 

Useful  Addresses 

Committee  for  Environmental  Protection,  Council  of  Ministers  of  the  People's 

Republic  of  Bulgaria,  1000  Sofia. 
Committee  for  Protection  of  Nature  and  Environment,  State  Council  of  Bulgaria, 

Trijadita  2,  Sofia. 
Concept  for  the  Protection  of  the  Natural  Flora  and  Vegetation,  Institute  of  Botany, 

Bulgarian  Academy  of  Sciences,  13  Sofia. 
Ministry  of  Forests  and  Protection  of  the  Natural  Environment,  17  Antim  I  Street, 

4000  Sofia. 
National  Council  for  Nature  Protection,  Vitoshastz  18,  1000  Sofia. 
Research  Co-ordinating  Centre  for  Conservation  and  Reproduction  of  the 

Environment,  2  Gagarin  Street,  1113  Sofia. 

Additional  References 

Kozuharov,  S.  (1975).  On  the  endemism  in  the  Bulgarian  flora.  In  Jordanov,  D.  et  al. 

(Eds),  Problems  of  Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation.  Proceedings  of  the  1st 

International  Symposium  on  Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation,  Varna,  June  7-14  1973. 

Bulgarian  Academy  of  Sciences,  Sofia.  Pp.  162-168. 
Stefanov,  B.  (1936).  Remarks  upon  the  causes  determining  the  relict  distribution  of 

plants.  Spis.  Bulg.  Acad.  Sci.  53:  133-179. 
Stefanoff,  B.  and  Jordanoff,  D.  (1931).  Topographische  Flora  von  Bulgarien.  Bot. 

Jahrb.  64(5):  388-536. 
Stoilov,  D.  et  al.  (1981).  Protected  Natural  Sites  in  the  People's  Republic  of  Bulgaria. 

Committee  on  Environmental  Protection,  Council  of  Ministers  of  the  People's 

Republic  of  Bulgaria,  Sofia.  31  pp.  (Translated  from  Bulgarian  by  1.  Saraouleva.) 

51 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Stojanov,  N.  (1965).  Phytogeographic  elements  in  the  flora  of  Bulgaria.  Rev.  Roum. 
Biol.  (Ser.  Bot.)  10(1-2):  69-70. 

Velcev,  v.,  Bondev,  I.  and  Kozuharov,  S.  (1975).  The  problem  of  protection  of  the 
natural  flora  and  vegetation  in  Bulgaria.  In  Jordanov,  D.  et  al.  (Eds),  Problems  of 
Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation.  Proceedings  of  the  1st  International  Symposium  on 
Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation,  Varna,  June  7-14  1973.  Bulgarian  Academy  of 
Sciences,  Sofia.  Pp.  431-435. 

Burkina  Faso 

Area  274,122  sq.  km 

Population  6,768,000 

Floristics  1096  species  from  618  genera  in  National  Herbarium  (it  is  assumed  that 
all  of  these  occur  in  Burkina  Faso);  degree  of  endemism  unknown. 

Floristic  affinities  predominantly  Sudanian,  but  also  Sahehan  in  extreme  north. 

Vegetation  Acacia  woodland  in  north;  Sudanian  woodland  with  Isoberlinia  in 
south-west;  large  areas  of  more  densely  populated  region  in  centre  have  been  transformed 
into  park-like  savanna  woodlands  dominated  by  Parkia  biglobosa,  Butyrospermum  parkii 
and  Acacia  albida;  other  dominants  also  occur. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Burkina  Faso  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical 
Africa,  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Aubreville,  A.  (1959),  cited  under  Ivory  Coast.  Although  not  actually  including 

Burkina  Faso,  includes  many  of  the  same  species. 
IRBET  (1983).  Inventaire  de  I'Herbier  du  CNRST  de  la  Haute  Yalta.  CNRST, 

Ouagadougou. 

Field-guides 

Maydell,  H.J.  von  (1983).  Arbres  et  Arbustes  du  Sahel.  Gesellschaft  fur  Technische 
Zusammenarbeit,  Eschborn  4,  F.R.G. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  15-20  species  of  economically  important  woody  plants 
are  given  special  protection. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Centre  National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique  et  Technologique  (CNRST),  B.P.  7047, 
Ouagadougou. 

Useful  Addresses 

Centre  National  de  Semances  Forestieres  (CNSF),  B.P.  2682,  Ouagadougou. 

Equipe  Ecologie  et  Forets,  Comite  Permanent  Interetats  de  Lutte  contre  la  Secheresse 

dans  la  Sahel  (CILSS),  B.P.  7049,  Ouagadougou. 
Institute  de  Recherche  en  Biologic  et  Ecologie  Tropicale  (IRBET)/CNRST,  B.P.  7047, 

Ouagadougou. 
Ministere  de  I'Environnement  et  Tourisme,  Ouagadougou. 

52 


Burkina  Faso 

Additional  References 

Terrible,  M.  (1976  or  1978).  Vegetation  de  la  Haute  Volta  au  millioneme:  carte  et 
notices  provisoires.  In  Contribution  a  la  Connaissance  de  la  Haute  Volta.  Bobo- 
Dioulasso. 

Terrible,  M.  (1984).  Essai  sur  I'Ecologie  et  la  Sociologie  d'Arbres  et  Arbustes  de  Haute 
Volta.  Librairie  de  la  Savane,  Bobo-Dioulasso. 


Burma 

Area  678,031  sq.  km 

Population  38,513,000 

Floristics  About  7000  flowering  plant  species,  including  about  200  exotic  species 
(Hundley  and  Chit  Ko  Ko,  1961).  1071  endemic  vascular  plant  species  (D.  Chatterjee, 
1939,  quoted  by  Legris,  1974). 

Vegetation  Tropical  lowland  evergreen  rain  forest,  mainly  in  south  (Myers,  1980, 
cited  in  Appendix  1);  tropical  hill  evergreen  rain  forest  and  temperate  evergreen  rain  forest 
above  900  m  in  east,  north  and  west;  semi-evergreen  rain  forest  in  a  narrow  belt  bordering 
arid  central  plain;  mixed  deciduous  forest  with  teak  (Tectona  grandis)  and  dry  dipterocarp 
forest  in  central  Burma,  under  increasing  pressure  especially  in  the  lowlands;  coniferous 
forests  in  Shan  and  Chin  States,  with  Pinus  khasya  between  1200-2500  m  on  dry  slopes; 
oak  and  rhododendron  forests  on  wetter  slopes;  90,000  sq.  km  of  bamboo  forests 
throughout  (Nao,  1974);  dry  forest  and  scrub  formations  where  rainfall  below  1000  mm, 
including  'than-dahat  forest'  with  Terminalia  and  Tectona,  thorn  scrub  with  Acacia  and 
Ziziphus,  and  'indaing  scrub  forest'  on  lateritic  soils,  with  Pentacme  siamensis  and  Shorea 
oblongifolia. 

According  to  government  publications,  forests  cover  57%  of  Burma;  however,  analysis  of 
recent  satellite  and  air  photographs  by  the  FAO  National  Forest  Inventory  Project  shows 
forest  cover  reduced  to  42%  by  1980  (Blower,  1985).  This  figure  includes  "degraded 
forests".  According  to  Hundley  (1984,  in  litt.),  evergreen  forests  comprise  40%  of  the 
total  forest  cover;  mixed  deciduous  forest  39%.  There  are  3650  sq.  km  of  tropical  lowland 
evergreen  rain  forests.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  1015 
sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  311,930  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Myers  (1980,  quoting 
Forest  Department  figures)  states  that  about  1420  sq.  km/annum  of  primary  forest  are 
modified,  if  not  transformed,  by  shifting  cultivation. 

For  vegetation  map  see: 

Stamp,  L.  (1924).  Notes  on  the  vegetation  of  Burma.  Geographical  J.  64(3):  272. 
(Includes  vegetation  map,  scale  1:8,000,000.) 

Checklists  and  Floras  Southern  Burma  is  covered  by  the  Flora  of  British  India 
(Hooker,  1872-1897),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  National  accounts  include: 

Hundley,  H.G.  and  Chit  Ko  Ko,  U.  (1961).  List  of  Trees,  Shrubs.  Herbs  and  Principal 
Climbers,  etc.  Recorded  from  Burma  with  Vernacular  Names,  3rd  Ed.  Govt  Printing 
Press,  Rangoon.  532  pp. 


53 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Kurz,  S.  (1874-1877).  Contributions  towards  a  knowledge  of  the  Burmese  flora. 

J.  Asiatic  Sac.  Bengal  43(2):  39-141;  44(2):  128-190;  45(2):  204-310;  46:  49-258. 

(Incomplete  enumeration  with  notes  on  habitats  and  localities.) 
Kurz,  S.  (1877).  Forest  Flora  of  British  Burma,  2  vols.  Govt  Printer,  Calcutta,  (c.  2000 

woody  species  and  2500  herbaceous  species  described;  introductory  chapter  on 

vegetation.  Reprinted  by  Bishen  Singh  Mahendra  Pal  Singh,  Dehra  Dun,  1974.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  preliminary  list  of  plants  under 
consideration  for  threatened  plant  status  includes  12  species,  mainly  trees.  All  orchids, 
Dioscorea  and  Panax  are  also  under  consideration  (Hundley,  in  litt.).  See  also: 

Blower,  J.  (1985).  Conservation  priorities  in  Burma.  Oryx  19(2):  79-85.  (Deals  mainly 
with  deforestation,  protected  areas  and  fauna;  refers  to  2  threatened  trees.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Burma  Forest  Act,  1902  as  amended  to  date,  protects 
habitats  of  22  species,  as  well  as  all  smooth-barked  Dipterocarpus  in  Kanyin,  Lower 
Burma. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Agri-Horticultural  Society  of  Burma  (Kandawgalay),  Rangoon. 
Government  Botanical  Gardens,  Maymo. 

Useful  Addresses 

Botany  Department,  Rangoon  Arts  and  Sciences  University,  Rangoon. 
Burma  Forest  School,  Maymo. 

Director  General  Forests  of  Burma,  No.  62  Randeria  Building,  Rangoon. 
Forest  Research  Institute,  Yezin. 

Additional  References 

Chatterjee,  D.  (1939).  Studies  on  the  endemic  flora  of  India  and  Burma.  J.  Royal 

Asiatic  Soc.  Bengal  Sci.  5:  19-67. 
Legris,  P.  (1974).  Vegetation  and  floristic  composition  of  humid  tropical  continental 

Asia.  In  Unesco,  Natural  Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources 

Research  12.  Paris.  Pp.  217-238.  (Includes  bibliography  of  literature  and  vegetation 

maps.) 
Nao,  T.V.  (1974).  Forest  resources  of  humid  tropical  Asia.  In  Unesco,  Natural 

Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources  Research  12.  Paris. 

Pp.  197-215. 
Rao,  A.S.  (1974).  The  vegetation  and  phytogeography  of  Assam-Burma.  In  Mani,  M.S. 

(Ed.),  Ecology  and  Biogeography  of  India.  Junk,  The  Hague.  Pp.  204-246. 


Burundi 

Area  27,834  sq.  km 

Population  4,503,000 

Floristics  2500  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  Levels  of 
endemism  unknown,  but  unhkely  to  be  high.  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  gives  a 
figure  of  26  species  endemic  to  Rwanda  and  Burundi,  out  of  a  c.  39%  sample  of  the  Flore 
du  Congo  Beige  et  du  Ruanda- Urundi. 

54 


Burundi 
Floristic  affinities  with  Lake  Victoria  and  Afromontane  regions. 

Vegetation  Mostly  mosaic  of  East-African  evergreen  bushland  and  secondary 
Acacia  wooded  grassland.  Large  areas  of  Afromontane  communities  in  the  west. 
Brachystegia-Julbernardia  (Miombo)  woodland  along  south-east  border.  Small  patches  of 
transitional  rain  forest  in  north-west.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed 
broadleaved  forest  4  sq.  km/annum  out  of  140  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Burundi  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  du  Congo 
Beige  et  du  Ruanda-Urundi  (cited  in  Appendix  1),  continued  since  1972  as  Flore  d'Afrique 
Centrale  (Zaire  -  Rwanda  -  Burundi).  Burundi's  plants  of  high  altitudes  are  listed  in 
Afroalpine  Vascular  Plants  (Hedberg,  1957),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Lewalle,  J.  (1970).  Liste  floristique  et  repartition  altitudinale  de  la  flore  du  Burundi 
occidental.  Universite  Officielle  de  Bujumbura.  Cyclostyled.  84  pp.  (c.  1700  species 
and  infraspecific  taxa  listed.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  54  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  no 
categories  assigned. 

Additional  References 

Devred,  R.  (1958).  La  vegetation  forestiere  du  Congo  beige  et  du  Ruanda-Urundi.  Bull. 

Soc.  R.  For.  Belg.  65:  409-468.  (With  vegetation  map.) 
Lebrun,  J.  (1956).  La  vegetation  et  les  territoires  botaniques  du  Ruanda-Urundi. 

Natural.  Beiges  37:  230-256. 
Lewalle,  J.  (1968).  Burundi.  In  Hedberg,  L  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  127-130. 
Lewalle,  J.  (1972).  Les  etages  de  vegetation  du  Burundi  occidental.  Bull.  Jard.  Bot. 

Nat.  Belg.  42:  1-247.  (With  ten  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Reekmans,  M.  (1980a).  La  flore  vasculaire  de  I'lmbo  (Burundi)  et  sa  phenologie. 

Lejeunia,  n.s.  100:  1-53. 
Reekmans,  M.  (1980b).  La  vegetation  de  la  plaine  de  la  Basse  Rusizi  (Burundi).  Bull. 

Jard.  Bot.  Nat.  Belg.  50:  401-444. 

There  is  a  series  of  vegetation  and  soil  maps  covering  Zaire,  Rwanda  and  Burundi  in  c.  25 
parts,  published  between  1954  and  c.  1970  by  the  Institut  National  pour  1' Etude 
Agronomique  du  Congo  (INEAC);  each  is  accompanied  by  a  descriptive  memoir,  and 
several  of  the  maps  are  to  different  scales.  The  series  is  called:  Carte  des  Sols  et  de  la 
Vegetation  du  Congo  Beige  et  du  Ruanda-Urundi,  or,  more  recently:  ...  du  Congo,  du 
Rwanda  et  du  Burundi. 


Cameroon 

Area  475,500  sq.  km 

Population  9,467,000 

Floristics  c.  8000  species  (Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1;  certainly  between 
8000  and  10,000  (R.  Letouzey,  1984,  in  litt.);  156  endemic  species  (but  see  below),  with 

55 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

c.  45  on  Mt  Cameroun  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  This  makes  Cameroon  one  of 
the  richest  countries  floristically  in  Africa. 

Floristic  affinities  Sudanian  in  north,  and  Guinea-CongoUan  in  south.  Mt  Cameroun  and 
several  other  upland  areas  north-east  from  it  hold  Afromontane  species.  The  lowland 
forests  of  south-west  Cameroon  are  especially  rich  in  endemics,  with  a  number  of  diverse, 
species-rich  communities. 

Vegetation  Extensive  lowland  rain  forest  interspersed  with  secondary  grassland 
and  cultivation,  but  considerable  area  of  Sudanian  woodland  in  northern  part  of  country 
and  sub-sahelian  wooded  grassland  in  extreme  north.  Also  mangrove  forest  along  coast. 
Inland,  in  a  band  more  or  less  SW-NE,  extensive  Afromontane  communities,  including 
montane  forest  and  grassland. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  800  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
179,200  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  quotes 
the  following  estimates  for  the  amount  of  primary  forest  remaining:  175,000  sq.  km  (Dept 
of  Forestry);  130,000  sq.  km  GJnesco,  1978).  A  further  60,000  sq.  km  have  been  given  out 
as  timber  concessions. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Mt  Cameroun  is  included  in  Hochgebirgsflora  (Engler, 
1892),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Aubreville,  A.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1963- ).  Flore  du  Cameroun.  Ministere  de  I'Enseignement 
Superieur  et  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique,  Yaounde;  Museum  National  d'Histoire 
Naturelle,  Paris.  (27  fascicles  so  far;  Flora  less  than  half  published.) 

Letouzey,  R.  et  al.  (1978-1979).  Flore  du  Cameroun:  Documents  Phytogeographiques, 
Nos.  1  &  2.  Centre  National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique,  Museum  National 
d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris.  (2  portfolios:  introduction,  maps  1:5,000,000,  and 
information  on  tree  species  of  which  the  generic  name  begins  with  the  letters  "A" 
and  "B".) 

Field-guides  Letouzey  (1969-1972),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  contains  information 
about  the  forests  of  Cameroon. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  389  (see  above)  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be 
endemic:  V:22,  R:17,  1:34,  K:237,  nt:79. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  There  is  legislation  forbidding  the  removal  of  trees  less 
than  a  certain  diameter,  and  the  collection  of  some  rare  plants. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Victoria  Botanic  Gardens,  Limbe. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  of  Wildlife  and  National  Parks,  General 

Delegation  for  Tourism,  Yaounde. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Wildlife  College,  B.P.  271,  Garoua;  and:  Delegate  General 

for  Scientific  Technological  Research,  B.P.  1457,  Yaounde. 

Additional  References 

Letouzey,  R.  (1968a).  Etude  Phytogiographique  du  Cameroun.  Lechevalier,  Paris. 
511  pp.  (With  60  black  and  white  photographs  and  several  small-scale  maps.) 

56 


Cameroon 

Letouzey,  R.  (1968b).  Cameroun.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1 
Pp.  115-121. 


Campbell  Islands 


A  group  consisting  of  Campbell  Island,  of  area  1 13  sq.  km,  and  a  number  of  offlying  islets 
and  rocks,  c.  700  km  south  of  New  Zealand,  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean.  The  islands  are 
remnants  of  a  dissected  volcanic  dome;  the  highest  point  is  Mount  Honey  (567  m).  The 
islands  were  declared  a  Reserve  for  Preservation  of  Fauna  and  Flora  in  1954  and  are 
administered  by  the  Department  of  Lands  and  Survey,  New  Zealand. 

Area  1 14  sq.  km 

Population  No  permanent  residents;  10-12  staff  of  the  meteorological  station  on 
Campbell  Island  (Clark  and  Dingwall,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Floristics  223  native  vascular  plant  taxa,  and  85  introduced  taxa  (Meurk  and 
Given,  in  prep.).  3  endemics  {Flora  of  New  Zealand,  1961,  cited  under  New  Zealand). 

Vegetation  Tussock  grassland  on  steep  coastal  slopes;  Dracophyllum  and 
Coprosma  scrub  found  in  sheltered  gullies  to  180  m;  above  300  m,  Bulbinella  and  rush 
communities  dominate  an  underturf  of  grasses,  bryophytes  and  lichens.  Virtually  the 
whole  island  is  covered  by  thick  peat  deposits,  often  over  1  m  deep;  in  wetter  areas, 
sphagnum  bog  and  peat  moors.  The  offshore  islets  have  Poa  foliosa  grassland  and 
herbaceous  communities.  On  Campbell  Island,  introduced  sheep,  and  the  burning  of  scrub 
for  pasture,  has  modified  the  vegetation,  and  has  led  to  the  erosion  of  peatlands.  Cattle 
have  been  completely  removed  and  there  is  a  programme  to  reduce  the  number  of  sheep 
(Clark  and  Dingwall,  in  prep.,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Campbell  Islands  are  included  in  the  Flora  of  New 
Zealand  (1961,  1970,  1980),  cited  under  New  Zealand. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  See  Given  (1981a),  cited  under  New  Zealand. 
Latest  lUCN  statistics:  world  threatened  non-endemic  taxa  -  R:l  (world  category). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  It  is  illegal  to  collect  or  introduce  plants  without  a  permit. 

Useful  Addresses 

Department  of  Lands  and  Survey,  Private  Bag,  Wellington,  New  Zealand. 

Additional  References 

Godley,  E.J.  (1969).  Additions  and  corrections  to  the  flora  of  the  Auckland  and 

Campbell  Islands.  N.Z.  J.  Bot.  7:  336-348.  (Covers  45  taxa.) 
Meurk,  CD.  (1975).  Contributions  to  the  flora  and  plant  ecology  of  Campbell  Island. 

N.Z.  J.  Bot.  13:  721-742.  (62  new  plant  records.) 
Meurk,  CD.  and  Given,  D.R.  (in  prep.).  The  vascular  flora  and  plant  communities  of 

Campbell  Island. 
Sorenson,  J.H.  (1951).  Botanical  investigations  on  Campbell  Island,  2:  an  annotated 

list  of  the  vascular  plants.  N.Z.  DSIR.  Cape  Exped.  Ser.  Bull.  7:  25-38. 


57 


Canada 

Based  upon  material  by  G.W.  Argus 

Area  9,922,387  sq.  km 

Population  25,302,000 

Floristics  About  3220  native  species  of  vascular  plants  and  about  880  introduced 
species  (Scoggan,  1978-1979).  Most  of  the  flora  has  recently  reoccupied  a  landscape  that 
was  covered  by  ice  sheets.  There  are,  however.  Pleistocene  refugia  on  northern  Ellesmere 
Island,  central  and  northern  Yukon,  the  mountains  of  Labrador  and  the  Gaspe  Peninsula, 
Quebec,  the  eastern  coastal  plain  (now  inundated),  and  the  Queen  Charlotte  Islands, 
British  Columbia.  The  most  floristically  diverse  regions  are  southern  British  Columbia  and 
southwestern  Ontario. 

Vegetation  North  of  the  tree-line,  arctic  tundra;  on  western  mountains  above  the 
tree-line  (which  is  at  900-2500  m,  depending  on  latitude)  alpine  tundra;  over  about  three- 
quarters  of  Canada  coniferous  forest,  dominated  by  White  Spruce  (Picea  glauca)  and 
Black  Spruce  (P.  mariana)  extending  from  Newfoundland  to  Alaska;  in  British  Columbia 
a  complex  assemblage  of  subalpine,  montane  and  coastal  coniferous  forests;  in  a  narrow 
band  across  central  and  western  Canada,  just  north  of  the  U.S.  border,  grassland  -  this 
includes  fescue  grassland,  tall  grass  prairie  (largely  destroyed  by  agriculture  and  now 
confined  to  Manitoba),  mixed  grass  and  short  grass  prairie  (southern  Saskatchewan  and 
Alberta),  and  Palouse  Prairie  (dry  interior  valleys  of  British  Columbia);  between  the 
prairie  and  coniferous  forest,  in  Central  Canada,  a  transition  zone  characterized  by 
Trembling  Aspen  (Populus  tremuloides);  between  the  coniferous  forest  and  the  tundra, 
transitional  Taiga,  characterized  by  open  spruce  woodlands  with  lichen  ground  cover;  in 
eastern  Canada,  around  the  Great  Lakes  region,  mainly  deciduous  forest,  e.g.  of  maple, 
oak  and  other  hardwood  trees,  but  predominantly  of  conifers  in  some  areas.  (Partly  from 
Skoggan,  1978,  who  outHnes  other  plant  communities). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  national  Flora  is: 

Scoggan,  H.J.  (1978-1979).  The  Flora  of  Canada,  4  vols.  National  Museum  of  Natural 
Sciences,  Ottawa.  Publications  in  Botany  7.  (Complete.) 

North  American  checklists  that  include  Canada  are  cited  under  the  United  States,  which 
does  not  have  a  National  Flora.  Regional  and  provincial  Floras  and  checklists  include: 

Boivin,  B.  (1967-1979).  Flora  of  the  Prairie  Provinces:  a  handbook  to  the  flora  of  the 

provinces  of  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  and  Alberta.  Phytologia  15:  121-159,  329-446; 

16:  1-47,  219-261,  265-339;  17:  57-112;  18:  281-293;  22:  315-398;  23:  1-140;  42:  1-24, 

385-414;  43:  1-106,223-251. 
Calder,  J. A.  and  Taylor,  R.L.  (1968).  Flora  of  the  Queen  Charlotte  Islands.  Part  1, 

Systematics  of  the  vascular  plants.  Canada  Dept  Agriculture,  Research  Branch, 

Monogr.  4(1).  659  pp. 
Gleason,  H.A.  and  Cronquist,  A.  (1963).  Manual  of  Vascular  Plants  of  Northeastern 

United  States  and  Adjacent  Canada.  Van  Nostrand,  Princeton,  New  Jersey.  810  pp. 

(Covers  New  Brunswick,  Prince  Edward  Island,  and  parts  of  Ontario  and  Quebec 

south  of  the  47th  parallel.) 
Hulten,  E.  (1968).  Flora  of  Alaska  and  Neighboring  Territories:  a  manual  of  the 

vascular  plants.  Stanford  Univ.  Press,  Stanford,  Calif.  1008  pp.  (Covers  Yukon  and 

northwestern  British  Columbia.) 

58 


Canada 

Marie- Victorin,  E.C.  (1964).  Flora  Laurentienne.  Les  Presses  de  I'Universite  de 

Montreal,  Montreal,  Quebec.  925  pp. 
Moss,  E.H.  (1983).  Flora  of  Alberta,  2nd  Ed.  revised  by  J.G.  Packer.  Univ.  Toronto 

Press.  687  pp.  (Includes  dot  maps.) 
Porsild,  A.E.  and  Cody,  W.J.  (1980).  Vascular  Plants  of  Continental  Northwest 

Territories,  Canada.  National  Museums  of  Canada,  Ottawa.  667  pp.  (Includes  line 

drawings  and  dot  maps;  area  covered  is  between  60th  parallel  and  Arctic  Ocean,  and 

from  Yukon-Mackenzie  border  to  west  coast  of  Hudson  Bay.) 
Roland,  A.E.  (1947).  The  flora  of  Nova  Scotia.  Proc.  Nova  Scotia  Inst.  Sci.  21: 

94-642.  (2nd  Ed.  in  2  parts  by  A.E.  Roland  and  E.C.  Smith,  1966,  1969.) 
Scoggan,  H.J.  (1957).  Flora  of  Manitoba.  National  Museum  of  Canada,  Bulletin  No. 

140.  619  pp. 
Taylor,  R.L.  and  MacBryde,  B.  (1977).  Vascular  Plants  of  British  Columbia:  A 

descriptive  resource  inventory.  Botanical  Garden,  Univ.  of  British  Columbia, 

Vancouver,  Tech.  Bull.  No.  4.  754  pp. 
Welsh,  S.L.  (1974).  Anderson's  Flora  of  Alaska  and  Adjacent  Parts  of  Canada. 

Brigham  Young  Univ.  Press,  Provo,  Utah.  724  pp.  (Covers  Yukon  and  northwestern 

British  Columbia.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  Project 
(address  below)  is  publishing  rare  plant  lists  for  the  Canadian  provinces  and  territories. 
These  are  annotated  lists,  in  English  and  French,  of  taxa  with  notes  on  habitat  and 
distribution  but  with  only  limited  indications  of  degree  of  threat.  Dot  maps  are  included 
except  for  the  Ontario  and  Alberta  lists.  For  further  details  of  the  programme  see  Argus 
(1977). 

Argus,  G.  W.  and  White,  D.  J.  (1977).  The  rare  vascular  plants  of  Ontario.  Syllogeus  14. 
Argus,  G.W.  and  White,  D.J.  (1978).  The  rare  vascular  plants  of  Alberta. 

Syllogeus  17. 
Argus,  G.W.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1982-  ).  Atlas  of  the  Rare  Vascular  Plants  of  Ontario.  First 

two  parts  edited  by  G.W.  Argus  and  D.J.  White  (1982,  1983),  3rd  part  by 

G.W.  Argus  and  C.J.  Keddy  (1984),  4th  and  final  part  by  G.W.  Argus  and 

K.  Pryer  (in  prep.).  National  Museum  of  Natural  Sciences,  Ottawa,  Ontario. 

(Supercedes  Argus  and  White,  1977.) 
Bouchard,  A.D.,  Barabe,  D.,  Dumais,  M.  and  Hay,  S.  (1983).  The  rare  vascular  plants 

of  Quebec.  Syllogeus  48. 
Douglas,  G.W.,  Argus,  G.W.,  Dickson,  H.L.  and  Brunton,  D.F.  (1981).  The  rare 

vascular  plants  of  the  Yukon.  Syllogeus  28. 
Hinds,  H.  (1983).  The  rare  vascular  plants  of  New  Brunswick.  Syllogeus  50. 
Maher,  R.V.,  Argus,  G.W.,  Harms,  V.L.  and  Hudson,  J.H.  (1979).  The  rare  vascular 

plants  of  Saskatchewan.  Syllogeus  20.  (Reviewed  in  Threatened  Plants  Committee  - 

Newsletter,  No.  5:  11,  1980.) 
Maher,  R.V.,  White,  D.J.,  Argus,  G.W.  and  Keddy,  P.A.  (1978).  The  rare  vascular 

plants  of  Nova  Scotia.  Syllogeus  18. 
Taylor,  R.L.,  Douglas,  G.W.  and  Straley,  G.  (in  press).  The  rare  vascular  plants  of 

British  Columbia.  Syllogeus. 
White,    D.J.    and   Johnson,   K.L.    (1980).    The   rare   vascular   plants   of  Manitoba. 

Syllogeus  27. 

A  computerized  list  of  the  rare  and  endangered  vascular  plants  in  Canada  was  compiled  at 
the  University  of  Waterloo  and  last  updated  in  1978.  Abbreviated  version  published  as: 


59 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Kershaw,  L.J.  and  Morton,  J.K.  (1976).  Rare  and  potentially  endangered  species  in  the 
Canadian  flora  -  A  preliminary  list  of  vascular  plants.  Can.  Bot.  Assoc.  Bull.  9(2): 
26-30. 

The  complete  list  was  included  as  an  appendix  in: 

Kershaw,  L.J.  (1976).  A  Phytogeographical  Survey  of  Rare,  Endangered  and  Extinct 
Plants  in  the  Canadian  Flora.  M.Sc.  Thesis,  Univ.  of  Waterloo,  Ontario. 

Also  relevant: 

Guppy,  G.A.  (1977).  Endangered  plants  in  British  Columbia.  Davidsonia  8:  24-30. 

Isnor,  W.  (1981).  Provisional  Notes  on  the  Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  and  Animals 
of  Nova  Scotia.  Curatorial  Report  No.  46,  Nova  Scotia  Museum,  1747  Summer 
Str.,  Halifax,  Nova  Scotia  B3H  3A6.  (Notes  on  identification,  distribution,  habitat 
and  vulnerability  for  82  vascular  plants,  with  dot  maps.) 

The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  includes  7  species  for  Canada.  No  lUCN  statistics;  there 
are  c.  500  species  that  are  rare  throughout  Canada. 

The  Committee  on  the  Status  of  Endangered  Wildlife  in  Canada  (COSEWIC),  a 
committee  established  in  1977  of  the  Canadian  Federal-Provincial  Wildlife  Conference,  is 
charged  with  preparing  status  reports  and  assigning  status  to  Canadian  species  in  jeopardy 
(Haber,  1983).  This  has  been  done  for  19  plant  species,  including  7  'endangered',  8 
'threatened'  and  4  'rare'.  The  status  reports  are  available  at  cost  from  Canadian  Nature 
Federation  (see  below). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Complex  and  numerous;  mostly  at  provincial  level;  for 
details  see  Argus  (1977). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Canadian  Nature  Federation,  75  Albert  Street,  Ottawa,  Ontario  KIL  8B9. 

Nature  Conservancy  of  Canada,  22  Hillside  Drive  S.,  Toronto,  Ontario  M4K  2M2. 

WWF-Canada,  60  St  Clair  Ave.  E.,  Suite  201,  Toronto,  Ontario  M4T  IN5. 

Botanic  Gardens  The  following  Canadian  botanic  gardens  subscribe  to  the  lUCN 
Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body. 

Devonian  Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Alberta,  Room  B-414,  Biological  Sciences 

Centre,  Edmonton,  Alberta  T6G  2E9. 
Jardin  Botanique  de  la  ville  de  Montreal,  4101  rue  Sherbrooke  est,  Montreal,  Quebec 

HIX  2B2. 
Oxen  Pond  Botanic  Park,  Memorial  University  of  Newfoundland,  St  John's, 

Newfoundland  AlC  5S7. 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  P.O.  Box  3990,  Hamilton,  Ontario  L8N  3H8. 
University  of  British  Columbia  Botanical  Garden,  6501  Northwest  Marine  Drive, 

Vancouver,  B.C.  V6T  1W5. 
University  of  Guelph  Arboretum,  Guelph,  Ontario  NIG  2W1. 

Useful  Addresses 

Committee  on  the  Status  of  Endangered  Wildlife  in  Canada  (COSEWIC),  Canadian 
Wildlife  Service,  Dept  of  the  Environment,  Ottawa,  Ontario,  KIA  0E7. 

National  Museum  of  Natural  Sciences,  National  Museums  of  Canada,  Ottawa,  Ontario 
KIA  0M8. 

Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  Project,  Botany  Division,  National  Museum  of  Natural 
Sciences,  Ottawa,  Ontario  KIA  0M8. 

60 


Canada 

CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Administrator,  CITES,  Canadian  WildHfe  Service, 
Dept  of  Environment,  Ottawa,  Ontario  KIA  0E7. 

Additional  References 

Argus,  G.W.  (1977).  Canada.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Eiias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  17-29. 
Argus,  G.W.  and  McNeill,  J.  (1974).  Conservation  of  evolutionary  centres  in  Canada. 

In  Maini,  J.S.  and  Carlisle,  A.,  Conservation  in  Canada:  A  Conspectus.  Dept  of 

Environment,  Canadian  Forest  Service  Publication  1340.  Pp.  131-141. 
Haber,  E.  (1983).  A  report  on  the  work  of  COSEWIC.  The  Plant  Press  1(3):  45-47. 
Morton,  J.K.  (Ed.)  (1976).  Proceedings  of  the  Symposium:  Man's  Impact  on  the 

Canadian  Flora.  Canadian  Botanical  Association  Bulletin,  Suppl.  to  Vol.  9,  No.  1. 
Scudder,  G.C.E.  (1979).  Present  patterns  in  the  fauna  and  flora  of  Canada.  In  Danks, 

H.V.,  Canada  and  its  insect  fauna.  Mem.  Entomol.  Soc.  Can.  108:  87-179. 
Soper,  J.H.  (1979).  Nature  conservation  in  Canada.  In  Hedberg,  I.  (Ed.),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  143-146. 


Canary  Islands 


An  archipelago  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean  off  the  north-west  coast  of  Africa,  between  Madeira 
and  the  Cape  Verde  Islands  and  belonging  to  Spain.  Comprises  the  2  Spanish  metropolitan 
provinces  of  Las  Palmas  de  Gran  Canaria  and  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife.  Las  Palmas 
province  includes  Gran  Canaria,  Fuerteventura  and  Lanzarote  together  with  3  islets  - 
Alegranza,  Graciosa,  Lobos  -  and  several  uninhabited  rocks.  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife 
province  comprises  the  islands  of  Tenerife,  La  Palma,  Gomera  and  Hierro. 

Area  7273  sq.  km 

Population  1,394,288  (local  figures,  1979) 

Floristics  About  2(XX)  species  of  native  and  introduced  vascular  plants  (D. 
Bramwell,  1985,  pers.  comm.),  mostly  of  native  Mediterranean  species  and  introduced 
weeds  and  aliens.  This  includes  a  remarkable  endemic  flora  of  over  500  taxa  (lUCN 
figures),  with  19  endemic  genera  (Bramwell,  1976). 

Generally  considered  to  be  a  relict  flora,  with  affinities  to  Tertiary  Mediterranean  flora; 
many  endemics  have  their  nearest  relatives  in  South  and  East  Africa,  and  even  South 
America,  being  considered  to  be  relicts  of  an  African  Tertiary  'Rand'  flora  (Bramwell, 
1974,  1976  and  1985  pers.  comm.). 

Vegetation  In  the  western  and  central  islands  extensive  woods;  in  the  eastern 
islands  mostly  xerophytic  scrub,  reflecting  the  more  arid  climate  of  North  Africa. 
Bramwell  (1974)  lists  6  vegetation  types,  which  show  striking  altitudinal  zonation:  semi- 
desert  succulent  scrub  (0-700  m);  juniper  scrub  (south  slopes,  400-600  m);  tree  heath  and 
evergreen  forest,  the  former  of  Erica  arborea,  the  latter  of  Lauraceae,  forming  the  famous 
and  species-rich  laurel  forests,  of  which  only  small  areas  remain  (400-1300  m);  savanna  of 
Pinus  canariensis  (800-1900  m);  montane  scrub  (1900-2500  m);  and  subalpine  scrub  (only 
on  Pico  de  Teide,  Tenerife,  c.  2600  m).  In  Gran  Canaria  the  laurel  forest  is  now  less  than 
1%  of  its  original  extent;  on  Tenerife  about  10%. 


61 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Canaries  are  covered  by  the  Flora  of  Macaronesia 
checklist  (Hansen  and  Sunding,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  There  is  no  Canarian  Flora, 
but  see: 

Kunkel,  G.  (1974- ).  Flora  de  Gran  Canaria.  10  vols  projected,  4  completed.  Excmo. 

Cabildo  Insular  de  Gran  Canaria,  Las  Palmas.  (1  -  arboles  y  arbustos  arb6reos;  2  - 

enredaderas,  trepadoras  y  rastreras;  3  -  las  plantas  suculentas;  4  -  los  subarbustos; 

illus.) 
Lid,  J.  (1967).  Contributions  to  the  Flora  of  the  Canary  Islands.  Universitetsforlaget, 

Oslo.  212  pp.  (Annotated  list  of  species  with  keys.) 
Santos  Guerra,  A.  (1983).  Vegetacidn  y  Flora  de  La  Palma.  Editorial  Interinsular 

Canaria,  Tirso  de  Molina  8,  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife.  348  pp.  (Includes  catalogue  of 

flora  with  distribution  maps  for  most  of  the  Macaronesian  and  Canarian  endemics; 

maps  of  actual  and  potential  vegetation;  colour  illus.) 

The  Jardi'n  Botanico  "Viera  y  Clavijo"  is  creating  a  computer  database  on  the  Canarian 
flora,  developed  from  the  Flora  of  Macaronesia  checklist. 

Three  Canarian  journals  contain  numerous  articles  on  the  flora:  Botanica  Macarondsica, 
published  by  Jardin  Botanico  "Viera  y  Clavijo",  Cuadernos  de  Botanica  Canaria, 
published  privately,  now  discontinued,  and  Vieraea,  published  by  Museo  Insular  de 
Ciencias  Naturales,  Tenerife. 

Field-guides 

Bramwell,  D.  and  Z.I.  (1974).  Wild  Flowers  of  the  Canary  Islands.  Stanley  Thornes, 
London.  261  pp.  (Keys,  descriptions,  illus.,  mostly  of  the  endemics;  also  describes 
areas  of  botanical  interest.)  Spanish  edition  as  Flores  Silvestres  de  las  Islas  Canarias, 
2nd  Ed.,  1983,  Editorial  Rueda,  Porto  Cristo  13,  Alcorcon,  Madrid;  German  edition 
as  Kanarische  Flora:  Illustrierter  Fiihrer,  1983,  Editorial  Rueda  (without  the  keys 
and  descriptions). 

Kunkel,  G.  (1981).  Arboles  y  Arbustos  de  las  Islas  Canarias:  Quia  de  Campo. 
Coleccion  Botanica  Canaria,  Vol.  1.  138  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 

The  Caja  Insular  de  Ahorras  de  Gran  Canaria,  with  the  Jardin  Botanico  "Viera  y 
Clavijo",  have  prepared  a  set  of  data  cards  with  colour  illustrations  of  Canarian  plants, 
mostly  endemic  and  threatened. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  national  threatened  plant  list  has  recently 
been  published: 

Barreno,  E.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1984).  Listado  de  Plantas  Endemicas,  Raras  o  Amenazadas  de 
Espana.  Informacion  Ambiental.  Conservacionismo  en  Espaha.  No.  3.  (Includes 
separate  lists  for  peninsula  Spain,  Balearic  Islands  and  Canary  Islands;  for  the  latter 
578  threatened  endemic  taxa  are  listed;  compiled  with  the  agreement  of  numerous 
authoritative  Spanish  botanists,  it  is  now  the  definitive  list.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1.  Latest  lUCN  statistics  based  upon  Barreno  (1984):  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l, 
E:126,  V:119,  R:132,  1:5,  K:26,  nt:160;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:l, 
V:17,  R:2,  1:1  (world  categories).  See  also: 

Bramwell,  D.  and  Perez,  J. P.  (1982).  Prioridades  para  la  conservacion  de  la  diversidad 
genetica  en  la  flora  de  las  Islas  Canarias.  Botanica  Macaronesica  10:  3-17.  (Classifies 
the  species  from  the  1980  lUCN  list  in  terms  of  the  priorities  of  the  World 
Conservation  Strategy.) 

62 


Canary  Islands 

Kunkel,  G.  (Ed.)  (1975).  Inventario  de  los  Recursos  Naturales  Renovables  de  la 
Provincia  de  las  Palmas.  Excmo.  Cabildo  Insular,  Las  Palmas  de  Gran  Canada. 
156  pp.,  maps.  (Results  of  lUCN/WWF  Project  817,  undertaken  by  Asociacion 
Canaria  para  la  Defensa  de  la  Naturaleza.) 

The  Environment  Department  of  the  Autonomous  Government  of  the  Canary  Islands  is 
preparing  a  protected  area  programme  for  the  Canarian  flora. 

Voluntary  Organizations  Several  local  ecology  groups,  the  most  important  being: 

Asociacion  Canaria  para  la  Defensa  de  la  Naturaleza  (ASCAN),  c/o  Presidente  Alvear 
50,  Las  Palmas  de  Gran  Canaria. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardi'n  Botanico  "Viera  y  Clavijo",  Apto  de  Correos  14  de  Tafira  Alta,  35017  Las 

Palmas  de  Gran  Canaria. 
Jardfn  de  Aclimatacion  de  la  Orotava,  Puerto  de  la  Cruz,  Tenerife. 

Useful  Addresses 

Gobierno  de  Canarias,  Consejeria  de  Obras  Publicas,  Ordenacion  de  Teritorio  y  Medio 
Ambiente,  Edificio  Hamilton,  Santa  Cruz  de  Tenerife. 

Additional  References 

Bramwell,  D.  (1976).  The  endemic  flora  of  the  Canary  Islands;  distribution, 

relationships  and  phytogeography.  In  Kunkel,  G.  (Ed.),  see  below.  Pp.  207-240. 

Ceballos,  L.C.  and  Ortuno,  F.  (1976).  Estudio  sobre  la  Vegetacion  y  Flora  Forestal  de 
las  Canarias  Occidentales ,  2nd  Ed.  Excmo.  Cabildo  Insular,  Sta  Cruz  de  Tenerife. 
433  pp.  (Covers  Gomera,  Hierro,  La  Palma,  Tenerife;  illus.,  vegetation  maps.) 

Hernandez,  P.H.  (1979).  Natura  y  Cultura  de  las  Islas  Canarias,  3rd  Ed.  La  Cultura, 
Apto  de  Correos,  1012  Las  Palmas  de  Gran  Canaria. 

Kunkel,  G.  (Ed.)  (1976).  Biogeography  and  Ecology  in  the  Canary  Islands.  Junk,  The 
Hague.  511  pp.  (Includes  essays  on  the  Hierro  laurisilva  by  E.  Schmid  (pp.  241-248), 
the  introduced  elements  in  the  flora  by  G.  Kunkel  (pp.  249-266),  the  influence  of 
man  on  Hierro  vegetation  by  F.  Kammer  (pp.  327-346)  and  on  conservation  by 
M.  Sutton  (pp.  479-483).) 

Sunding,  P.  (1973).  A  Botanical  Bibliography  of  the  Canary  Islands,  2nd  Ed.  Botanical 
Garden,  Univ.  of  Oslo.  46  pp. 


Canton  and  Enderbury 
Islands 


Canton  (9  sq.  km)  and  Enderbury  (6.5  sq.  km)  are  low  coral  atolls  2620  km  south-west  of 
the  Hawaiian  islands  and  north  of  the  Phoenix  Islands  in  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The  islands 
are  jointly  administered  by  the  United  States  and  United  Kingdom.  There  are  no 
permanent  inhabitants. 

Canton  (2°50'S,  171°40'W)  has  14  native  species  and  over  150  introduced  weeds 
(Hatheway,  1955).  Most  of  the  flora  consists  of  wide-ranging  Indo-Pacific  strand  plants. 
The  vegetation  consists  mainly  of  Scaevola  and  Tournefortia  scrub,  Portulaca  herbaceous 
communities  and  a  few  Cordia  trees  and  coconuts.  Hatheway  (1955)  reported  that  23%  of 

63 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

the  land  surface  of  Canton  had  little  or  no  natural  vegetation,  and  a  further  40%  consisted 
of  disturbed  ground. 

References 

Degener,  O.  and  I.  (1959).  Canton  Island,  South  Pacific  (Resurvey  of  1958).  Atoll  Res. 

Bull.  64.  24  pp.  (Includes  notes  on  flora.) 
Degener,  O.  and  Gillaspy,  E.  (1955).  Canton  Island,  South  Pacific.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  41. 

51  pp.  (Checklist  of  introductions  and  notes  on  68  species  on  Canton.) 
Hatheway,  W.H.  (1955).  The  natural  vegetation  of  Canton  Island,  an  equatorial 

Pacific  atoll.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  43.  9  pp. 
Luomala,  K.  (1951).  Plants  of  Canton  Island,  Phoenix  Islands.  Occ.  Papers  Bernice  P. 

Bishop  Mus.  20(11):  157-174.  (59  taxa  listed.) 


Cape  Verde 


The  Cape  Verde  Islands,  445  km  off  the  west  coast  of  Africa,  consist  of  two  groups  of 
volcanic  islands:  Windward  (Santo  Antao,  Sao  Vicente,  Santa  Luzia,  Sao  Nicolau,  Sal  and 
Boa  Vista)  and  Leeward  (Maio,  Sao  Tiago,  Fogo  and  Brava).  They  occupy  14°48'- 
17°12'N,  22°44'-25°22'W.  The  highest  point  is  2829  m  on  Fogo. 

Area  4033  sq.  km 

Population  317,000 

Floristics  c.  659  species  of  vascular  plants  including  introductions  (Sunding, 
1973,  1974);  92  endemics  (Humphries,  1979). 

Lowland  species  with  tropical  affinities;  mountain  species  with  Macaronesian  or 
Mediterranean  affinities. 

Vegetation  Original  vegetation  almost  totally  destroyed  and  potential  vegetation 
impossible  to  assess.  Mostly  now  lowland  arid  pastures  with  large  numbers  of  goats,  and 
agricultural  crops  and  plantations  on  fertile  slopes.  More  arid  pastures  above  c.  1400  m, 
and  more  or  less  bare  rocky  summits  at  the  highest  altitudes  on  Fogo  and  Santo  Antao. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Cape  Verde  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  Macaronesia 
checklist  (Hansen  and  Sunding,  1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Chevalier,  A.  (1935a).  Les  lies  du  Cap  Vert.  Geographic,  biogeographie,  agriculture. 

Flore  de  I'Archipel.  Rev.  Bot.  Appl.  Agric.  Trop.  15:  733-1090.  (Includes  annotated 

checklist,  pp.  867-1074.) 
Chevalier,  A.  (1946).  Additions  a  la  flore  des  lies  du  Cap  Vert.  In  Contribution  a 

I'Etude  du  Peuplement  des  lies  Atlantides,  Mem.  Soc.  Biogeogr.  8:  349-356. 
Sunding,  P.  (1973).  Check-list  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  the  Cape  Verde  Islands. 

Botanical  Garden,  Univ.  of  Oslo,  Oslo.  36  pp.  (Includes  distributions.) 
Sunding,  P.  (1974).  Additions  to  the  vascular  flora  of  the  Cape  Verde  Islands.  Garcia 

de  Orta,  Sir.  Bot.  2(1):  5-30. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 


64 


Cape  Verde 

Useful  Addresses 

Ministerio  de  Desenvolvimento  Rural,  C.P.  50,  Praia,  S.  Tiago. 

Additional  References 

Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1968a).  L'archipel  du  Cap-Vert.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O. 

(1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  94-97. 
Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1968b).  Vegetation.  In  Bannerman,  D.A.  and  W.M.  (Eds), 

History  of  the  Birds  of  the  Cape  Verde  Islands.  Oliver  and  Boyd,  Edinburgh. 

Pp.  58-61.  (Birds  of  the  Atlantic  Islands,  vol.  4.) 
Chevalier,  A.  (1935b).  Aper?u  sur  la  vegetation  des  Ties  de  Cap  Vert.  Compt.  Rend. 

Somm.  Seanc.  Soc.  Biogeogr.  99:  21-24. 
Humphries,  C.J.  (1979).  Endemism  and  evolution  in  Macaronesia.  In  Bramwell,  D. 

(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  171-lS^. 
Sunding,  P.  (1977).  A  botanical  bibliography  of  the  Cape  Verde  Islands.  Bol.  Mus. 

Munic.  Funchal  31:  100-109. 
Sunding,  P.  (1979).  Origins  of  the  Macaronesian  flora.  In  Bramwell,  D.  (Ed.),  Plants 

and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  13-40. 
Teixeira,  A.J.  da  Silva  and  Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1958).  A  agricultura  do 

Arquipelago  de  Cabo  Verde.  Mem.  Junta  Invest.  Ultram.,  Sir.  2  2,  and  Mem.  Trab. 

No.  26,  Ministerio  do  Uhramar,  Lisboa.  178  pp.  (With  10  maps  in  colour, 

1:50,000-1:100,000;  77  plates  of  photographs.) 


Cargados  Carajos 


A  group  of  22  coralline  islands  c.  350  km  NNE  of  Mauritius  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  16°20'S, 
59°20'E;  made  up  of  sand  banks,  shoals  and  islets.  Total  land  area  probably  c.  4  sq.  km. 
Also  called  St  Brandon,  after  the  name  of  the  principal  reef  complex.  Total  41  species, 
including  11  cultivated  species,  13  weeds  and  17  indigenous  pantropical  species.  No 
endemics.  (Staub  and  Gueho,  1968;  Renvoize,  1979.)  The  vegetation  consists  mostly  of 
littoral  scrub  and  herb  mat;  trees  more  or  less  absent  except  for  a  few  stunted  individuals. 

References 

Renvoize,  S.A.  (1979).  The  origins  of  Indian  Ocean  island  floras.  In  Bramwell,  D. 

(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  107-129. 
Staub,  F.  and  Gueho,  J.  (1968).  The  Cargados  Carajos  shoals  or  St  Brandon: 

resources,  avifauna  and  vegetation.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Arts  Sci.  Mauritius  3(1):  7-46. 

(Includes  annotated  checklist  of  plants.) 


Caroline  Islands 


An  archipelago  of  70  islands  in  the  west  Pacific  Ocean,  to  the  east  of  the  Philippines,  and 
extending  for  over  2500  km,  between  latitudes  5°-10°N  and  longitudes  130°-165°E.  In  the 
west,  the  Palau  Islands  comprise  volcanic  islands,  raised  limestone  islands  and  low  coral 
atolls,  including  several  hundred  islets  within  a  single  reef  system.  The  Yap  Islands,  north- 
east of  the  Palau  Islands,  are  mainly  metamorphic  and  old  volcanic  islands  surrounded  by 

65 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

broad  fringing  reefs.  Further  east  are  the  Truk  and  Ponape  Islands  which  include  high 
volcanic  islands  surrounded  by  barrier  reefs.  The  highest  point  is  791  m,  on  the  island  of 
Ponape.  The  Caroline  Islands  form  part  of  the  United  Nations  Trust  Territory  of  the 
Pacific  Islands  administered  by  the  United  States. 

Area  1170  sq.  km 

Population  85,910  (1980  estimate) 

Floristics  No  overall  figure  for  the  size  of  the  flora,  but  992  taxa  are 
dicotyledons,  of  which  609  are  native,  including  267  endemics  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and 
Oliver,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  201  native  fern  taxa,  of  which  26  are  endemic;  one 
native  non-endemic  gymnosperm  (Cycas  circinalis)  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1982, 
cited  in  Appendix  1).  Most  of  the  flora  of  the  Carolines  is  related  to  that  of  Indo-Malesia 
and  Melanesia-New  Guinea. 

Vegetation  Evergreen  rain  forest  and  savanna  woodlands  on  the  Yap  Islands; 
lowland  rain  forest,  with  Campnosperma,  Manilkara,  Calophyllum,  Eugenia,  Ficus,  and 
tree  ferns  on  the  Palau,  Truk  and  Ponape  Islands;  mixed  forests  on  limestone  on  Fais,  in 
the  Yap  group,  and  in  southern  Palau;  montane  rain  forest  on  Ponape  and  Kusaie,  in  the 
Ponape  group,  and  on  the  summit  of  Mt  Winibot  (480  m)  on  Tol,  in  the  Truk  group; 
mangrove  forest  on  south-west  and  south-east  coasts  of  Ponape,  and  south  and  north-west 
coasts  of  Kusaie. 

Much  of  the  natural  vegetation  has  been  cleared  for  coconut  plantations  (e.g.  on  Yap  and 
Puluwat,  in  the  Yap  group)  or  disturbed  by  phosphate  mining  (e.g.  on  the  raised  coral 
island  of  Fais).  Few  areas  of  native  vegetation  remain  on  the  Truk  Islands,  except  on  the 
high  volcanic  islands  of  Moen,  Dublon,  Uman,  Fefan,  Udot  and  Tol.  Although  the 
lowland  forests  on  the  Ponape  Islands  have  been  much  disturbed,  both  Kusaie  and  the 
island  of  Ponape  retain  upland  forests.  See  Fosberg  (1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  for 
description  of  forests  and  conservation  problems. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Carolines  are  included  in  Flora  Micronesica 
(Kanehira,  1933),  the  regional  checklists  of  Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver  (1979,  1982),  and 
will  be  covered  in  the  Flora  of  Micronesia  (1975- ),  all  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Separate 
accounts  for  individual  islands  include: 

Alkire,  W.H.  (1974).  Native  classification  of  flora  on  Woleai  Atoll.  Micronesica  10(1): 

1-5.  (Lists  84  species  with  vernacular  names.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.  (1969).  Plants  of  Satawal  Island,  Caroline  Islands.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  132. 

13  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  6  native  fern  species;  97  angiosperm  taxa,  of 

which  46  introduced.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.  and  Evans,  M.  (1969).  A  collection  of  plants  from  Fais,  Caroline 

Islands.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  133.  15  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  3  native  fern 

species;  117  angiosperm  taxa,  of  which  59  introduced.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.,  Otobed,  D.,  Sachet,  M.-H.,  Oliver,  R.L.,  Powell,  D.A.  and  Canfield, 

J.E.  (1980).  Vascular  Plants  of  Palau  with  Vernacular  Names.  Smithsonian 

Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  43  pp.  (Checklists;  exotics  indicated.) 
Classman,  S.F.  (1952).  The  flora  of  Ponape.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus.  209. 

152  pp.  (Ponape  has  249  indigenous  angiosperms,  8  endemic.) 
Classman,  S.F.  (1957).  The  vascular  flora  of  Ponape  and  its  phytogeographical 

affinities.  In  Proc.  8th.  Pacific  Science  Congress  -  Botany.  Pp.  201-213. 


66 


Caroline  Islands 

Marshall,  M.  (1975).  The  natural  history  of  Namoluk  Atoll,  eastern  Caroline  Islands. 

Atoll  Res.  Bull.  189.  53  pp.  (Includes  annotated  list  of  113  taxa;  notes  on 

vegetation.) 
St  John,  H.  (1948).  Report  on  the  flora  of  Pingelap  Atoll,  Caroline  Islands, 

Micronesia,  and  observations  on  the  vocabulary  of  the  native  inhabitants.  Pacific 

Plant  Studies  7.  Pacific  Science  2:  96-113.  (Annotated  checklist  of  57  taxa,  32 

indigenous.) 
Stone,  B.C.  (1959).  Flora  of  Namonuito  and  the  Hall  Islands.  Pacific  Science  13: 

88-104.  (Annotated  checklist  of  94  species,  52  indigenous.) 
Stone,  B.C.  (1960).  Corrections  and  additions  to  the  Flora  of  the  Hall  Islands  and  to 

the  Flora  of  Ponape.  Pacific  Science  14:  408-410. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  4  vascular  plant  species  are  listed  as 
'Endangered'  in  Territorial  Register  2(1),  4  December  1976.  (Adopted  Regulations  Title  45 
-  Fish,  Shellfish  and  Game.) 


Cayman  Islands 


A  Dependent  Territory  of  the  U.K.  comprising  three  islands  -  Grand  Cayman  (the  largest 
-  35.5  km  by  13  km  at  its  widest).  Cayman  Brae  and  Little  Cayman.  They  lie  240  km  north- 
west of  Jamaica  and  772  km  south  of  Miami.  They  are  relatively  flat  and  low-lying  except 
for  Cayman  Brae,  which  is  bordered  by  cliffs  and  reaches  43  m  above  sea-level. 

Area  259  sq.  km 

Population  18,000 

Floristics  Just  over  600  species  of  vascular  plants,  of  which  102  are  either 
cultivated  or  naturalized  from  cultivation  (Proctor,  1984);  18  endemic  species  and  3 
endemic  varieties;  affinities  with  other  Antillean  islands  rather  than  Central  America 
(Proctor,  1984). 

Vegetation  Little  true  woodland  remains  on  Grand  Cayman;  a  few  isolated 
patches  of  dry  evergreen  forest  (in  the  east  of  Grand  Cayman  and  on  Cayman  Brae);  in  the 
uplands  dry  evergreen  thicket,  often  reduced  to  pasture;  littoral  thicket  on  northern  and 
eastern  shores,  grading  inland  to  dry  evergreen  bush  (much  of  western  end  of  Grand 
Cayman);  mangrove  (mainly  Grand  Cayman);  seasonal  grassland  swamp  (West  Bay  area 
of  Grand  Cayman). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Proctor,  G.R.  (1980).  Checklist  of  the  plants  of  Little  Cayman.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  241: 

71-80. 
Proctor,  G.R.  (1984).  Flora  of  the  Cayman  Islands.  Kew  Bulletin  Additional  Series  XI. 

834  pp.  (Includes  section  on  environment  and  plant  associations  by  M.A.  Brunt.) 

Cayman  Island  records  are  also  included  in  the  Jamaican  Flora  by  Adams  (1972)  and 
Proctor  (1982),  cited  under  Jamaica. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 


67 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Additional  References 

Sauer,  J.D.  (1982).  Cayman  Islands  Seashore  Vegetation:  A  Study  in  Comparative 
Biogeography.  University  of  California  Publications  Geography  Vol.  25.  Univ. 
California  Press,  Berkeley.  161  pp. 


Central  African  Republic 

Area  624,977  sq.  km 

Population  2,508,000 

Floristics  Flora  very  poorly  known.  3600  species  (Sillans,  1958);  almost  certainly 
too  low.  Of  these,  c.  1000  occur  in  the  rain  forest  with  c.  10  endemic,  and  2600  in  the 
savanna  with  c.  90  endemic  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Endemics  concentrated 
on  mountain  range  in  north-east. 

Floristic  affinities  predominantly  Sudanian,  but  also  Guinea-Congolian  in  south. 

Vegetation  Mostly  Sudanian  woodland  with  Isoberlinia,  Terminalia  and 
Combretum,  but  also  Sahelian  woodland  with  Acacia  in  extreme  north,  and  lowland  rain 
forest  interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cultivation  in  southern  quarter  of 
country.  Very  large  area  of  unexploited  moist  forest  round  Bangassou  south-east  of  centre 
of  country.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  50  sq. 
km/annum  out  of  35,900  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Boulvert,  Y.  (1980?).  Catalogue  de  la  Flore  de  I'Empire  Centrafricaine,  2  vols. 

ORSTOM,  20  rue  Monsieur,  Paris. 
Guigonis,  G.  (1970).  Liste  des  arbres  et  arbustes  vivant  dans  la  foret  dense  et  les 

galeries  de  la  Republique  Centrafricaine.  Cyclostyled.  30  pp.  (Lists  645  species.) 
Tisserant,  C.  (1950).  Catalogue  de  la  flore  de  I'Oubangui-Chari.  Mem.  Inst.  Etud. 

Centrafricaines  2.  165  pp.  Imprimerie  Julia,  Toulouse. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  117  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  no 
categories  assigned. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  des  chasses,  B.P.  830,  Bangui. 

Additional  References 

Aubreville,  A.  (1964).  La  foret  dense  de  la  Lobaye.  Cah.  Maboke  2(1):  5-9. 
Boulvert,  Y.  (1980).  Vegetation  forestiere  des  savanes  Centrafricaines.  Bois  Forets 

Trop.  191:  21-45.  (With  several  maps  and  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Guigonis,  G.  (1968).  Republique  Centrafricaine.  In  Hedberg,  1.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  107-111. 
Lanly,  J. P.  (1966).  La  foret  dense  centrafricaine.  Bois  Forets  Trop.  108:  43-55. 
Sillans,  R.  (1958).  Les  Savanes  de  I'Afrique  Centrale  Frangaise.  Lechevalier,  Paris. 

423  pp.  (Numerous  illustrations  throughout.) 


68 


Chad 

Area  1,284,000  sq.  km 

Population  4,901,000 

Floristics  1600  species,  1516  of  which  occur  south  of  16°N  (Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  The  Tibesti  Mountains  in  the  extreme  north  are  estimated  to  have  450  species 
(Lebrun,  1960,  cited  in  Appendix  1;  Maire  and  Monod,  1950).  Level  of  endemism  not 
known. 

Flora  with  Saharan  (north),   Sahelian  and  Sudanian  (south)  affinities.   The  Tibesti 
Mountains  have  Mediterranean,  Saharan,  Sahelian  and  Afromontane  elements. 

Vegetation  Northern  part  of  country  desert  with  little  or  no  permanent 
vegetation.  To  the  south,  in  the  Sahelian  zone,  which  has  a  short  wet  season,  semi-desert 
grassland  gradually  replaced  by  dry  wooded  grassland  with  Acacia  species.  Further  south 
the  higher  rainfall  in  the  Sudanian  Region  supports  woodland  without  characteristic 
dominants.  The  Tibesti  mountains  in  the  north  of  the  country  support  a  distinct  form  of 
montane  vegetation,  floristically  rich  and  unrelated  to  the  surrounding  lowlands;  it 
consists  of  grassland,  woodland  and  shrubland,  with  communities  of  Erica  arborea 
confined  to  narrow  fissures  on  the  higher  peaks. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  northern  part  of  Chad,  north  of  c.  16°N,  is  included  in 
Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and  in  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des 
Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes  (Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980);  both  of  these  are  cited 
in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Carvalho,  G.  and  Gillet,  H.  (1960).  Catalogue  raisonne  et  commente  des  plantes  de 
I'Ennedi  (Tchad  Septentrional).  J.  Agric.  Trop.  Bot.  Appl.  1:  49-96,  193-240, 
317-378.  (With  12  black  and  white  photographs.) 

Lebrun,  J. -P.,  Audru,  J.,  Gaston,  A.  and  Mosnier,  M.  (1972).  Catalogue  des  Plantes 
Vasculaires  du  Tchad  Meridional.  Etude  Botanique  No.  1,  Institut  d'Elevage  et  de 
Medecine  Veterinaire  des  Pays  Tropicaux,  Maisons-Alfort.  289  pp.  (Annotated 
checklist  covering  only  the  tropical  southern  part  of  Chad,  but  including  a  useful 
botanical  bibliography.) 

Lebrun,  J. -P.  and  Gaston,  A.  (1976).  Premier  supplement  au  "Catalogue  des  Plantes 
Vasculaires  du  Tchad  Meridional".  Adansonia,  Ser.  2,  15(3):  381-390. 

Lebrun,  J. -P.  and  Gaston,  A.  (1977).  Second  supplement  au  "Catalogue  des  Plantes 
Vasculaires  du  Tchad  Meridional".  Publ.  Cairo  Univ.  Herb.  7-8:  109-114. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  49  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic, 
including  R:10,  nt:4;  no  information  for  the  rest. 

Additional  References 

Gaston,  A.  (1980).  La  Vegetation  du  Tchad  (Nord-Est  et  Sud-Est  du  Lac  Tchad): 

Evolutions  Recentes  sous  des  Influences  Climatiques  et  Humaines.  Institut  d'Elevage 
et  de  Medecine  Veterinaire  des  Pays  Tropicaux,  Maisons-Alfort.  (Colour  map 
1:1,000,000  covering  about  a  quarter  of  Chad  with  unpublished  descriptive  thesis  of 
333  pp.) 

Gillet,  H.  (1968a).  Le  peuplement  vegetal  du  massif  de  I'Ennedi  (Tchad).  Mem.  Mus. 
Nat.  Hist.  Nat.  Paris,  n.s.  B,  17.  206  pp.  (With  66  black  and  white  photographs.) 

69 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Gillet,  H.  (1968b).  Tchad  et  Sahel  Tchadien.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  54-58. 
Lebrun,  J. -P.  (1983).  La  flore  des  massifs  Sahariens:  especes  illusoires  et  endemiques 

vraies.  In  Killick,  D.J.B.  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  511-515. 
Maire,  R.  and  Monod,  Th.  (1950).  Etudes  sur  la  flore  et  la  vegetation  du  Tibesti.  Mem. 

IFAN  S.  140  pp.,  plus  appendix. 
Pias,  J.  (1970).  La  Vegetation  du  Tchad:  Ses  Rapports  avec  les  Sols;  Variations 

Paleobotaniques  au  Quaternaire.  Trav.  Doc.  ORSTOM  6.  47  pp.  (With  coloured 

vegetation  map  1:1,500,000.) 
Quezel,  P.  (1958).  Mission  botanique  au  Tibesti.  Mem.  Inst.  Rech.  Sahariennes  4. 

357  pp.  (Notes  on  the  distribution  of  over  500  species,  description  of  vegetation;  30 

black  and  white  photographs.) 


Chatham  Islands 


An  isolated  group  of  islands  c.  800  km  east  of  South  Island,  New  Zealand.  The  main 
islands  (Chatham  and  Pitt)  are  surrounded  by  numerous  islets,  some  of  which  are  no  more 
than  precipitous  rocks.  Chatham  (963  sq.  km)  is  mostly  low  lying  but  reaches  about  270  m 
in  the  south.  It  is  geologically  heterogenous,  with  schists,  sandstones,  limestones,  and 
basaltic  tuffs  in  the  south.  Pitt  Island  is  more  rugged  and  mainly  basaltic.  Blanket  peat 
covers  much  of  both  Chatham  and  Pitt;  several  peat  domes  on  Chatham.  Some  of  the 
outlying  islets,  and  parts  of  Pitt  Island,  are  nature  reserves.  The  Chatham  Islands  are 
administered  by  the  New  Zealand  Department  of  Maori  and  Island  Affairs. 

Area  1235  sq.  km 

Population  751  (1981) 

Floristics  c.  300  vascular  plant  species  (Devine,  1982);  35-40  endemic  taxa  (Given, 
1984,  in  litt.y,  2  endemic  genera  (Embergeria  and  Myosotidium). 

Vegetation  The  original  vegetation  was  probably  a  mosaic  of  Karaka 
(Corynocarpus)  forest,  swamp  forest,  and  Tarahinau  (Dracophyllum)  forest  in  the 
lowlands,  with  mixed  broadleaved  forests  in  the  uplands.  Sporadanthus  moorland  and 
bogs  were  also  extensive.  Relatively  intact  natural  vegetation  occurs  on  the  Southern 
Tablelands  of  the  main  island,  but  elsewhere  vegetation  has  mostly  been  cleared  for 
agriculture,  or  modified  by  draining,  grazing  and  fires.  By  the  end  of  the  1960s  some  57  sq. 
km  of  Tarahinau  forest  remained,  mainly  on  Chatham  Island,  together  with  22  sq.  km  of 
Sporadanthus  bog  (Devine,  1982). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Chatham  Islands  are  included  in  the  Flora  of  New 
Zealand  (1961,  1970,  1980),  cited  under  New  Zealand.  See  also: 

Mueller,  F.  (1864).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Chatham-Islands.  Melbourne.  86  pp. 
(Includes  descriptive  accounts  of  87  vascular  plant  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Given  (1976,  1977,  1978),  cited  under  New 
Zealand,  includes  8  data  sheets  on  threatened  species  from  the  Chatham  Islands.  The  Red 
Data  Book  of  New  Zealand  (Williams  and  Given,  1981),  cited  under  New  Zealand, 
includes  data  sheets  on  9  species.  Myosotidium  hortensia  is  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant 
Red  Data  Book  (1978).  See  also: 

70 


Chatham  Islands 
Given,  D.R.  (1983).  Monitoring  and  science  -  the  next  stage  in  threatened  plant 

conservation  in  New  Zealand.  In  Given,  D.R.  (Ed.),  Conservation  of  Plant  Species 
and  Habitats.  Nature  Conservation  Council,  Wellington.  Pp.  83-101.  (Lists  7 
'endangered'  and  8  'vulnerable'  Chatham  Island  taxa,  including  non-endemics; 
population  sizes  indicated.) 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:6,  V:4,  R:6;  non-endemic  taxa  rare  or  threatened 
worldwide  -  V:4,  R:l,  1:1  (world  categories). 

Additional  References 

Cockayne,  L.  (1902).  A  short  account  of  the  plant-covering  of  Chatham  Island.  Trans. 

N.Z.  Inst.  34:  243-325. 
Devine,  W.T.  (1982).  Nature  conservation  and  land-use  history  of  the  Chatham 

Islands,  New  Zealand.  Biol.  Conserv.  23:  127-140. 

Several  surveys  have  been  undertaken  since  1970,  and  are  the  subject  of  a  number  of 
unpublished  reports  by  the  Botany  Division,  DSIR,  Christchurch,  including: 

Given,  D.R.  and  Williams,  P.A.  (1985).  Conservation  of  Chatham  Island  Flora  and 

Vegetation.  DSIR,  Christchurch,  123  pp. 
Kelly,  G.C.  (in  prep.).  Distribution  and  ranking  of  remaining  areas  of  indigenous 

vegetation  in  the  Chatham  Islands.  Department  of  Land  and  Surveys  Resource 

Inventory.  (Includes  map  with  extended  legend;  not  seen.) 


Chile 

Area  751,626  sq.  km 

Population    11,878,000 

Floristics  Over  5500  species  of  vascular  plants  (M.  Muiioz,  1984,  pers.  comm.). 
Endemism  over  50"Vo  at  specific  level  (Fuenzalida,  1984),  and  16%  at  generic  level  (Muiioz, 
pers.  comm.).  (Toledo,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1,  quoting  from  Gajardo-Michell,  1983, 
reports  4758  recorded  species,  2698  of  them  endemic.)  Floristic  affinities  with  California, 
New  Zealand,  Tasmania  and  New  Caledonia  (Munoz,  pers.  comm.). 

Vegetation  Very  diverse  due  to  Chile's  extreme  north-south  length  and  high 
altitudes.  In  the  north,  a  very  dry  region,  which  includes  the  Atacama  Desert;  vegetation 
varies  from  none  on  the  northern  coast  to  the  Loma  Formation  (see  under  Peru)  and 
deciduous  scrub  on  the  western  side  of  the  Andes;  at  high  altitudes  and  on  high  plateaux, 
very  dry  puna  and  salt  marsh  communities.  In  Central  Chile  a  Mediterranean  climate 
permits  growth  of  broadleaved  evergreen  shrubland  in  the  south,  and  lowland  and 
submontane  forest  on  the  Andean  slopes.  Much  of  central  Chile  is  cultivated.  In  the 
southern  third  of  the  country,  the  only  temperate  rain  forest  in  South  America,  the 
Valdivian  forest,  which  is  dense  and  rich  in  epiphytes  (Unesco,  1981,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 
In  the  extreme  south,  including  Tierra  del  Fuego,  temperate  and  subpolar  evergreen  moist 
forest  and  high  Andean  meadows.  Native  forests,  home  of  many  of  the  endemic  plants, 
now  cover  only  10%  of  the  country  (Fuenzalida,  1984). 

Checklists  and  Floras  That  part  of  Chile  north  of  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn  (nearly 
1500  km,  from  just  north  of  Antofagasta)  is  covered  by  the  family  and  generic 
monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica,  described  in  Appendix  1 .  Chilean  Floras  are: 

71 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Johow,  F.  (1948).  Flora  de  Zapallar.  Rev.  Chil.  Hist.  Nat.  49:  1-566. 

Munoz  P.,  C.  (1959).  Sinopsis  de  la  Flora  Chilena:  Claves  para  la  identificacidn  de 
familias  y  gineros.  Edit.  Univ.  Chile,  Santiago.  500  pp.  (Generic  vascular  flora,  but 
including  248  illus.  of  species;  includes  botanical  bibliography  of  Chile.) 

Reiche,  K.F.  (1886-1911).  Flora  de  Chile.  Cervantes,  Santiago.  (6  vols,  incomplete.) 

See  also: 

Moore,  D.M.  (1983).  Flora  of  Tierra  del  Fuego.  Nelson,  U.K.,  and  Missouri  Botanical 

Garden,  U.S.A.  396  pp. 
Navas  Bustamente,  L.E.  (1973-1979).  Flora  de  la  Cuenca  de  Santiago  de  Chile,  3  vols. 

Edit.  Univ.  Chile,  Santiago. 
Rodriguez,  R.R.,  Matthei,  O.  and  Quezada,  M.  (1983).  Flora  Arbdrea  de  Chile. 

Universidad  de  Concepcion.  408  pp.  (87  species  described  including  their  uses; 

vegetation  types  and  their  endemics.) 

See  also  Boelcke,  Moore  and  Roig  (1985),  under  Argentina. 

Field-guides 

Donoso,  C.  (1974).  Dendrologi'a:  Arboles  y  Arbustos  Chilenos.  Facuhad  de  Ciencias 

Forestales,  Universidad  Austral  de  Chile.  Manual  2.  142  pp. 
Donoso,  C.  (1981).  Arboles  Nativos  de  Chile:  Gui'a  de  Reconocimiento.  Alborada, 

Valdivia,  Chile.  (51  species  listed  with  distribution  maps.) 
Hoffmann,  A.  (1980,  1982).  Flora  Silvestre  de  Chile:  Zona  Central  (1980);  Zona 

Austral  (1982).  Fundacion  Claudio  Gay,  Santiago.  255  pp.  (Colour  illus.,  plants 

arranged  by  flower  colour.) 
Muiioz  P.,  C.  (1966).  Flores  Silvestres  de  Chile.  Edit.  Univ.  Chile.  245  pp.  (51  colour 

photos.) 
Munoz  Schick,  M.  (1980).  Flora  del  Parque  Nacional  Puyehue.  Edit.  Univ.  Santiago. 

557  pp. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  See  below,  in  particular  Munoz  P.  (1973): 

Muiioz  P.,  C.  (1973).  Chile:  Plantas  en  Extincidn.  Edit.  Univ.  Chile,  Santiago.  248  pp. 

(58  species  described  with  illustrations,  uses.) 
Muiioz  P.,  C.  (1967).  La  extincion  de  especies  vegetales  en  Chile.  In  La  Conservacidn 

de  la  Naturaleza  y  la  Prensa  en  la  America  Latina.  Instituto  Mexicano  de  Recursos 

Naturales  Renovables,  Mexico.  Pp.  75-82. 
Muiioz  P.,  C.  (1975).  Especies  vegetales  que  se  extinguen  en  nuestro  pais.  In  Capurro, 

L.  and  Vergara,  R.  (Eds),  Presente  y  Futuro  del  Medio  Humano.  Capitulo  XI: 

161-179.  Edit.  Cont.  CECSA,  Mexico. 

F.M.  Schlegel  of  the  Institute  of  Silvicuhure,  Valdivia,  has  prepared  a  list  of  the  areas  high 
in  endemism  and  diversity  most  urgently  needing  conservation.  Threatened  plants  are 
mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  C. 
Munoz  Pizarro  on  endangered  plants  of  Chile  (pp.  252-256),  H.E.  Moore  Jr.  on 
endangerment  in  palms  (pp.  267-282),  P.  Ravenna  on  threatened  bulbous  plants 
(pp.  257-266). 

Unpublished  lists  also  include: 

Marticorena,  C.  (1980).  Threatened  plants  and  areas  of  Chile.  Universidad  de 
Concepcion.  (List  of  threatened  plants  of  the  continent  and  the  Islas  of  Mas  a 
Tierra,  Mas  Afuera,  Santa  Clara,  San  Felix  and  San  Ambrosio.) 

72 


Chile 

Munoz  P.,  C.  (1975).  I.  Areas  Naturales:  localidas  y  regiones  de  Chile  dignas  de 

proteccion.  II.  La  extinci6n  de  especies  vegetales.  In  2a  Jorn.  Latinoam.  de  Parques 
Nacionales.  SAG,  Minist.  Agric,  Vina  del  Mar.  23  pp. 

Schlegel  Sachs,  F.M.  (1982).  Especies  Chilenas  Amenazadas.  Univ.  Austral  de  Chile. 
(List  of  threatened  plants  including  Ex:9,  E:53,  V:15,  R:42.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Two  plant  species  are  protected  as  Natural  Monuments: 
Araucaria  (Araucaria  araucana)  under  Law  No.  29,  9  February  1976,  published  26  April 
1976,  and  Alerce  (Fitzroya  cupressoides)  under  Law  No.  490,  1  October  1976,  published  5 
September  1977.  Several  laws  on  the  exploitation  of  species  are  mentioned  in  Munoz  P. 
(1973),  cited  above.  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined  Fitzroya  cupressoides,  confined 
to  Chile  and  Argentina,  as  'Threatened'  under  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Comite  Nacional  pro  Defensa  de  la  Fauna  y  Flora,  Casilla  3675,  Huerfanos  972, 

Oficina  508,  Santiago. 
Instituto  de  Ecologia  y  Evolucion,  Universidad  Austral  de  Chile,  Casilla  567,  Valdivia. 

Sociedad  de  Vida  Silvestre,  Valdivia. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Arboretum  (Institute  of  Silviculture),  Universidad  Austral  de  Chile,  Casilla  853, 

Valdivia. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Carl  Skottsberg",  Instituto  de  la  Patagonia,  Casilla  102-D,  Punta 

Arenas,  Magallanes. 
Jardin  Botanico  Hualpen,  Departamento  de  Botanica,  Universidad  de  Concepcion, 

Casilla  1367,  Concepcion. 
Jardin  Botanico  (Instituto  de  Botanica),  Universidad  Austral  de  Chile,  Casilla  567, 

Valdivia. 
Jardin  Botanico  Nacional,  Casilla  683,  Vifla  del  Mar. 

Useful  Addresses 

Corporacion  Nacional  Forestal  (CONAF),  Avenida  Bulnes  285-5°  Piso,  Santiago. 

(Includes  Departamento  Areas  Silvestre  Protegidas.) 
Facultad  de  Ciencias  Biologicas  y  de  Recur sos  Naturales,  Universidad  de  Concepcion, 

Casilla  2407,  Apdo  10,  Concepcion. 
Museo  Nacional  de  Historia  Natural,  Casilla  787,  Santiago. 

Universidad  Austral  de  Chile,  Facultad  de  Ciencias  Forestales,  Casilla  853,  Valdivia. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Autoridad  Administrativa  de  Chile  para  CITES, 

Servicio  Agricola  y  Ganadero,  Avda.  Bulnes  285-5°  Piso,  Casilla  4088,  Santiago. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Comision  Nacional  de  Investigacion  Cientifica  y 

Technologica  (CONICYT),  Canada  308,  Santiago. 

Additional  References 

Borgel  O.,  R.  (1973).  The  coastal  desert  of  Chile.  In  Amiran,  D.H.K.  and  Wilson, 

A.W.  (Eds),  Coastal  Deserts:  Their  Natural  and  Human  Environments.  Univ. 

Arizona  Press,  Tucson.  Pp.  111-114. 
Fuenzalida,  M.  (1984).  Evaluation  of  native  forest  destruction  in  the  Andes  of  South 

Central  Chile:  conservation  alternatives.  Project  Proposal  to  lUCN  from  Comite 

Nacional  Pro  Defensa  de  la  Fauna  y  Flora,  Santiago,  Chile. 
Gajardo-Michell,  R.  (1983).  Sistema  Bdsico  de  Clasificacidn  de  la  Vegetacidn  Nativa 

Chilena.  Corporacion  Nacional  Forestal.  Universidad  de  Chile.  4  partes.  (Not  seen.) 
Pisano,  E.  and  Fuenzalida,  H.  (1950).  VIII.  Biogeografia.  Geografia  Econdmica  de 

Chile  CORFO  1:  271-428.  (Includes  one  vegetation  map.) 

73 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Ramirez,  C,  (1984).  Bibliografia  vegetacional  de  Chile.  Universidad  Austral,  Valdivia. 
Veblen,  T.T.,  Delmastro,  R.J.  and  Schlatter,  J.E.  (1976).  The  conservation  of  Fitzroya 

cupressoides  and  its  environment  in  southern  Chile.  Envir.  Conserv.  3(4):  291-301. 
Veblen,  T.,  Schlegel,  F.  and  Oltremari,  J.  (1983).  Temperate  broadleaved  evergreen 

forest  of  South  America.  In  Ovington,  J.D.  (Ed.),  Temperate  Broadleaved 

Evergreen  Forest.  Elsevier.  Pp.  5-31. 
Yudelevich,  M.,  Brown,  C.H.,  Elgueta,  H.  and  Calderon,  S.  (1967).  Clasificacion 

preliminar  del  bosque  nativo  de  Chile.  Inst.  Forestal,  Inf.  Tec.  27:  1-16.  (2  maps.) 


China 

Area  9,597,000  sq.  km 

Population  1,051,551,000 

Floristics  About  30,000  vascular  plant  species  (Yu,  1979),  including  about  7000 
tree  species  (quoted  in  NCC,  1982).  15,000  species  occur  in  tropical  and  subtropical 
regions,  of  which  7000  are  in  Yunnan  (NCC,  1982).  Of  the  2980  flowering  plant  genera, 
214  are  endemic  (including  9  gymnosperm  genera).  Centres  of  endemism  include  eastern 
Sichuan/western  Hubei,  south-east  Yunnan/western  Guangxi,  and  the  western 
Sichuan/north-west  Yunnan  centre  abutting  Burma,  Laos  and  Viet  Nam  (Ying  Tsun-Shen 
and  Zhang  Zhi-Song,  1984).  Western  Yunnan  and  south-east  Tibet  are  particularly  rich  in 
Rhododendron  and  Primula  spp. 

Vegetation  Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest  in  lowland  parts  of  Yunnan  and 
Guangdong  Provinces  and  on  eastern  side  of  Hainan  Island.  Mangrove  forests  along  the 
southern  coasts  (Chien,  Wu  and  Chen,  1956).  Temperate  deciduous  forests,  subtropical 
evergreen  and  monsoon  forests  in  the  south;  evergreen,  semi-evergreen  and  mixed 
broadleaved  deciduous  forests  on  limestone  in  the  tropical  and  subtropical  zones  of  the 
south;  various  types  of  subarctic  coniferous  forest  ('taiga')  and  cold  temperate  mixed 
forests  in  the  north.  The  most  extensive  tracts  of  natural  forest  are  in  the  north-east  and 
the  south-western  provinces  of  Sichuan  and  Yunnan.  Western  China,  the  vast  plains  of 
north-east  China  and  Inner  Mongolia  are  largely  semi-arid  grassland  whereas  there  are 
deserts  and  semi-deserts  in  the  Gobi  and  Tibetan  regions.  North  China,  including  southern 
Dongbei  and  parts  of  Inner  Mongolia,  are  mainly  arable.  Northern  Dongbei  is  steppe 
grassland  though  converted  in  part  to  farmland.  Fuelwood  cutting,  overgrazing  and 
deforestation  have  left  only  remnants  of  primary  forest  cover  in  more  remote  areas  and  on 
steep  terrain.  There  are  over  1.2  million  sq.  km  of  "fully-stocked  forests"  including 
afforested  areas  (FAO,  1982);  probably  more  land  has  recently  been  afforested  than  in  any 
other  country  in  the  world  (see  Smil,  1983,  for  a  report  on  the  afforestation  programme). 

For  a  more  comprehensive  account  of  vegetation,  and  map  at  scale  1:14,000,000,  see  Hou 
(1983).  For  more  detailed  vegetation  map  see: 

China  Vegetation  Commission  (1979).  Vegetation  Map  of  China  (1:4,000,000)  and 
accompanying  booklet,  Legend  to  the  "Vegetation  Map  of  China"  (edited  by  H.Y. 
Hou).  Chinese  Academy  of  Sciences,  Institute  of  Botany,  Beijing.  12  pp. 


74 


China 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Chen,  Y.  (1957).  Illustrated  Manual  of  Chinese  Trees  and  Shrubs.  Science  Technology 

Press,  Shanghai.  (Revised  edition,  in  Chinese;  accounts  of  21(X)  native  and 

introduced  taxa.) 
Chinese  Academy  of  Sciences  (1971-1976).  Iconographia  Cormophytorum  Sinicorum, 

5  vols.  Science  Press,  Beijing.  (Keys,  line  drawings,  descriptions  of  8(XX)  of  the  more 

common  and  economically  important  species;  in  Chinese.  2  Supplements  -  1982, 

1983.) 
Flora  Plantarum  Herbacearum  Chinae  Boreali-Orientalis  (1958- ).  8  vols  so  far.  (Keys, 

line  drawings,  descriptions  of  herbaceous  plants;  in  Chinese.) 
Inner  Mongolia  Botanical  Records  Compiling  Group  (1977-1982).  Flora 

Intramongolica,  6  vols.  Typis  Intramongolicae  Popularis,  Huhhot.  (In  Chinese.) 
Institute  of  Botany,  Academia  Sinica  (1959-  ).  Flora  Reipublicae  Popularis  Sinicae. 

Science  Press,  Beijing.  (80  vols  planned,  93  families  treated  so  far  in  33  volumes;  in 

Chinese.) 
Shun-Ching  Lee  (1935).  Forest  Botany  of  China.  Commercial  Press,  Shanghai. 

Supplement  (1973).  Chinese  Forestry  Association  Taipei,  Taiwan.  (In  English.) 

Xinjiang  and  Gansu  are  covered  in  Grubov  (1963- ),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  The  north-west 
steppe  region  is  included  in  Norlindh  (1949,  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  Sheng  Cheng-kui,  of  the  Hortus  Botanicus 
Nanjing,  reports  on  a  preliminary  national  threatened  plant  list  compiled  under  the  joint 
auspices  of  the  Environment  Protection  Agency,  the  Chinese  Botanical  Society  and  the 
Editorial  Commission  of  the  Chinese  Floras  (in  Threatened  Plants  Committee  -  Newsletter 
No.  7:  5-6,  1981). 

A  First  National  List  of  Chinese  Threatened  Plants  was  published  in  April  1982  under  the 
auspices  of  the  National  Environmental  Protection  Agency  and  the  Botanical  Institute  of 
Academia  Sinica.  It  lists  354  species  of  vascular  plants,  organized  in  three  sections.  The 
first  lists  the  species  in  conservation  rating  order  (1 ,  2  or  3),  the  second  in  systematic  order, 
the  third  geographically,  by  Provinces. 

A  Red  Data  Book  of  Chinese  rare  and  endangered  species  is  due  to  be  published  in  1985 
(English  translation).  The  book  will  cover  the  354  species  (9  ferns,  68  gymnosperms  and 
277  angiosperms)  with  details  on  their  distribution,  ecology,  present  status  in  the  wild  and 
conservation  measures,  with  colour  plates  and  a  map  for  each  species. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

WWF-China  Joint  Committee,  c/o  The  Environmental  Protection  Office  of  the  State 
Council,  Beijing. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Beijing  Botanical  Garden,  Academia  Sinica,  Beijing,  Hebei. 

Desert  Botanical  Garden,  Minching,  Gansu. 

Gangnan  Arboretum,  Shongyu,  Jiangxi. 

Guilin  Botanical  Garden,  Yanshan,  Guilin,  Guangxi. 

Hangzhou  Botanical  Garden,  Yuquan,  Hangzhou,  Zhejiang. 

Heilongjiang  Forestry  Botanical  Garden,  Renjiaqiao,  Harbin,  Heilongjiang. 

Kunming  Botanical  Garden,  Academia  Sinica,  Heilongtan,  Kunming,  Yunnan. 

Lushan  Botanical  Garden,  Hanpoku,  Lushan,  Jiangxi. 

Shanghai  Botanical  Garden,  Longwu  Road,  Shanghai  201102. 

Shenyang  Botanical  Garden,  Shenyang,  Liaoning. 

75 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

South  China  Botanical  Garden,  Academia  Sinica,  Longyandong,  Guangzhou, 

Guangdong. 
Sun  Yat-Sen  Memorial  Botanical  Garden,  Nanjing,  Jiangsu. 
Wuhan  Botanical  Garden,  Wuhan,  Hubei. 
Xi'an  Botanical  Garden,  Ciuhua  Road,  Xi'an,  Shaanxi. 

Xishuang  Banna  Tropical  Botanical  Garden,  Mengla,  Xishuang  Banna,  Yunnan. 
Zhejiang  Institute  of  Subtropical  Crops,  Wenzhou,  Zhejiang. 

For  an  illustrated  account  of  Chinese  botanical  gardens  and  arboreta  see: 

Yu  Dejun  (Ed.)  (1983).  The  Botanical  Gardens  of  China.  Science  Press,  Beijing. 
319  pp.  (Covers  21  gardens  and  arboreta.) 

See  also: 

Sheng  Cheng-kui  (1981).  Directory  of  Chinese  botanical  gardens.  Hortus  Botanicus 
Nanjingensis.  (Lists  16  gardens  with  details  of  size,  number  of  taxa,  research 
interests,  publications  and  associated  herbaria.  15  other  gardens,  arboreta  and  plant 
introduction  stations  are  also  listed.) 

Useful  Addresses 
CITES  Management  Authority:  The  People's  Republic  of  China,  Endangered  Species 

of  Wild  Fauna  and  Flora  Import  and  Export  Administrative  Office,  Ministry  of 

Forestry,  Hepingli,  Beijing. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Endangered  Species  Scientific  Commission  of  the  People's 

Republic  of  China,  7  Zhongguancun  Lu,  Haidian,  Beijing. 

Additional  References 

Bohlin,  B.  (1949).  A  Contribution  to  our  Knowledge  of  the  Distribution  of  Vegetation 

in  Inner  Mongolia,  Kansu  and  Ching-Hai.  Report  of  the  Scientific  Expedition  to 

NW  Provinces,  China,  33.  Stockholm.  95  pp. 
Chien,  S.S.,  Wu,  C.Y.  and  Chen,  C.T.  (1956).  The  vegetation  types  of  China.  Acta 

Geogr.  Sinica  22:  87-92. 
Duke,  J. A.  and  Ayensu,  E.S.  (1985).  Medicinal  Plants  of  China,  2  vols.  Reference 

Publications,  Algonac,  Michigan.  670  pp.  (Covers  1240  species;  includes  English  and 

Chinese  names;  notes  on  uses;  line  drawings.) 
FAO  (1982).  Forestry  in  China,  FAO  Forestry  Paper  35.  FAO,  Rome.  305  pp. 
Hou,  H.-Y.  (1983).  Vegetation  of  China  with  reference  to  its  geographical  distribution. 

Annals  Missouri  Bot.  Card.  70(3):  509-549. 
NCC  (1982).  Nature  Conservation  Delegation  to  China,  4-24  April  1982.  Nature 

Conservancy  Council,  London.  44  pp.  (See  in  particular  M.E.D.  Poore  on 

vegetation,  pp.  29-33  and  D.A.  Ratcliffe  on  nature  conservation,  pp.  34-37.) 
Smil,  V.  (1983).  Deforestation  in  China.  Ambio  12(5):  226-231.  (Causes  and  extent  of 

forest  losses;  analysis  of  afforestation  projects.) 
Walker,  E.H.  (1941).  Plants  collected  by  R.C.  Ching  in  southern  MongoHa  and  Kansu 

Province,  China.  Contrib.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.  38(4):  563-675. 
Wang,  Chi-Wu  (1961).  The  Forests  of  China  with  a  Survey  of  Grassland  and  Desert 

Vegetation.  Harvard  Univ.,  Cambridge,  Mass.  313  pp. 
Ward,  F.  Kingdon  (1935).  A  sketch  of  the  geography  and  botany  of  Tibet,  being 

materials  for  a  Flora  of  that  country.  /.  Linn.  Soc.  Bot.  50:  239-265.  (Useful 

introduction  to  botany  and  vegetation  of  Tibet.) 
Wu  Zheng- Yi  et  al.  (Eds)  (1980).  Vegetation  of  China.  Science  Press,  Beijing.  (In 

Chinese.) 


76 


China 

Ying  Tsun-Shen  and  Zhang  Zhi-Song  (1984).  Endemism  in  the  flora  of  China  -  studies 
on  the  endemic  genera.  Acta  Phytotaxonomica  Sinica  22(4):  259-268.  (In  Chinese, 
with  English  summary;  maps  showing  distribution  of  endemic  genera.) 

Yu,  T.-T.  (1979).  Special  report:  status  of  the  Flora  of  China.  Syst.  Bot.  4(3):  257-260. 


Christmas  Island 


An  External  Territory  of  AustraHa,  situated  in  the  eastern  Indian  Ocean,  at  10°30'S  and 
105°30'E.  It  consists  of  an  elevated  series  of  coral  limestone  and  volcanic  rocks.  The 
central  plateau  is  mostly  150-250  m  above  sea-level  but  rises  to  361  m  in  a  series  of  cliffs 
and  terraces.  16  sq.  km  of  the  island  were  declared  a  National  Park  in  1979. 

Area  135  sq.  km 

Population  3184  (1980  estimate.  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  c.  380  flowering  plant  species,  of  which  c.  280  native  species;  about  15 
endemic  flowering  plant  species  (L.  Forman,  1984,  pers.  comm.).  The  flora  has  affinities 
with  Java,  S.E.  Asia,  Australia  and  the  western  Pacific  Islands. 

Vegetation  Mixed  closed  forest  above  180  m  and  occasionally  extending  down  to 
coastal  terraces,  with  Tristiropsis,  Dysoxylon,  Cryptocarya  and  Barringtonia  in  the  main 
canopy,  and  Eugenia,  Planchonella  and  Hernandia  as  emergents;  Celtis,  Terminalia  and 
Pisonia  forest  on  coastal  terraces.  Mining  of  phosphate  deposits  has  devastated  much  of 
the  island's  rain  forests  (Mitchell,  1974). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Christmas  Island  will  be  covered  in  a  forthcoming  volume 
of  the  Flora  of  Australia  (1981-  ),  cited  under  Australia.  Forman  et  al.  have  prepared  a 
checklist  of  the  flowering  plants  (1984,  manuscript.  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew).  See 
also: 

Baker,  E.G.,  Rendle,  A.B.,  Gepp,  A.,  Blackman,  V.H.  and  Lister,  A.  (1900).  Botany. 

In  Andrews,  C.W.  (Ed.),  A  Monograph  of  Christmas  Island.  British  Museum 

(Natural  History),  London.  Pp.  171-200. 
Mitchell,  B.A.  (1974).  The  forest  flora  of  Christmas  Island.  Commonwealth  Forestry 

Review  53(1):  19-29. 
Ridley,  H.N.  (1906).  The  botany  of  Christmas  Island.  J.  Straits  Branch  Royal  Asiatic 

Soc.  45:  156-271.  (Lists  34  endemic  species,  many  subsequently  reduced  to 

synonymy.  For  additional  notes  see  ibid.,  48:  107-108.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  preliminary  list  of  endemic  taxa  with  notes 
on  their  conservation  status  is  given  in  Leigh  et  al.  (1981),  cited  under  Australia.  In  1983, 
D.  Powell  prepared  a  preliminary  list  of  endemics  with  notes  on  distribution  and  status. 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:l,  V:l,  R:ll,  1:1,  K:2. 

Additional  References 

Gray,  H.S.  (1981).  Christmas  Island  Naturally:  The  Natural  History  of  an  Isolated 
Oceanic  Island.  Gray,  Geraldton,  W.  Australia.  (Covers  fauna,  vegetation,  impact 
of  man.) 


77 


Clipperton  Island 


The  most  easterly  of  the  French  Polynesian  islands  in  the  south-east  Pacific.  It  is  a  remote 
uninhabited  atoll  of  5  sq.  km  at  longitude  10°18'N  and  latitude  109°13'W.  The  nearest 
atoll  is  Pukapuka  in  the  Tuamotu  Archipelago,  about  2500  km  to  the  south-west. 
Clipperton  is  a  low  coral  limestone  ring  enclosing  a  lagoon  with  a  29  m  high  volcanic  plug. 
Parts  of  the  island  have  been  mined  for  phosphate  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

31  flowering  plant  taxa,  all  of  which  are  widespread  herbs,  apart  from  introduced 
coconuts  (Sachet,  1962  a  &  b). 

References 

Sachet,  M.-H.  (1962a).  Flora  and  vegetation  of  Clipperton  Island.  Proc.  Calif.  Acad. 

Sci.  IV,  31(10):  249-307.  (Includes  enumeration  of  native  and  introduced  species; 

notes  on  localities  and  distributions.) 
Sachet,  M.-H.  (1962b).  Geography  and  land  ecology  of  Clipperton  Island.  Atoll  Res. 

Bull.  86.  115  pp.  (Includes  plant  list.) 


Coco,  Isla  del 


Isla  del  Coco  or  Cocos  Island  is  an  uninhabited  island  of  area  24  sq.  km,  with  several 
offshore  islets,  670  km  south-west  of  Costa  Rica  and  630  km  west  of  the  Galapagos  in  the 
eastern  Pacific  Ocean,  5°32'N  87°04'W.  It  is  an  outcrop  of  the  Cocos  Ridge,  comprising 
volcanic  basalts  and  marine  sediments  which  have  been  uplifted  by  tectonic  activity.  The 
highest  point  is  849  m  (Cerro  Iglesias).  Isla  del  Coco  is  administered  by  Costa  Rica. 

Floristics  155  vascular  plant  taxa,  including  introductions;  c.  1097o  species 
endemism  (figures  quoted  by  Fournier,  1966).  The  flora  is  related  to  that  of  Central 
America,  the  Caribbean  and  the  Galapagos  Islands. 

Vegetation  The  main  island  has  closed  tropical  rain  forest  with  Cecropia, 
Brosimum,  Ochroma  (Balsa),  epiphytes  and  lianas;  cloud  forest  above  5(X)  m  with 
Lauraceae,  bromeliads,  orchids  and  ferns;  littoral  communities  with  Erythrina  and 
introduced  coconuts;  extensive  Nephrolepis  scrub  near  the  shore  and  small  areas  of 
brackish  marshes.  The  offshore  islets  are  sparsely  vegetated. 

Although  Isla  del  Coco  was  declared  a  National  Park  in  1978,  introduced  plants  and 
grazing  animals  continue  to  be  a  threat  to  the  native  flora. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Fosberg,  F.R.  and  Klawe,  W.L.  (1966).  Preliminary  list  of  plants  from  Cocos  Island. 

In  Bowman,  R.I.  (Ed.),  The  Galapagos:  Proceedings  of  the  Galapagos  International 

Project  of  1964.  University  of  California  Press,  Berkeley.  Pp  187-189.  (Checklist  of 

148  vascular  plant  taxa;  separate  list  of  lower  plants.) 
Stewart,  A.  (1912).  Expedition  of  the  California  Academy  of  Sciences  to  the  Galapagos 

Islands,  1905-1906.  V.  Notes  on  the  botany  of  Cocos  Island.  Proc.  California  Acad. 

Sci.,  4.  1:  375-404.  (Enumeration  of  22  taxa  of  ferns  and  52  flowering  plants 

collected  during  expedition;  list  of  further  9  ferns  and  6  flowering  plants  recorded 

from  the  island.) 


78 


Coco,  Isla  del 
Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Useful  Addresses 

Servicio  de  Parques  Nacionales,  Ministerio  de  Agriculture  y  Ganaderia,  CP  10094,  San 
Jose,  Costa  Rica. 

Additional  References 

Fournier,  L.A.  (1966).  Botany  of  Cocos  Island,  Costa  Rica.  In  Bowman,  R.I.  (Ed.), 
The  Galapagos:  Proceedings  of  the  Galapagos  International  Project  of  1964. 
University  of  California  Press,  Berkeley.  Pp  183-186.  (Notes  on  vegetation  and 
origin  of  flora.) 


Coco  Islands 


The  Coco  Islands  comprise  Table  Island,  Great  Coco  and  Little  Coco,  c.  175  km  north  of 
the  Andaman  Islands  in  the  Eastern  Indian  Ocean,  between  latitudes  13-15°N  and  at 
longitude  93°2rE.  The  highest  point  is  100  m,  on  Great  Coco.  Total  land  area  c.  5  sq.  km. 
The  islands  are  dependencies  of  Burma. 

Prain  (1891)  recorded  dense  tropical  rain  forest  on  all  islands,  with  coconuts  and 
Pandanus  along  the  coasts,  and  mangrove  swamps  along  creeks.  No  details  of  current 
status. 

296  flowering  plant  taxa,  one  gymnosperm  {Cycas  rumphii)  and  10  fern  taxa;  most  are 
widespread  throughout  South  East  Asia  (Prain,  1891). 

References 

Prain,  D.  (1891).  The  vegetation  of  the  Coco  group.  J.  Asiatic  Soc.  Bengal  60: 

283-406.  (Vegetation,  floristic  analyses,  annotated  list  with  notes  on  distributions.) 


Cocos  Islands 


The  Cocos  Islands  are  an  External  Territory  of  Australia,  situated  in  the  east  Indian 
Ocean.  They  are  coral  atolls  3700  km  west  of  Darwin  and  300  km  south  of  Java.  Area  14 
sq.  km;  population  487  (1980  census.  Times  Atlas,  1983). 

Cocos  I.  (12°S,  96°E)  is  mainly  covered  by  coconut  plantations;  Keeling  I.  has  a  mixture 
of  coconuts,  Pisonia  grandis  and  Cordia  subcordata  scrub.  57  vascular  plant  species  of 
which  c.  43  indigenous  (Renvoize,  1979,  quoting  figures  by  Wood-Jones,  1912).  The 
Cocos  Islands  will  be  included  in  a  forthcoming  volume  of  the  Flora  of  Australia  (1981-  ), 
cited  under  Australia. 

References 

Hemsley,  W.B.  (1885).  List  of  plants  from  the  Keeling  or  Cocos  Islands.  In  Report  on 
the  Scientific  Results  of  the  Voyage  of  H. M.S.  Challenger  During  the  Years 
1873-76.  Botany,  vol.  1,  part  2.  HMSO,  London.  (List  of  19  flowering  plant  species, 
p.  113.) 


79 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Renvoize,  S.A.  (1979).  The  origins  of  Indian  Ocean  island  floras.  In  Bramwell,  D. 

(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  107-129. 
Wood-Jones,  F.  (1912).  Coral  and  Atolls.  Reeve,  London. 


Colombia 

Area  1,138,914  sq.  km 

Population  28,110,(XX) 

Floristics  Prance  (1977)  estimates  45,000  species  of  flowering  plants;  3000  species 
of  Orchidaceae  alone  (Ospina,  1969).  Areas  rich  in  endemics  are  the  Sierra  Nevada  de 
Santa  Marta,  the  Guajira  Peninsula,  La  Macarena,  many  parts  of  the  Andes,  and,  above 
all,  the  Choco  Region  in  western  Colombia;  this  is  the  wettest  and  possibly  the  richest  rain 
forest  in  the  neotropics,  with  both  high  species  diversity  and  high  endemism,  concentrated 
in  two  or  three  distinct  centres  (Gentry,  1982).  Some  1500  endemic  species  have  been 
recorded  and  many  new  species  are  being  discovered  with  additional  exploration. 

According  to  E.  Forero  (1984,  pers.  comm.),  destruction  or  conversion  of  tropical  forests 
is  causing  high  rates  of  extinction  in  the  Sierra  de  la  Macarena,  in  the  Pacific  coastal 
region,  in  the  Sierra  Nevada  d'  Santa  Marta  from  sea  level  to  the  paramo  and  the  slopes  of 
the  Andes. 

Vegetation  Extending  the  length  of  the  Pacific  coast  is  very  wet  tropical  rain 
forest  (includes  Choco  region).  The  Atlantic  coast  varies  from  humid  forest  near  Panama 
to  dry  forest  and  desert  at  Guajira  Peninsula.  Extending  inland  to  250  km,  vegetation 
ranges  from  mangroves  (along  Uraba  coast),  grassland/savanna  to  scattered  thorn  thickets 
and  cactus  scrub  (Espinal  and  Montenegro,  1963).  This  region  has  been  heavily  disturbed 
by  grazing  and  agriculture.  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  gives  estimates  for  present 
forest  extent;  Myers  also  quotes  Gentry  to  state  that  a  considerable  area  has  been  disturbed 
at  the  southern  end  of  the  Choco  and  where  the  northern  extension  borders  Panama  at  the 
Darien  Gap. 

Central  highlands:  great  variation  in  vegetation  types;  submontane  forest  to  2000  m;  at 
2400-3600  m  cloud  forests  rich  in  epiphytes;  above,  very  humid  montane  forest  to  paramo; 
above  4500  m,  on  the  high  peaks  of  the  Central  and  Eastern  Cordilleras,  alpine  tundra  rich 
in  endemics  ('superparamo')- 

Eastern  plains:  in  the  northern  region  to  the  Venezuelan  border,  tall  grassland  with 
broadleaved  evergreen  trees  along  river  corridors. 

In  the  south,  Amazonian  forest,  little  disturbed  and  little  known  botanically  (Forero,  pers. 
comm.).  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  quotes  estimates  of  entent  varying  from 
386,000  sq.  km  (1972)  to  270,000  sq.  km  (1977).  According  to  FAO/UNEP  (1981), 
estimated  rate  of  deforestation  (for  Colombia  overall)  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  8200 
sq.  km/annum  out  of  464,000  sq.  km. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Colombia  is  covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs 
of  Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1). 


80 


Colombia 

In  1982,  the  Institute  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Universidad  Nacional,  began  a  multi-volume 
Flora  of  Colombia.  Published  so  far  are  Vol  1,  Magnoliaceae,  by  G.  Lozano-C.  (1983)  and 
Vol.  2,  Connaraceae,  by  E.  Forero  (1983). 

Individual  family  treatments  include: 

Cuatrecasas,  J.  (1958-  ).  Prima  Flora  Colombiana.  Webbia  12,  13,  15,  24. 

(Burseraceae,  Malphigiaceae,  Compositae-Astereae.) 
Idrobo,  J.M.  (1954).  The  Xyridaceae  of  Colombia.  Caldasia  6:  183-260.  (345  species.) 
Leonard,  E.G.  (1951-1958).  The  Acanthaceae  of  Colombia.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.  31: 

1-781. 
Smith,  L.B.  (1957).  The  Bromeliaceae  of  Colombia.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.  33:  1-311. 
Smith,  L.B.  and  Fernandez-Perez,  A.  (1954).  The  Violaceae  of  Colombia.  Caldasia  6: 

83-181. 
Smith,  L.B.  and  Schubert,  B.G.  (1946).  The  Begoniaceae  of  Colombia.  Caldasia  4: 

3-38,  77-107,  179-209. 
Standley,  P.C.  (1931).  The  Rubiaceae  of  Colombia.  Field  Mas.  Nat.  Hist.,  Bot.  Ser.  7: 

1-175. 

See  also: 

Gastaneda,  R.R.  (1965).  Flora  del  centro  de  Bolivar.  Universidad  Nacional  de 

Colombia,  Bogota.  437  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 
Espinal  T.,  L.S.  (1964).  Algunos  Aspectos  de  la  Vegetacion  del  Oriente  Antiogueno. 

I.G.A.G.,  Bogota.  74  pp.  (Describes  31  trees  and  shrubs  of  Antiogueno  region, 

photos,  uses  of  woods.) 
Garcia  Barriga,  H.,  Forero,  E.  et  al.  (1966-1979).  Catalogo  Ilustrada  de  las  Plantas  de 

Cundinamarca,  1  vols.  Universidad  Nacional,  Bogota. 
Machecha  Vega,  G.  and  Echeverri  Restrepo,  R.  (1983).  Arboles  del  Valle  del  Cauca. 

Lithografia  Arco,  Bogota.  208  pp. 

Since  1973,  the  Missouri  Botanical  Garden  and  the  Institute  for  Natural  Sciences  at  the 
National  University  of  Colombia  have  carried  out  collaborative  field  work  in  the  western 
Choco  region.  E.  Forero  and  A.H.  Gentry  are  now  completing  a  plant  checklist  for  the 
Choco  Department.  The  Institute,  with  the  Rijksherbarium,  Leiden,  Netherlands,  have 
been  undertaking  a  survey  of  montane  Colombia.  Details  of  other  floristic  work  in 
Colombia  is  given  by  Prance  (1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Floristic  knowledge  of  the  Choco 
region  is  summarized  by  Gentry  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Toledo  (1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  refers  to  the  following  regional  Floras  as  in  progress: 
Paramo  de  Oroque  by  H.  Garcia-Barriga,  Santander  del  Sur  by  F.  Llanos  and  A.  Renten'a, 
and  Providencia  by  D.D.  Soejarto. 

In  1964  the  governments  of  Colombia  and  Spain  agreed  to  publish  the  Flora  de  Mutis, 
consisting  of  illustrations  prepared  by  the  Real  Expedicion  Botanica  del  Nueva  Reyno  de 
Grenada  between  1783  and  1816.  7  vols  completed  so  far,  an  additional  93  vols  expected  by 
1992. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  National  University  of  Colombia  is 
preparing  an  endangered  species  list  for  Colombia,  described,  with  many  examples,  in: 

Fernandez-Perez,  A.  (1977).  The  preparation  of  the  endangered  species  list  of 

Colombia.   In  Prance,  G.T.   and  Elias,  T.S.   (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.   117-127. 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in  several  other  papers  in: 

81 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  J.T. 
Mickel  on  rare  and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328),  H.E.  Moore  Jr.  on 
endangerment  in  palms  (pp.  267-282),  P.  Ravenna  on  rare  and  threatened  bulbs 
(pp.  257-266). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Decreto  Ley  No.  281 1  of  18  December  1974,  the  National 
Renewable  Natural  Resources  and  Environment  Protection  Code  (D.O.  27  January  1975) 
authorizes  INDERENA,  the  government  conservation  agency,  to  establish  rules  for  the 
use,  trade  and  conservation  of  wild  plants  (and  animals).  Acuerdo  No.  38,  promulgated  by 
INDERENA  on  10  September  1973,  establishes  rules  governing  conservation  and 
utilization  of  wild  plants,  including  licensing  requirements  for  collection  and  commerce, 
and  rules  for  propagation  (Fuller  and  Swift,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Asociacion  Nacional  para  la  Defensa  de  la  Naturaleza,  Apdo  Aereo  6227,  Call. 
Sociedad  Colombiana  de  Ecologia,  Calle  59  No.  13-83,  Of.  302,  Bogota. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  Botanico  "Guillermo  Pifleres",  Apto  Aereo  5456,  Cartagena. 

Jardin  Botanico  "Joaquin  Antonio  Uribe",  Carrera  52  No.  73-298,  Apto  Aereo 

51-407,  Medellin,  Antioquia. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Jose  Celestino  Mutis",  Instituto  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Carrera  66-A 

No.  56-84,  Bogota. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Juan  Maria  Cespedes",  Tulu4,  c/o  Instituto  Vallecaucano  de 

Investigaciones  Cientificas  (INCIVA),  Apto  Aereo  5660,  Call. 
Jardin  Botanico  Universidad  de  Tolima,  Ibague,  Colombia. 
Jardin  de  la  Facultad  Agronomia,  Universidad  de  Caldas,  Apto  Aereo  275,  Manizales, 

Caldas. 

Useful  Addresses 

Asociacion  Colombiana  de  Herbarios,  c/o  Facultad  de  Ciencias  Exactas  y  Naturales, 

Apto  Aereo  1226,  Universidad  de  Antioquia,  Medellin,  Colombia.  (19  Colombian 

herbaria  are  members.) 
Instituto  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Universidad  Nacional,  Apdo  Aereo  7495,  Bogota. 
Instituto  Nacional  de  los  Recursos  Naturales  Renovables  y  del  Ambiente 

(INDERENA),  Gerente  General,  Diagonal  34,  Numero  5-18,  Apdo  Aereo  13458, 

Bogota. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  INDERENA,  see  above. 

Additional  References 

Cuatrecasas,  J.  (1958).  Aspectos  de  la  vegetacion  natural  de  Colombia.  Rev.  Acad. 
Colombiana  Ciencias  Exactas,  Fi'sicas  y  Naturales  10(40):  221-268.  (Lists  vegetation 
types,  major  representative  species,  photos.) 

Espinal  T.,  L.S.  and  Montenegro  M.,  E.  (1963).  Formaciones  Vegetales  de  Colombia: 
Memoria  Explicativa  sobre  el  Mapa  Ecoldgico.  Instituto  Geografico  "Agustin 
Codazzi",  Bogota.  201  pp.  (Includes  descriptions  of  vegetation  types,  locations, 
photos,  diagrams  and  4  vegetation  maps  at  1:1,000,000,  each  covering  a  quarter  of 
the  country.)  Updated  1977  as  Zonas  de  vida  o  Formaciones  Vegetales  de  Colombia 
(Map  in  21  'planchas'  at  1:500,000.) 

Gentry,  A.H.  (1982).  Phytogeographic  patterns  as  evidence  for  a  Choco  Refuge.  In 
Prance,  G.T.  (Ed.)  (1982),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  112-136. 


82 


Colombia 

Ospina,  M.  (1969).  Colombian  orchids  and  their  conservation.  In  Corrigan,  M.J.  (Ed.), 

Proceedings  of  the  6th  World  Orchid  Conference.  Sydney,  New  South  Wales, 

Australia.  Pp.  95-98. 
Prance,  G.T.  (1977).  Floristic  inventory  of  the  tropics:  where  do  we  stand?  Ann. 

Missouri  Bot.  Card.  64(4):  659-684. 
Schultes,  R.E.  (1951).  La  riqueza  de  la  flora  Colombiana.  Rev.  Acad.  Colombiana 

Ciencias  Exactas,  Fisicas  y  Maturates  8(30):  230-242. 


Comoro  Islands 


The  Comoro  Islands,  an  archipelago  of  four  small  islands  (Njazidja,  Mayotte,  Anjouan, 
and  Moheli),  together  with  numerous  islets  and  coral  reefs,  lie  between  the  east  African 
coast  and  northern  Madagascar,  roughly  300  km  from  each,  11°20'-12°40'S,  43°-45°E. 
The  islands  are  volcanic  in  structure;  Mt  Karthala  on  Njazidja  (Grande-Comore)  is  still 
active  and  is  the  highest  peak  at  720  m.  One  of  the  islands,  Mayotte,  is  a  collectivite 
territoriale  of  France. 

Area  2238  sq.  km 

Population  443,000 

Floristics  935  species  (416  indigenous),  with  136  endemic  (Voeltzkow,  1917). 
Floristic  affinities  with  Madagascar. 

Vegetation  Native  lowland  plants  almost  all  completely  destroyed  on  all  four 
islands.  Very  Httle  intact  upland  forest  remains  on  Anjouan  and  Mayotte  islands. 
However,  there  is  considerable  forest  on  upper  slopes  of  Njazidja  and  Moheli,  but  much 
of  this  is  badly  degraded  (Fosberg  and  Sachet,  1972,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Comoros  are  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  de 
Madagascar  et  des  Comores,  cited  under  Madagascar. 

Voeltzkow,  A.  (1917).  Flora  und  Fauna  der  Comoren.  In  Reise  in  Ostafrika  in  den 
Jahren  1903-1905.  Wiss.  Ergeb.  3(5):  429-480.  (Checklist  with  distributions;  the  only 
important  inventory  for  the  archipelago.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Additional  References 

Legris,  P.  (1969).  La  Grande  Comore.  Climats  et  vegetation.  Trav.  Sect.  Sci.  Techn. 
Inst.  Frang.  Pondichery  3(5):  1-28.  (With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:100,000.) 


Congo 

Area  342,000  sq.  km 

Population  1,695,000 

Floristics  Flora  very  poorly  known;  c.  4000  species  (Bouquet,  1976);  insufficient 
evidence  for  assessment  of  endemism,  but  likely  to  be  comparable  with  Gabon  (c.  22%). 

83 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

The  western  portion  of  the  northern  forests  are  said  to  be  especially  diverse  (Myers,  1980, 
cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Floristic  affinities  Guinea-Congolian. 

Vegetation  Large  areas  of  both  lowland  rain  forest  and  swamp  forest,  and  forest 
interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cultivation.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for 
closed  broadleaved  forest  220  sq.  km/annum  out  of  213,400  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 
However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  quoting  Unesco  (1978),  gives  a  figure  of 
100,000  sq.  km  of  forest,  of  which  30,000  sq.  km  is  evergreen. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Descoings,  B.  (1961).  Inventaire  des  plantes  vasculaires  de  la  Republique  du  Congo 
deposees  dans  I'herbier  de  I'lnstitut  d'Etudes  Centre-Africaines  a  Brazzaville. 
Institut  d'Etudes  Centre-Africaines  (ORSTOM),  Brazzaville.  63  pp.  (Unpubhshed 
mimeograph;  list  of  1600  names.) 

Bouquet  (1976)  mentions  a  new  checklist  in  preparation,  due  to  be  finished  in  1975  (his 
paper  was  presented  in  1974),  but  it  is  not  clear  if  this  was  ever  pubUshed! 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  17  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  no 
categories  assigned. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Secretariat  General  aux  Eaux  et  Forets,  B.P.  98, 

Brazzaville. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:   Secretariat  General  a  I'Economie  Forestiere,  B.P.   98, 

Brazzaville. 

Additional  References 

Bouquet,  A.  (1976).  Etat  d'avancement  des  travaux  sur  la  Flore  du  Congo-Brazzaville. 

In  Miege,  J.  and  Stork,  A.L.  (1975,  1976),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  P.  581. 
Farron,  C.  (1968).  Congo-Brazzaville.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  112-115. 


Cook  Islands 


The  Cook  Islands,  a  self-governing  territory  associated  with  New  Zealand,  comprise  15 
islands  and  atolls  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  between  latitudes  17-25°S  and  longitudes 
155-165°W.  The  southern  Cooks  are  over  1000  km  south-east  of  the  Samoan  Archipelago. 
Area  241  sq.  km;  population  19,000. 

The  northern  Cooks  are  low  atolls,  some  of  which  still  retain  areas  of  native  vegetation, 
e.g.  Palmerston  I.,  Penrhryn  (Tongareva),  Rakahanga  and  Suwarrow  (Douglas,  1969, 
cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  southern  Cooks  are  mainly  volcanic,  reaching  643  m  at  Te 
Manga  on  Rarotonga.  Upland  forests  above  250  m  are  largely  intact  (Sykes,  1983). 
'Makatea'  (raised  limestone)  surrounds  most  of  the  low  islands  in  the  Ngaputoru  Group 
and  Mangaia,  supporting  open  forest.  Lowland  forests  almost  totally  destroyed.  Coconuts 


84 


Cook  Islands 

abundant  on  all  islands  especially  the  atolls  and  lower  areas  of  volcanic  islands  (W.R. 
Sykes,  1984,  in  litt.). 

No  overall  figure  for  the  Cook  Islands  but  560  vascular  species  recorded  on  Rarotonga 
(Wilder,  1931).  No  endemic  genera  (van  Balgooy,  1970,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Floristic 
affinities  to  the  Society  Islands.  No  information  on  threatened  plants. 

References 

Brownlie,  G.  and  PhiUpson,  W.R.  (1971).  Pteridophyta  of  the  southern  Cook  Group. 

Pacific  Science  25:  502-511.  (Annotated  list  of  80  taxa;  notes  on  habitats, 

frequency.) 
Cheeseman,  T.F.  (1903).  The  flora  of  Rarotonga,  the  chief  island  of  the  Cook  Group. 

Trans.  Linn.  Soc.  Bot.,  Ser.  2  6:  261-313. 
Fosberg,  F.  R.  (1972).  List  of  vascular  plants  of  Rarotonga.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  160:  9-14. 

(Checklist  of  50  vascular  plant  taxa  collected  in  1969.) 
Philipson,  W.R.  (1971).  Floristics  of  Rarotonga.  Bull.  Roy.  Soc.  N.Z.  8:  49-54. 
Stoddart,  D.R.  and  Fosberg,  F.R.  (1972).  Reef  islands  of  Rarotonga.  List  of  vascular 

plants.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  160.  14  pp. 
Sykes,  W.R.  (1983).  Conservation  on  South  Pacific  islands.  In  Given,  D.R.  (Ed.), 

Conservation  of  Plant  Species  and  Habitats.  Nature  Conservation  Council, 

WeUington,  N.Z.  Pp.  37-42. 
Wilder,  G.P.  (1931).  Flora  of  Rarotonga.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop.  Mus.  86.  .113  pp. 


Coral  Sea  Islands 


The  Coral  Sea  Islands  are  a  scattered  group  of  32  coral  sand  islands  (cays)  and  coral  reefs 
c.  300  km  east  of  the  Queensland  coast  and  c.  200  km  east  of  the  Great  Barrier  Reef.  The 
islands  are  situated  in  the  Coral  Sea  between  147°-152°E  and  12°-25°S.  The  highest  point 
is  7  m,  on  WiUis  Island  (150°E  16°S).  None  of  the  islands  have  a  resident  population,  but 
there  is  a  storm  warning  station  on  Willis  Island  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The 
islands  are  an  External  Territory  of  Australia. 

Most  of  the  islands  have  no  vegetation;  a  few  are  covered  by  scrub  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  The  only  published  checklist  of  the  flora  is  that  of  7  vascular  plant  taxa 
collected  from  Willis  Island  (Davis,  1923). 

References 

Davis,  J.K.  (1923).  Willis  Island,  a  Storm  Warning  Station  in  the  Coral  Sea,  5.  199  pp. 
Critchley  Parker,  Melbourne.  (Geography,  climatology;  checklist  of  vascular  plants 
with  notes  on  distribution.  Not  seen;  citation  from  Frodin.) 


85 


Costa  Rica 


Area  50,899  sq.  km 

Population  2,534,000 

Floristics  Costa  Rica,  for  its  size,  may  have  the  most  diverse  plant  life  anywhere 
in  the  world.  It  is  a  biogeographical  land  bridge  where  the  floras  of  North  and  South 
America  meet.  Gentry  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  estimates  8000  higher  plant  species; 
L.D.  Gomez  P.  (1984,  pers.  comm.)  estimates  10,000,  of  which  1500  are  orchids  and  1800 
trees;  1393  taxa  are  believed  endemic  (lUCN  figures).  Even  more  staggering  is  that  the 
730  ha  La  Selva  Reserve  contains  1500  recorded  species  of  vascular  plants  (Hammel  and 
Grayum,  1982). 

Vegetation  Accounts  of  the  vegetation  are  given  by  Janzen  (1983),  who 
distinguishes  14  major  tropical  plant  formations,  and  Gomez  (1983b),  who  identifies  40 
vegetational  units  in  Costa  Rica.  Natural  vegetation  is  entirely  forest  and  woodland  except 
for  the  high  paramo  on  the  highest  peaks  of  the  Cordillera  de  Talamanca  and  for  the 
savannas  on  unusual  volcanic  soils.  Moist  and  wet  tropical  forests  occupy  48%  of  the 
forested  land,  mainly  along  the  cordilleras  and  on  Peninsulas  Nicoya  and  Osa.  Other  types 
of  forest  are  the  semi-deciduous  tropical  dry  forest  (in  the  northwestern  Pacific  lowlands) 
and  the  floristically  diverse  montane  forests.  Also  present  are  mangrove  and  swamp 
forests. 

By  the  1960s  logging  and  deforestation  had  destroyed  over  half  the  natural  forest; 
estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  650  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
16,380  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981);  5671  sq.  km  (11%)  protected  in  parks  and  reserves, 
one  of  the  highest  percentages  in  the  world. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Costa  Rica  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericana  Project, 
described  in  Appendix  1,  as  well  as  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  country  Floras  are: 

Burger,  W.  (Ed.)  (1971- ).  Flora  Costaricensis.  Fieldiana  Bot.  35,  40;  and  Fieldiana 

Bot.  new  series  4,  13.  (34  families  so  far.) 
Standley,  P.C.  (1937-1938).  Flora  of  Costa  Rica.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  Bot.  Ser. 

18(1-4).  1616  pp.  (Complete  systematic  list  of  gymnosperms  and  flowering  plants.) 

See  also: 

Hartshorn,  G.S.  and  Poveda,  L.J.  (1983).  Checklist  of  Trees.  In  Janzen,  D.H.  (Ed.), 

Costa  Rican  Natural  History.  Univ.  of  Chicago  Press,  IlHnois.  Pp.  158-183. 

(Vegetation  map  and  checklist  of  trees.) 
Holdridge,  L.R.  and  Poveda,  L.J.  (1975).  Arboles  de  Costa  Rica,  Vol.  1.  Centro 

Cientifico  Tropical,  San  Jose.  546  pp. 
Janzen,  D.H.  and  Liesner,  R.  (1980).  Annotated  checklist  of  plants  of  lowland 

Guanacaste  Province,  Costa  Rica,  exclusive  of  grasses  and  non-vascular 

cryptograms.  Brenesia  18:  15-90. 

Field-guides 
Allen,  P.H.  (1956).  The  Rain  Forests  of  Golf o  Dulce.  Univ.  of  Florida  Press, 

Gainesville.  417  pp.  (Keys  to  433  species,  mainly  trees,  in  southern  Costa  Rica,  some 
illustrated.) 

There  are  also  a  few  illustrated  field  guides  to  trees  in  national  parks. 
86 


Costa  Rica 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN  is 
preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  List  of  rare, 
threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this 
work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:4,  E:53,  V:205,  R:135, 1:10,  K:907,  nt:79;  non-endemics  rare  and 
threatened  worldwide  -  E:7,  V:33,  R:18,  1:2  (world  categories). 

43  threatened  plants  are  listed  in  Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited  in 
Appendix  1.  Threatened  plants  are  also  mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  W.G. 
D'Arcy  on  endangered  landscapes  in  the  region  (pp.  89-104),  J.T.  Mickel  on  rare 
and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328),  H.E.  Moore  Jr.  on  endangerment  in  palms 
(pp.  267-282). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Fuller  and  Swift  (1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  outline  legal 
controls  on  the  export  of  ornamental  plants  and  their  parts.  They  also  report  that  the 
Departamento  de  Vida  Silvestre  is  currently  reviewing  draft  legislation  to  regulate  exports 
of  wild  orchids.  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined  Jatropha  costaricensis,  a  plant 
confined  to  Guanacaste  Province  in  Costa  Rica,  as  'Endangered'  under  the  U.S. 
Endangered  Species  Act. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Asociacion  Costarricense  para  la  Conservacion  de  la  Naturaleza  (ASCONA),  Apdo 

8-3790,  1000  San  Jose. 
Centro  Agronomico  Tropical  de  Investigacion  y  Ensenanza  (CATIE),  Turrialba. 
Fundacion  de  Parques  Nacionales,  Apdo  236,  Cod.  1(X)2,  San  Jose. 
Organization  for  Tropical  Studies  (OTS),  Universidad  de  Costa  Rica,  San  Pedro,  San 

Jose. 
Programa  Patrimonio  Natural  de  Costa  Rica,  c/o  Fundacion  de  Parques  Nacionales, 

Apdo  236,  Cod.  1(X)2,  San  Jose;  and  Apdo  103,  Plaza  Gonzalez  Viquez,  San  Jose. 
Tropical  Science  Center,  Apdo  8-3870,  San  Jose. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Lankester  Botanical  Garden,  Escuela  de  Biologia  Universidad  de  Costa  Rica,  Ciudad 
Universitaria  "Rodrigo  Facio",  San  Jose. 

Useful  Addresses 

Herbario  Nacional  de  Costa  Rica,  Museo  Nacional,  P.O.  Box  749,  San  Jose. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Direccion  General  Forestal,  Departamento  de  Vida 

Silvestre,  Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Ganaderia,  Apdo  10094,  San  Jose. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Colegio  de  Biologos  de  Costa  Rica,  Universidad  de  Costa 

Rica,  Ciudad  Universitaria  "Rodrigo  Facio",  San  Jose. 

Additional  References 

Beebe,  S.  (1984).  A  model  for  conservation.  The  Nature  Conservancy  News  34(1):  4-7. 
Burger,  W.C.  (1980).  Why  are  there  so  many  kinds  of  flowering  plants  in  Costa  Rica? 

Brenesia  17:  371-388.  (Summary  of  recent  papers  on  floristic  diversity  in  Costa  Rica, 

with  references.) 
Gomez  P.,  L.D.  (1983a).  Vegetation  and  Climate  of  Costa  Rica,  2  vols.  Editorial 

Universidad  Estatal  a  Distancia  (EUNED),  San  Jose.  (18  maps,  1:200,000.) 
G6mez  P.,  L.D.  (1983b).  Vegetation  map  of  Costa  Rica.  1:200.000.  Fundacion  Parques 

Nacionales,  San  Jose. 
Hammel,  B.E.  and  Grayum,  M.H.  (1982).  Preliminary  report  on  the  Flora  Project  of 

La  Selva  Field  Station,  Costa  Rica.  Ann.  Missouri  Bot.  Card.  69:  420-425. 

87 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Janzen,  D.  (1983).  Costa  Rican  Natural  History.  Univ.  of  Chicago  Press,  Illinois. 

816  pp. 
Knight,  P.  (1964).  The  great  oaks  of  Costa  Rica.  lUCN  Bull.,  new  series  No.  13, 

Oct/Dec.  Pp.  6-7. 
Tosi,  J. A.,  Jr.  (1969).  Republica  de  Costa  Rica  Mapa  Ecoldgico.  Instituto  Geogrifico 

Nacional,  San  Jose. 


Cuba 


Area  114,524  sq.  km 

Population  9,966,(X)0 

Floristics  7000  species  of  gymnosperms  and  flowering  plants  of  which  4000  are 
endemic  (Conde,  1952);  6000  species,  almost  50%  endemic  (Alain,  1962,  pers.  comm., 
quoted  in  Prance,  1977). 

Vegetation  Semi-desert  of  thornbush  and  savannah  vegetation  up  to  the 
mountain  edges;  siliceous  savannah  in  the  west;  montane  evergreen  and  tropical  cloud  and 
rain  forest  with  pine  forest  in  the  east  and  in  the  west.  Species-rich  pine  forests  on 
serpentine  soils.  Submontane  rain  forest  along  north-east,  and  semi-dry  mountain  forest 
along  the  south-east  coast,  with  mangrove  and  tropical  salt  marsh  along  the  west  coast. 
11%  forested  (FAO,  1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for 
broadleaved  closed  forest  20  sq.  km/annum,  from  a  total  of  12,550  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP, 
1981);  according  to  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  about  16,000  sq.  km  of  tropical 
moist  forest  remain. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neo tropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  Flora  is: 

Leon,  H.  and  Alain,  H.  (1946-63).  Flora  de  Cuba,  5  vols  and  suppl.  (by  A.H.  Liogier). 
Published  variously:  Vols  1-3  -  Cultural,  SA  La  Habana;  Vol.  4  -  Museo  de 
Historia  Natural  de  la  Salle,  La  Habana;  Vol.  5  -  Universidad  de  Puerto  Rico,  Rio 
Piedras.  (In  Spanish;  some  black  and  white  photographs.)  Additional  species  are 
listed  as  a  series  'Novedades  de  la  Flora  Cubana'  in  various  pubUcations  including 
Rev.  Soc.  Cubana  Bot.  5  (1948);  Phytology,  Bulgarian  Academy  of  Sciences  11: 
47-53  (by  B.P.  Kitanov,  1979);  Contr.  Mus.  Hist.  Nat.  Col.  la  Salle,  No.  9:  1-24 
(1950);  Candollea  17:  99-111,  113-121  (1960);  there  are  also  Polish,  E.  German, 
Hungarian  and  Russian  references  subsequent  to  Vol.  5  of  the  Flora.) 

Muniz,  O.  and  Borhidi,  A.  (1982).  Catdlogo  de  las  Palmas  de  Cuba.  Acta  Botanica 
Academiae  Scientiarum  Hungaricae  28(3-4):  309-345. 

See  also: 

Borhidi,  A.  and  Kerezty,  Z.  (1979).  New  names  and  new  species  in  the  Flora  of  Cuba 
resp.  Antilles.  Continued  as:  New  names  and  new  species  in  the  Flora  of  Cuba  II, 
by  A.  Borhidi  (1980);  New  names  and  new  species  in  the  Flora  of  Cuba  and  Antilles 
III,  by  A.  Borhidi  (1983).  Acta  Botanica  Academiae  Scientiarum  Hungaricae 
25(1-2):  1-37;  26(3-4):  255-275;  29(1-4):  181-215. 

Borhidi,  A.  and  Muftiz,  O.  (1979).  Notas  sobre  taxones  criticos  o  nuevos  de  la  flora  de 
Cuba.  Acta  Botanica  Academiae  Scientiarum  Hungaricae  25(1-2):  39-52. 

88 


Cuba 

Duek,  J.J.  (1971).  Lista  de  las  especies  Cubanas  de  Lycopodiophyta,  Psilotophyta, 
Equisetophyta     y     Polyodiophyta     (Pteridophyta).     Adansonia,     ser.     2,      11: 
559-578,  717-731. 

For  an  account  of  botanical  work  in  Cuba,  with  bibliography  of  botanical  papers 
1960-1976,  addresses  of  herbaria  and  reports  of  a  new  Flora,  see: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Current  work  on  the  flora  of  Cuba  -  A  commentary.  Taxon 
26:  417-423. 

Current  work  on  the  flora  of  Cuba  is  also  pubhshed  in  the  following  journals: 

Revista  del  Jardin  Botdnico  Nacional,  Habana.  1980,  Vol.  1-. 

fViss.  Zeitschr.  Univ.  Jena  Mat.  -Naturwiss.  (28:  541-724  in  particular). 

The  papers  of  the  3rd  Symposium  on  the  Flora  of  Cuba,  and  a  working  report,  will  be 
published  in  Feddes  Repertorium  96(7-10),  due  out  by  the  end  of  1985. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Borhidi,  A.  and  Muniz,  O.  (1983).  Catdlogo  de  Plantas  Cubanas  Amenazadas  o 
Extinguidas.  Edit.  Academia.  85  pp.  (Lists  959  species  of  gymnosperms  and 
flowering  plants  threatened  or  extinct,  including  832  endemics,  with  their 
distribution  by  provinces  and  assignment  into  categories  'rare',  'endangered'  and 
'extinct'  -  non-compatible  with  lUCN  categories.) 

The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  has  two  data  sheets  for  Cuba,  on  Cereus  robinii  and 
Microcycas  calocoma.  Threatened  plant  conservation  is  also  discussed  in: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Conservation  and  the  endangered  species  of  plants  in  the 

Caribbean  islands.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  105-11 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  Botanico  de  Cienfuegos,  Apto  414,  Cienfuegos. 

Jardin  Botanico  de  la  Habana,  Calle  26  e/c  Puentes  Grandes  y  Ave.  Boyeros,  Habana. 
Jardin  Botanico  Nacional  de  Cuba,  Universidad  de  la  Habana,  Carretera  del  Ricio  Km 
3.5,  Calabazar,  Habana. 

Additional  References 

Borhidi,  A.  and  Muniz,  O.  (1980).  Die  Vegetationskarte  von  Kuba.  Acta  Botanica 

Academiae  Scientiarum  Hungaricae  26(1-2):  25-53.  (In  German.) 
Borhidi,  A.,  Muniz,  O.  and  Del  Risco,  E.  (1979).  Clasificacion  fitocenologica  de  la 

vegetaci6n  de  Cuba.  Acta  Botanica  Scientiarum  Hungaricae  25(3-4):  263-301.  (In 

Spanish.) 
Borhidi,  A.,  Muniz,  O.  and  Del  Risco,  E.  (1983).  Plant  communities  of  Cuba,  1.  Acta 

Botanica  Hungarica  29(1-4):  337-376. 
Conde,  J. A.  (1952).  La  Flora  de  Cuba.  Memorias  de  la  Sociedad  Cubana  de  Historia 

Natural.  Univ.  Habana.  Organo  Oficial  de  Museo  Poev.  Facultad  de  Ciencias. 

Vol.  21  no.  1.  (In  Spanish.) 
Friedrich  Schiller  Universitat  (1979).  Zur  Flora  von  Kuba.  Wiss.  Zeitschr.  Univ.  Jena 

Mat. -Naturwiss  28:  541-724.  (Collection  of  28  papers  on  aspects  of  the  Cuban  flora, 

in  German  and  Spanish,  and  bibliography  of  papers  published  since  1975  by 

members  of  the  Flora-Cuba  Project.) 
Muiiiz,  O.  (1970).  Endemismo  en  la  Flora.  In  Atlas  Nacional  de  Cuba.  Havana.  (The 

Atlas  contains  a  vegetation  map  and  a  lengthy  discursive  description  of  the 

vegetation.) 

89 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Prance,  G.T.  (1977).  Floristic  inventory  of  the  tropics:  Where  do  we  stand?  Ann. 

Missouri  Bot.  Card.  64(4):  659-684. 
Samek,  V.  (1968).  La  proteccion  de  la  naturaleza  en  Cuba.  Ser.  Transform.  Natur.  7: 

1-23.  Acad.  Cienc.  Cuba.  (Not  seen.) 
Smith,  Earl,  E.  (1954).  The  Forests  of  Cuba.  Maria  Moors  Cabot  Foundation 

Publication  No.  2.  98  pp.,  3  maps.  (Includes  classification  of  forests  based  on 

floristic,  edaphic  and  moisture  criteria;  descriptions  of  regional  forests  with  species 

lists;  illus.) 

Cyprus 

Area  9254  sq.  km 

Population  659,(XX) 

Floristics  c.  2000  vascular  plant  species,  including  naturalized  aliens,  calculated 
from  the  Flora  of  Cyprus  (Meikle,  1977,  1985).  1 16  endemic  vascular  taxa  (lUCN  figures). 

Vegetation  Dominant  natural  vegetation  outside  agricultural  land  is  heavily 
grazed  garigue,  with  occasional  patches  of  taller  maquis.  Remaining  forest  (c.  17%  of  land 
area,  Meikle,  1977,  1985)  restricted  to  the  mountains:  the  precipitous  limestone  Kyrenia 
(northern)  range  supports  large  stands  of  Pinus  brutia/Cupressus  sempervirens  forest  on 
the  upper  slopes  and  well-developed  maquis  on  much  of  the  northern  slope;  the 
predominantly  igneous  Troodos  (southern)  range  is  also  well  forested  with  Pinus  brutia  on 
lower  slopes,  replaced  by  Pinus  nigra  ssp.  pallasiana  at  higher  levels.  The  Troodos  also 
supports  many  Cypriot  endemics.  Other  important  areas  of  floristic  diversity:  Akamas  and 
Karpas  Peninsulas,  in  extreme  north-west  and  north-east  of  the  island  respectively.  The 
few  remaining  wetlands,  especially  near  Phasouri  and  Syrianokhori,  support  an  interesting 
aquatic  flora. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Cyprus  has  benefited  from  one  of  the  most  detailed  and 
comprehensive  Floras  of  recent  years: 

Meikle,  R.D.  (1977,  1985).  Flora  of  Cyprus,  2  vols.  Bentham-Moxon  Trust,  Royal 
Botanic  Gardens,  Kew,  Richmond,  Surrey,  U.K.  832  pp,  1137  pp. 

Cyprus  will  also  be  covered  under  the  Med-Checklist  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  See  also: 

Chapman,  E.F.  (1949).  Cyprus  Trees  and  Shrubs.  Cyprus  Government  Printing  Office, 

Nicosia.  88  pp.  (Keys  and  descriptions.) 
Osorio-Tafall,  B.F.  and  Seraphim,  G.M.  (1973).  List  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  Cyprus. 

Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Natural  Resources,  Nicosia. 

Field-guides 

Matthews,  A.  (1968).  Lilies  of  the  Field:  A  Book  of  Cyprus  Wild  Flowers.  PubHshed 

by  the  author,  P.O.  Box  180,  Limassol.  54  pp.  (Colour  photographs  with  text 

describing  c.  50  species,  mostly  common,  a  few  endemic.) 
Megaw,  E.  and  Meikle,  D.  (1973).  Wild  Flowers  of  Cyprus.  Phillimore,  London.  (A 

handsome  quarto  book  of  41  colour  paintings  of  Cypriot  plants  by  Elektra  Megaw, 

with  short  descriptive  text  by  D.  Meikle.) 


90 


Cyprus 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  Red  Data  Book,  but  the  Ministry 
of  Agriculture  and  Natural  Resources  have  prepared  a  list  of  41  'rare  plant  species'  (M.A 
Daniel,  1982,  pers.  comm.)- 

Cyprus  is  also  included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit, 
1983,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  section  on  Cyprus  is  reprinted  in  Leon,  1983.  Latest  lUCN 
statistics,  based  on  the  former:  endemic  taxa  -  E:10,  V:9,  R:22,  1:5,  K:24,  nt:46. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  legislation  directly  protects  wild  plants  in  Cyprus, 
except  those  in  State  Forests  which  are  protected  by  Forest  Law  No.  14  of  1967.  Section 
13(2)  of  this  Law  prohibits  cutting,  uprooting,  collecting,  or  removal  from  State  Forests  of 
any  produce  without  authorization.  'Forest  produce'  includes  timber  and  branches  and  all 
parts  of  wild  plants,  mosses,  fungi  and  lichens.  According  to  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture 
and  Natural  Resources,  "almost  all"  the  41  species  on  their  rare  plant  list  occur  in  State 
Forests  and  so  receive  protection. 

Outside  these  Forests  only  4  species  of  crop  plants  have  been  granted  any  form  of 
protection:  Rhus  coriaha  (Sumach),  used  in  tanning  Moroccan  leather;  2  species  of  sage. 
Salvia  fruticosa  (S.  cypria,  S.  triloba)  and  S.  willeana  (S.  grandiflora  auct.). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Association  for  the  Protection  of  the  Cyprus  Environment,  P.O.  Box  2444,  Chanteclair 
Building,  Nicosia. 

Useful  Addresses 

Cyprus  Forest  Association,  c/o  Forest  Department,  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and 

Natural  Resources,  Nicosia. 
Cyprus  Herbarium,  Department  of  Agriculture,  Nicosia. 
Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Natural  Resources,  Forest  Department,  Nicosia. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authority:  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Natural 

Resources,  Nicosia. 

Additional  References 

Holmboe,  J.  (1914).  Studies  on  the  vegetation  of  Cyprus.  Bergens  Museums  Skrifter. 

NYRaekke  1(2).  344  pp. 
lonnides,  O.  (1973).  Nature  conservation  in  Cyprus.  Nature  in  Focus  14:  16-17. 
Leon,  C.  (1983).  [Cyprus:]  Important  Botanical  Areas  of  High  Conservation  '^'^alue. 

14  pp.  Unpublished  report,  available  from  lUCN-CMC. 


Czechoslovakia 


Area  127,870  sq.  km 

Population  15,588,(XX) 

Floristics  2600-2750  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  10  endemics  (lUCN  figures),  'at  least  15'  according 
to  J.  Holub  (1984,  in  litt.).  Centres  of  endemism  include  the  Tatra  Mts,  Krkonose  Mts, 
Velka  Fatra  Mts  and  the  karstic  region  of  Slovensky  Kras.  Elements:  Central  European, 
Pannonian  and  alpine. 


91 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Vegetation  Largely  an  agricultural  and  heavily  industrialized  landscape.  The 
remaining  area,  supporting  semi-natural  vegetation,  largely  covered  by  forests,  mostly  of 
pine,  oak  and  beech.  Beechwoods  well-developed,  in  Slovakia  forming  32%  of  forest 
cover  (Polunin  and  Walters,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Altitudinal  vegetation  zones  still 
apparent:  at  lowest  levels  relicts  of  riverine  forest  give  way  to  broadleaved  deciduous 
woodland,  but  the  latter  extensively  re-afforested  by  spruce  and  pine;  at  higher  levels, 
mixed  coniferous  and  deciduous  woodland;  in  subalpine  zone  montane  pine,  giving  way  to 
alpine  meadows.  In  warmer  areas,  steppe  vegetation. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al. , 
1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  National  Floras: 

Dostal,  J.  (1948-1950).  Kvetena  CSR.  (Flora  of  Czechoslovakia.)  Pfirodovgdecke 

Nakladatelstvi,  Praha.  2269  pp.  (An  illustrated  key  for  all  vascular  plants;  revised 

edition  in  prep.) 
Dostal,  J.  (1958).  Klic  k  uplne  kvetene  CSR  (Key  to  the  complete  flora  of 

Czechoslovakia),  2nd  Ed.  Ceskoslovenska  Akademie  V6d,  Prague.  982  pp. 

(Essentially  a  revised  and  condensed  version  of  Dostal,  1948-1950;  illus.) 

Floras  are  also  being  prepared  for  the  2  Socialist  Republics  that  comprise  Czechoslovakia, 
namely  the  Czech  Socialist  Republic  (CSR  -  Bohemia  and  Moravia)  and  the  Slovak 
Socialist  Republic  (SSR  -  Slovakia): 

Futak,  J.  (Ed.)  (1966-  ).  Fldra  Slovenska  (Flora  of  Slovakia),  4  vols.  Slovenska 
Akademia  and  Veda,  Bratislava.  (Incomplete;  1  -  a  morphological  vocabulary;  2  - 
pteridophytes  and  gymnosperms;  3  -  angiosperms,  edited  by  J.  Futak  and  L. 
Bertova;  4(1)  -  angiosperms,  edited  by  L.  Bertova.) 

Hejny,  S.  and  Slavi'k,  B.  (Eds)  (in  prep.).  Fldra  CSR  (Flora  of  the  Czech  Socialist 
Republic),  8  vols  planned.  Academia,  Prague. 

Checklists: 

Dostal,  J.  (1982).  Seznam  cevnatych  rostlin  kveteny  ceskoslovenske.  Prazska  botanicka 

zahrada,  Praha.  408  pp. 
Novacky,  I.M.  (1954).  Slovenska  Botanicka  Nomenklatura.  Slovenska  Akademia  Vied, 

Bratislava.  227  pp. 

See  also: 

Holub,  J.  (1974).  Taxonomic  and  floristic  progress  on  the  Czechoslovak  flora  and  the 
contribution  of  Czechoslovak  authors  to  knowledge  of  the  European  flora 
(1961-1972).  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(1):  173-352. 

Slavik,  B.  (1972).  Preparation  of  the  phytogeographical  atlas  of  the  Czech  Socialist 
Republic.  Acta  Ecol.  Natur.  Region  1:  24-28.  (In  Czech.) 

Bibliographies: 

Botanical  Institute  of  the  Czechoslovak  Academy  of  Sciences  (Ed.)  (1978,  1980  and 
1982).  Bibliographia  botanica  Cechoslovaca  1973-1974,  1975-1976  and  1977-1978, 
12  vols.  Botanicky  Ustav  CSAV,  Pruhonice.  563,  272  and  590  pp.  (2  consecutive 
authors:  Z.  Neuhcuslova-Novotna  and  D.  Guthova-Jarkovska.) 

Futak,  J.  and  Domin,  K.  (1960).  Bibliografia  k  fldre  CSR.  Slovenska  Akademia  Vied, 
Bratislava.  883  pp.  (References  to  botanical  literature  published  up  to  1952.) 


92 


Czechoslovakia 

National  botanical  journals:  Preslia,  Journal  of  the  Czechoslovak  Botanical  Society 
(address  below)  and  Zprdvy  Ceskoslovensk^  botanicki  spolecnosti,  pfi  CSAV,  Praha 
(summaries  in  English). 

Field-guides 

Majovsky,  J.  and  Krej5a,  J.  (1966-1977).  Obrdzkovd  kvStena  Slovenska  (Illustrated 
Flora  of  Slovakia),  5  vols.  Obzor,  Bratislava.  (Colour  illus.  for  each  species.) 

Novak,  F.A.  and  Svolinsky,  K.  (1940-1946).  Rostliny  (WUd  flowers),  2  vols.  Vesmir, 
Praha. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Published  threatened  plant  lists  for  both  CSR 
and  SSR  and  a  Red  Data  Book  for  CSR  are  listed  below.  These  will  provide  the  basis  for 
the  national  Red  Data  Book. 

Czech  Socialist  Republic: 

Cefovsky,  J.,  Holub,  J.  and  Proch^ka,  F.  (1979).  Cerveny  seznam  fl6ry  CSR  (The 
Red  List  of  the  CSR  Flora).  Pamatky  a  Pfiroda  4:  361-378.  (First  draft  list  of 
threatened  vascular  plants  in  the  Czech  Socialist  Republic;  includes  37  'extinct'  and 
39  'missing'  taxa,  267  'critically  threatened'  plants,  240  'strongly  threatened',  239 
'threatened'  and  330  rare  taxa  'in  need  of  further  study';  Enghsh  summary.) 

Holub,  J.,  Prochazka,  F.  and  Cefovsky,  J.  (1979).  Seznam  vyhynulych,  endemickych  a 
ohrozenych  taxonu  vy§§ich  rostlin  kvSteny  CSR  (1.  verze).  (List  of  extinct,  endemic 
and  threatened  taxa  of  vascular  plants  of  the  flora  of  the  Czech  Socialist  Republic 
(first  draft).)  Preslia  51(3):  lll-Hl .  (English  abstract  and  summary;  same  Hst  as 
previous  paper;  reviewed  in  Threatened  Plants  Committee  -  Newsletter,  No.  6:  13, 
1980.) 

Prochazka,  F.,  Cefovsky,  J.  and  Holub,  J.  (1983).  Chrdnin4  a  ohrozeni  druhy  kviteny 
CSR  (Protected  and  endangered  species  in  the  flora  of  CSR).  UDPM,  Praha. 
103  pp. 

Slovak  Socialist  Republic: 

Maglocky,  S.  (1983).  Zoznam  vyhynutych  endemickych  a  ohrozenych  tax6nov  vygSich 
rastlin  flory  Slovenska  (List  of  extinct,  endemic  and  threatened  taxa  of  vascular 
plants  of  the  flora  of  Slovakia).  Bioldgia  38:  825-852. 

See  also: 

Cefovsky,  J.  and  Podhajska,  Z.  (1981).  Registrace  kriticky  ohrozenych  druhu  vysSich 
rostlin  v  CSR  (Registration  of  critically  endangered  plant  species  in  the  Czech 
Socialist  Republic).  Pamatky  a  Pfiroda  6:  577-583. 

Hendrych,  R.  (1977).  Zanikle  nebo  nezvSstne  rosthny  nasi  kv6teny  (Extinct  or  missing 
plants  of  our  flora),  tiva  25(3):  84-85. 

Holub,  J.  (Ed.)  (1981).  Mizejici fldra  a  ochrana  fytogenofondu  v  CSSR  (The  vanishing 
flora  and  protection  of  the  gene  pool  in  Czechoslovakia).  Proceedings  from  a 
conference.  Studie  CSAV,  20.  Academia,  Prague.  (See  for  example  papers  in  Slovak 
by:  J.  Futak  on  endemic  plants  of  the  SSR  (pp.  45-49);  in  Czech  by  E.  Hadac  on 
endemic  plants  of  the  CSR  (pp.  41-43);  J.  Holub  on  protection  of  the  floristic 
diversity  from  the  aspect  of  taxonomy  and  phytogeography  (pp.  27-39);  K.  Kub^t  on 
threatened  species  in  north-west  Bohemia  (pp.  133-137);  F.  Prochazka  on  extinct 
species  in  the  Czechoslovak  flora  (pp.  13-15);  and  L.  VanSckova  on  extinct  and 
endangered  species  in  the  Moravian  karst  (pp.  139-141).) 


93 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

SomS^k,  L.  (1977).  Ohrozen4  a  zriedkav4  taxony  horskych  a  vysokohorskych  poloh 
Slovenska  (The  threatened  and  rare  taxa  of  the  mountain  range  of  Slovakia). 
Bratislava. 

Since  1981,  the  Nature  Conservation  Section  of  the  State  Institute  for  Protection  of 
Monuments  and  Conservation  of  Nature  (address  below)  have  co-ordinated  a  project 
entitled  Conservation  of  Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  and  Animal  Species.  Aims  include 
issuing  new  species  conservation  decrees,  ensuring  all  critically  endangered  species  are 
safeguarded  in  protected  areas,  re-introduction,  using  rare  and  threatened  plants  in  soil 
reclamation  projects  and  ex  situ  conservation  in  botanic  gardens  (Cefovsky,  1982). 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  E:2,  R:3,  1:2, 
nt:3;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -E:1,V:19,  R:11,I:6  (world  categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Legislation  prohibiting  the  uprooting  of  selected  wild 
species  was  passed  for  CSR  by  Decree  No.  54  of  14  April  1958  and  for  SSR  by  Decree  No. 
211  of  23  December  1958.  In  the  CSR,  108  taxa  of  ferns  and  flowering  plants  are  so 
protected;  100  of  them  receive  complete  protection  and  8  partial  protection.  Some 
complete  genera  are  also  covered  (e.g.  Aconitum,  Orchis,  Pulsatilla,  Stipa).  In  the  SSR, 
88  taxa  receive  complete  protection  and  8  partial  protection.  In  addition  40  species  and 
genera  (Qxytropis,  Salix)  and  one  family  (Orchidaceae)  receive  special  legal  protection 
within  the  High  Tatra  National  Park. 

Furthermore,  the  districts  of  DScin,  Litom6fice  and  Usti  nad  Labem  in  the  North 
Bohemian  region  have  passed  their  own  legislation,  which  includes  the  protection  of 
several  species  not  covered  by  the  national  legislation. 

Relevant  literature: 

Bosackova,  E.  (n.d.).  Chrdnen^  rastliny  na  Slovensku  a  podmienky  ich  ochrany 

(Protected  plants  in  Slovakia  and  protective  measures).  Vydalo  VPL  pre 

Poverenictvo  SNR  pre  kulturu  a  informacie.  6  pp. 
Magic,  D.,  Bosackova,  E.,  Krejca,  J.  and  Usak,  O.  (1979).  Atlas  chrdnenych  rastlin 

(Field-guide  of  protected  plants).  Obzor,  Bratislava.  260  pp.  (Slovakia  only.) 
Prochazka,  F.  et  al.  (1983)  cited  in  full  above. 
Randuska,  D.  and  Krizo,  M.  (1983).  Chrdnene  rastliny  (Protected  plants).  Priroda, 

Bratislava.  430  pp. 
Somsak,  L.  and  Slivka,  D.  (1981).  Chrdnen4  rastliny  Slovenska  (Protected  plants  in 

Slovakia),  2nd  Ed.  Bratislava.  (lUus.) 
Vesely,  J.  (1961).  Chrdnene  rostliny  (Protected  Plants),  2nd  Ed.  Orbis,  Praha.  85  pp. 

(Lists  protected  species  and  includes  conservation  status;  colour  illus.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Ceskoslovenska  botanicka  spolecnost  (Czechoslovak  Botanical  Society),  Benatska  2, 

128  01  Prague  2. 
Cesky  svaz  ochrancu  pfirody  (Czech  Union  of  Nature  Conservationists),  Starom6stske 

nam.  12,  110  00  Prague  1. 
Slovensky  zvaz  ochrancov  prirody  a  krajiny  (Slovak  Union  of  Nature  and  Landscape 

Conservationists),  Leningradska  1,  811  01  Bratislava. 

Botanic  Gardens  Many,  as  listed  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1, 
although  none  subscribe  to  the  lUCN  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body. 
Relevant  references: 


94 


Czechoslovakia 

Setelovd,  V.  et  al.  (1977).  Botanicki  zahrady  (Botanic  Gardens).  SPN,  Prague.  280  pp. 

SomS^k,  L.  (1979).  The  role  of  botanic  gardens  in  the  conservation  of  rare  and 
threatened  plants  in  Slovakia.  In  Synge,  H.  and  Townsend,  H.  (Eds),  Survival  or 
Extinction.  Proceedings  of  a  Conference:  The  Practical  Role  of  Botanic  Gardens  in 
the  Conservation  of  Rare  and  Threatened  Plants,  11-17  September  1978.  Bentham- 
Moxon  Trust,  Kew.  Pp.  107-112. 

Vyskocil,  J.  (1980).  Chrdnend  rostliny  v  botanickych  zahraddch,  jejich  pSstovdni, 
zakldddni  sbi'rek  a  vyuzivani  v  kulturne  vychovn6  cinnosti  (Protected  plants  in 
botanic  gardens,  their  cultivation  and  use  in  educational  activities).  Proceedings  of  a 
symposium  16-17  October  1980.  Prazsk^  botanicka  zahrada,  Praha-Troja.  135  pp. 

Useful  Addresses 

Botanicky  ustav  CSAV  (Botanical  Institute,  Czechoslovak  Academy  of  Sciences),  252 

43  Pruhonice. 
Institute  of  Experimental  Biology  and  Ecology,  Slovak  Academy  of  Sciences,  885  34 

Bratislava,  Sienkiewiczova  1. 
Statni  ustav  pamatkove  peCe  a  ochrany  pfirody  (State  Institute  for  Protection  of 

Monuments  and  Conservation  of  Nature),  Vald§tejnske  nam.  4,  118  01  Prague  1. 
Ustredie  Statnej  ochrany  prirody  (Centre  of  State  Nature  Conservancy  -  Slovakia),  031 

01  Liptovsky  Mikula§. 

Additional  References 

Cefovsky,  J.  (1982).  Botanisch-okologische  Probleme  des  Arten-schutzes  in  der  CSSR 

unter  Berucksichtigung  der  praktischen  Naturschutzarbeit  (Botanical  and  ecological 

problems  of  species  preservation  in  the  CSSR  with  regard  to  practical  conservation 

work).  Berichte  der  ANL  6:  90-92. 
Hendrych,  R.  (1981).  Bemerkungen  zum  Endemismus  in  der  Flora  der 

Tschechoslowakei  (Observations  on  endemism  in  the  flora  of  Czechoslovakia). 

Preslia  53(2):  97-120.  (In  German;  English  abstract;  maps.) 
Holub,  J.,  Hejny,  S.,  Moravec,  J.  and  Neuhcusl,  R.  (1967).  Ubersicht  der  hoheren 

Vegetationseinheiten  der  Tschechoslowakei.  Rozprdvy  CSAV,  Rada  Matematickych 

a  Pfi'rodnich  Ved  77(3):  1-75.  (Phytosociological  account.) 
Plesnik,  P.  (1976).  Die  Vegetationsstufen  in  der  Slowakei.  18  pp.  (Maps.) 
Prochazka,  F.  (1980).  Soucasne  zmeny  vychodocesk^  fldry  a  pozndmky  k  rozsi'rem 

chrdnenych  druhu  rostlin  (Contemporary  changes  in  the  flora  of  eastern  Bohemia 

and  notes  on  the  distribution  of  protected  species).  Krajske  Muzeum  Vychodnich 

Cech,  Hradec  Kralove.  134  pp. 
Vesely,  J.  (1961).  Priroda  Ceskoslovenska,  jeji  vyvoj  a  ochrana  (Nature  in 

Czechoslovakia,  its  development  and  conservation).  Osveta,  Bratislava.  146  pp. 


Denmark 


Area  43,075  sq.  km 

Population  5,141,000 

Floristics  c.  1000  native  vascular  species  (Lojtnant,  1984,  in  litt.)\  c.  1350-1450 
estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  this 
discrepancy  principally  due  to  a  recent  assessment  that  many  species  in  Denmark,  hitherto 

95 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

believed  native,  are  now  recognized  as  longstanding  introductions;  1  endemic  species,  1 
endemic  subspecies  (lUCN  figures).  Elements:  Atlantic. 

Vegetation  90%  of  land  surface  extensively  modified,  70%  by  agriculture. 
Remaining  pockets  of  semi-natural  vegetation  include  forests  of  oak  (Quercus petraea  and 
Q.  robur)  and  beech  in  the  south  and  east,  sand-dunes  and  salt-marshes  mainly  along  the 
west  coast,  scattered  inland  heaths,  peat  bogs,  swamps  and  lakes.  Wetlands  are  considered 
to  have  suffered  the  greatest  species  loss  and  disturbance.  Forests  occupy  about  10%,  but 
most  are  spruce  and  pine  plantations  (Poore  and  Gryn-Ambroes,  1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Included  in  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al., 
1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  National  Floras: 

Christiansen,  M.S.  (1958-1961).  Danmarks  Vilde  Planter,  2  vols.  Branner  og  Korch, 

Kebenhavn.  (Colour  and  line  drawings.) 
Hansen,  K.  (Ed.)  (1984).  Dansk  Feltflora,  2nd  Ed.  Gyldendal,  Kobenhavn.  757  pp. 

(Illus.) 
Raunkiaer,  C.  (1950).  Dansk  Ekskursions-Flora,  7th  Ed.  by  K.  Wiinstedt.  Gyldendal, 

Kebenhavn.  380  pp. 
Rostrup,  E.  and  Jorgensen,  C.A.  (1973).  Den  Danske  Flora,  en  Populaer  Vejledning  til 

at  Laere  de  Danske  Planter  at  Kende,  20th  Ed.  revised  by  A.  Hansen.  Gyldendal, 

Copenhagen.  664  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 

See  also  Lindman  (1964),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and: 

Hagerup,  O.  and  Petersson,  V.  (1956-1960).  Botanisk  Atlas,  2  vols.  Munksgaard, 
Kebenhavn.  (Line  drawings  only;  1  -  angiosperms;  2  -  bryophytes,  pteridophytes, 
gymnosperms;  English  edition  published  in  1963,  Copenhagen.) 

For  a  regional  plant  atlas  see  Hulten  (1971),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and  the  results  of  the 
Danish  Topographical-Botanical  Investigation,  published  in  Botanisk  Tidskrift,  1935 
onwards,  containing  dot  maps  for  most  Danish  higher  plants. 

Relevant  journals:  Botanisk  Tidskrift,  Kobenhavn  (now  replaced  by  Nordic  Journal  of 
Botany);  Flora  og  Fauna,  Naturhistorisk  Museum,  Aarhus;  Urt  (popular  journal 
published  by  the  Danish  Botanical  Society;  addresses  below). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  National  plant  Red  Data  Book: 

L0jtnant,  B.  and  Worsoe,  E.  (1977).  Forelebig  Status  over  den  Danske  Flora.  Reports 
from  the  Botanical  Institute  University  of  Aarhus,  No.  2.  341  pp.  (Detailed  survey 
of  status  of  over  200  native  vascular  plants  in  Denmark;  line  drawings;  Enghsh 
summary.) 

For  a  revision  of  the  above  see: 

L0jtnant,  B.  (1985).  Redliste  over  Danmarks  Karplanter.  Kebenhavn.  23  pp.  (A  revised 
threatened  plant  list  of  Danish  higher  plants.) 

See  also: 

Lojtnant,  B.  (1980).  Status  over  den  danske  flora.  In  Moller,  H.S.  et  al.  (Eds),  Status 
over  den  Danske  Plante  -  og  Dyreverden.  Proceedings  of  a  Symposium  18-20  April 
1980.  Miljoministeriet,  Fredningsstyrelsen.  Pp.  327-341.  (Describes  conservation 
status  and  threats  to  the  flora.) 


96 


Denmark 

Denmark  is  included  in  the  Nordic  Council  of  Ministers'  threatened  plant  Ust  and 
supplements  (Ovesen  et  al.,  1978  and  1982)  and  in  the  European  list  (Threatened  Plants 
Unit,  1983),  both  cited  in  Appendix  1;  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  the  latter: 
endemic  taxa  -  R:2;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:6,  R:l,  1:2  (world 
categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  included  a  data  sheet  on  Thesium  ebracteatum.  Extinct  in  Denmark,  status 
unknown  worldwide. 

A  computerized  biological  data-base  is  being  developed  by  the  National  Agency  for  the 
Protection  of  Nature,  Monuments  and  Sites,  Kobenhavn  (address  below).  This  will  include 
data  about  protected  areas,  threatened  plants  and  habitats,  as  part  of  a  larger  biological 
conservation  data  centre. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Conservation  of  Nature  Act  (No.  297  of  26  June 
1975)  provides  total  protection  for  2  plant  species  and  partial  protection  for  26  other  plant 
taxa.  The  Ministry  of  the  Environment  may  order  the  protection,  throughout  the  country 
or  in  specified  areas,  of  any  plant  species.  Species  in  nature  reserves  may  also  be  protected 
against  picking,  digging,  etc.,  as  part  of  nature  reserve  legislation.  Some  species  are 
protected  administratively  where  they  grow  on  land  owned  by  the  State  and  managed  by 
the  National  Agency  for  forests.  For  more  details  see  Koester  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Danmarks  Botanisk  Forening  (Danish  Botanical  Society),  Solvgade  83,  1307 

Kebenhavn. 
Dansk  Naturfredningsforening  (Danish  Nature  Conservation  Society),  Frederiksberg 

Runddel  1,  2000  Kebenhavn. 
Verdensnaturfonden  (WWF-Denmark),  H.C.  Andersens  Boulevard  31,  1553 

Kebenhavn. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanical  Institute,  University  of  Aarhus,  68  Nordlandsvej,  8240  Risskov. 

Botanisk  Have,  Stadsgartnerens  kontor,  Viborgvej  144,  8210  Aarhus  V. 

Den  Kgl.  Veterinaer-og  Landbohejskoles  Have,  Biilowsvej  13,  1870  Kobenhavn  V. 

Forstbotanisk  Have  (Forest  Botanic  Garden),  2920  Charlottenlund. 

Forest  Botanical  Garden,  Aarhus. 

Horsholm  Arboretum,  2970  Harsholm. 

Kobenhavns  Universitets  Botaniske  Have,  0  Farimagsgade  2B,  1353  Kobenhavn  K. 

Useful  Addresses 

National  Agency  for  the  Protection  of  Nature,  Monuments  and  Sites,  Ministry  of  the 

Environment,  13  Amaliegade,  1256  Kobenhavn. 
Naturhistorisk  Museum,  Universitetsparken,  80(X)  Aarhus  C. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Fredningsstyrelsen,  Miljoministeriet,  13 

Amaliegade,  1256  Kebenhavn. 

Additional  References 

Gravesen,  P.  (1976-1983).  Forelebig  Oversigt  over  Botaniske  Lokaliteter,  4  vols. 
Milj0ministeriets  Fredningsstyrelse  i  Samarbejde  med  Dansk  Botanisk  Forening, 
Kobenhavn.  (1  -  Sjaelland;  2  -  Den  Fynske  0gruppe;  3  -  Lolland,  Falster,  Mon  og 
Bornholm;  4  -  Sanderjyllands  Amt  (S.  Jutland);  describes  hundreds  of  botanical 

97 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

localities  and  assesses  their  conservation  value  as  part  of  a  long-term  monitoring 
programme;  covers  flowering  plants,  mosses,  fungi,  lichens  and  algae;  protected 
species;  photographs;  maps.) 
Hansen,  A.  (1981).  Dansk  Botanisk  Litteratur  i  1975,  1976,  1977,  1978  og  1979.  Bat. 
Tidssk.  75(4):  221-275.  (Review  of  recent  botanical  literature.) 


D'Entrecasteaux  Islands 


Volcanic  islands  reaching  2400  m,  situated  c  30  km  to  the  north  of  the  eastern  tip  of  Papua 
New  Guinea.  Area  3142  sq.  km;  population  34,400  (1971  estimate.  Encyclopedia 
Britannica,  1974).  The  islands  are  part  of  Papua  New  Guinea. 

The  3  principal  islands  of  Normanby,  Fergusson  and  Goodenough  still  have  extensive 
primary  tropical  rain  forests.  The  archipelago  is  included  on  the  Vegetation  Map  of 
Malaysia  (van  Steenis,  1958)  and  on  the  vegetation  map  of  Malesia  (Whitmore,  1984), 
both  covering  the  Flora  Malesiana  region  at  scale  1:5,000,000  and  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

No  figure  available  for  the  size  of  the  flora.  No  information  on  threatened  plants. 


Djibouti 

Area  23,000  sq.  km 

Population  354,000 

Floristics  534  species  (Bavazzano,  1972).  Degree  of  endemism  unknown.  In 
general  flora  is  poorly  known,  but  likely  to  be  rich  especially  in  the  Goda  Mountains 
(Verdcourt,  1968). 

Floristic  affinities  with  Somalia-Masai  region. 

Vegetation  Mostly  semi-desert  grassland,  shrubland  and  succulent  scrub.  Small 
areas  of  mangrove  vegetation  and  coastal  desert  at  the  coast.  Small  patches  of  montane 
dry  evergreen  forest  in  Dai  area  of  the  Goda  Mountains. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Djibouti  is  included  in  Enumeratio  Plantarum  Aethiopiae 
Spermatophyta  (Cufodontis,  1953-1972),  and  in  Adumbratio  Florae  Aethiopicae,  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1 .  See  also: 

Bavazzano,  R.  (1972).  Contributo  alia  conoscenza  della  flora  del  Territorio  Francese 
degli  Afar  e  degli  Issa.  Webbia  26:  267-364.  (Short  diagnoses,  specimen  citations.) 

Chevalier,  A.  (1939).  La  Somalie  frangaise.  Sa  flore  et  ses  productions  vegetales.  Revue 
Bot.  Appl.  Agric.  Trop.  19:  663-687. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Two  species  which  occur  in  Djibouti  are 
included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978):  Dracaena  ombet  and  Livistona 
carinensis  (Syn.  Wissmannia  carinensis). 

98 


Djibouti 
Detailed  information  is  lacking,  but  desertification  is  threatening  the  succulent  scrub. 

Additional  References 

Chedeville,  E.  (1972).  La  vegetation  du  Territoire  frangais  des  Afars  et  des  Issas. 

Webbia  26:  243-266. 
Pichi-Sermolli,  R.E.G.  (1957).  Una  carta  geobotanica  dell'Africa  orientale  (Eritrea, 

Ethiopia,  SomaHa).  Webbia  13:  15-132.  (Includes  map  1:5,000,000.) 
Verdcourt,  B.  (1968).  French  Somaliland.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  140-141. 


Dominica 


The  most  mountainous  island  in  the  Lesser  Antilles,  in  the  Windward  group,  equidistant 
between  Guadeloupe  and  Martinique,  153  km  south  of  Antigua;  47  km  long  by  24  km 
wide;  fertile  and  volcanic. 

Area  751  sq.  km 

Population  77,000 

Floristics  About  1600  species  of  vascular  plants  (D.H.  Nicolson,  1984,  in  lift.). 
Nicolson  also  reports  6  species  and  2  varieties  endemic  to  the  island  (1  fern,  1 
monocotyledon  and  6  dicotyledons).  Other  reported  endemics  have  become  synonyms  of 
more  widespread  species  or  have  been  recently  found  on  neighbouring  islands. 

Vegetation  In  the  interior  undisturbed,  primary  rain  forest  and  lower  montane 
rain  forest,  surrounded  by  a  broad  intermediate  zone  of  cut-over  secondary  forest;  on 
highest  peaks  elfin  woodland;  on  steep  slopes  palm  brakes;  on  the  west  (leeward)  coast,  a 
belt  of  dry  scrub  woodland  and,  north  of  St  Joseph,  grassland  and  open  scrub  with  grass; 
at  river  mouths  in  north,  swamp  (Lonchocarpus)  forest;  mangrove  rare,  recently 
discovered  in  Cabrits  swamp.  (Mainly  from  Beard,  1949,  cited  in  Appendix  1.)  46.7% 
forested,  the  highest  percentage  in  the  Caribbean,  according  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  The  6840-ha  Morne  Trois  Pitons  National  Park,  in  the  south  of  Dominica, 
includes  elfin  woodland,  rain  forest  and  secondary  forest,  and  conserves  the  largest  area  of 
such  forest  in  the  Lesser  Antilles  (Protected  Areas  Data  Unit). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  Leeward  and 
Windward  Islands  (only  monocotyledons  and  ferns  published  so  far,  Howard,  1974-,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  and  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in 
Appendix  1). 

A  Flora  of  Dominica,  covering  dicotyledons,  has  been  prepared  by  D.H.  Nicolson  and 
collaborators  at  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  and  has  been  submitted 
for  pubhcation;  one  family  (Compositae)  still  to  be  written. 

Ferns,  gymnosperms  and  monocotyledons  are  covered  in  the  checklist: 

Hodge,  W.H.  (1954).  Flora  of  Dominica,  B.W.I. ,  Part  1.  Lloydia  17  (1-3):  1-238. 

Also  relevant: 


99 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Beard,  J.S.  (1944).  Provisional  list  of  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  Lesser  Antilles. 

Caribbean  Forester  5(2):  48-67.  (428  species  assigned  in  a  table  to  individual 

islands). 
Hodge,  W.H.  (1953).  The  orchids  of  Dominica,  BWI.  American  Orchid  Soc.  Bull. 

22(12):  891-904. 
Stehle,  H.  and  Stehle,  M.  (1947).  Liste  complementaire  des  arbres  et  arbustes  des 

petites  Antilles.  Caribbean  Forester  8:  91-123.  (A  further  328  species  to  Beard,  1944, 

in  similar  format.) 

There  are  also  various  papers  on  the  botany  of  Dominica  in  Smithsonian  Contributions  to 
Botany,  particularly  dealing  with  Algae,  Lichens  and  Fungi. 

Local  botanical  activity  is  centered  at  the  facilities  of  the  Dominica  National  Park 
Headquarters,  who  have  produced  articles  on  vegetation  of  the  Park. 

Field-guides 

Honychurch,  P.N.  (1980).  Caribbean  Wild  Plants  and  Their  Uses.  Published  by  the 
author,  Roseau,  Dominica.  163  pp.  (Conspicuous  plants  only.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Threatened  plant  conservation  is  discussed  in: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Conservation  and  endangered  species  of  plants  in  the  Caribbean 
Islands.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  105-114. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Gardens,  Roseau.  (Largely  devastated  by  Hurricane  David  in  1978,  now 
recuperating.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Dominica  National  Park  Headquarters,  Botanic  Gardens,  Roseau. 
Forestry  Department,  Botanic  Gardens,  Roseau. 

Additional  References 

Anon.  (1970).  Dominica:  A  chance  for  a  choice.  The  Conservation  Foundation, 

Washington,  D.C.  48  pp.  Some  considerations  and  recommendations  on 

conservation  of  the  island's  natural  resources. 
Hodge,  W.H.  and  Taylor,  D.  (1957).  The  ethnobotany  of  the  Island  Caribs  of 

Dominica.  Webbia  12(2):  513-644. 
Shillingford,  C.A.  (1968).  Climax  Forest  in  Dominica.  M.Sc.  Thesis,  University  of  the 

West  Indies,  Mona,  Jamaica.  (Comparative  study  of  2  examples  of  lowland  rain 

forest  at  D'Leau  Gommier  and  Terre  Ferme.) 
Thorsell,  J.W.  and  Wood,  G.  (1976).  Dominica's  Morne  Trois  Pitons  National  Park. 

Nature  Canada  5(4):  14-16,  33-34. 
Weber,  B.E.  (1973).  Dominica  National  Park.  Dept.  of  Recreation  Resources,  College 

of  Forestry  and  Natural  Resources,  Colorado  State  University.  (Thesis.)  (Lists  some 

plants  endemic  to  Dominica  in  Table  3,  p.  57.) 


Dominican  Republic 


A  mountainous  country  consisting  of  the  eastern  two-thirds  of  the  island  of  Hispaniola; 
west  of  Puerto  Rico  and  east  of  Cuba. 

100 


Dominican  Republic 

Area  48,442  sq.  km 

Population  6,101,000 

Floristics  No  figures  for  Dominican  Republic;  Hispaniola  has  an  estimated  5000 
species:  7  gymnosperms,  1087  monocotyledons  and  3900  dicotyledons;  with  1800  endemic 
species  (Liogier,  1984). 

Vegetation  In  the  centre  of  the  island,  along  the  east-west  mountain  ranges  moist 
forest,  low  moist  forest  and  high  mountain  hardwood  forest;  Pinus  occidentalis  dominant 
along  the  central  ridge;  extensive  dry  forest  along  the  northern  and  southern  lowlands,  arid 
in  parts,  with  savannah  type  vegetation;  stands  of  tree  cacti  and  palms  in  places  due  to 
heavy  logging  of  hardwoods.  Mangrove  swamps  best  developed  along  the  north-east  coast 
at  Samana  Bay  where  the  low  moist  forest  comes  down  to  sea  level.  22.7%  forested  (FAO, 
1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest 
25  sq.  km/annum,  out  of  a  total  of  4440  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981);  according  to  Myers 
(1980)  (cited  in  Appendix  1),  c.  1 1,000  sq.  km  of  tropical  moist  forest,  most  disrupted  or 
degraded. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Liogier,  A.H.  (1981).  Flora  of  Hispaniola.  Part  1.  Phytologia  Memoirs  3:  1-218.  (In 

Spanish,  illus.) 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1982,  1984).  La  Flora  de  la  Espanola,  2  vols  pubUshed,  the  third  in 

press.  San  Pedro  de  Macon's.  317  pp.,  420  pp.,  illus. 
Moscoso,  R.M.  (1943).  Catalogus  Florae  Domingensis.  New  York.  732  pp.  (In  Spanish; 

checklist  of  gymnosperms  and  flowering  plants.) 

The  following  provide  additional  information: 

Alvarez,  V.  (1983).  Manglares  de  Republica  Dominicana.  Contribuciones  53. 

CIBIMA/UASD  -  see  Useful  Addresses,  below.  (Describes  mangroves.) 
Dod,  D.D.  (1978- ).  Orquideas  Dominicanas  Nuevas  I-III.  Moscosoa  1(1):  50-54;  1(2): 

39-54;  1(3):  49-63. 
Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  (1963-1967).  Suplemento  no.  1  al  Catalogus  Florae  Domingensis  del 

Prof.  Rafael  M.  Moscoso.  Archiv.  Bot.  Biogeogr.  Ital.  39:  81-132;  40:  54-149;  41: 

47-87;  42:  46-97  and  107-129;  43:  1-18. 
Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  (1975).  Apuntes  para  la  flora  de  Santo  Domingo  (Hispaniola) 

Novedades  III.  Anuario  Acad.  Ciencias  Republica  Dominicana  1(1):  93-132a. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1971a).  Novitates  Antillanae.  IV.  Mem.  N.Y.  Bot.  Card.  21:  107-157. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1971b).  Novitates  Antillanae.  V.  Miscellaneous  new  species  from  the 

Dominican  Republic.  Phytologia  22(3):  163-174. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1973).  Novitates  Antillanae.  VI.  Phytologia  25(5):  265-280. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1976).  Novitates  Antillanae.  VII.  Plantas  nuevas  de  la  Espanola. 

Moscosoa  1(1):  16-49. 

The  botanical  journal  Moscosoa  includes  reports  of  new  taxa,  of  new  records  and  other 
papers  on  the  flora  and  vegetation  of  the  Dominican  Republic  and  Haiti.  It  is  published  by 
the  Jardin  Botanico  Nacional  'Dr  Rafael  M.  Moscoso'  -  see  Botanic  Gardens,  below. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  (1978).  Lista  tentativa  de  plantas  de  la  Republica  Dominicana  que 
deben  protegerse  para  evitar  su  extincion.  Coloquio  Internacional  sobre  la  practica 
de  la  conservacidn,  Santo  Domingo.  CIBIMA/UASD  -  see  Useful  Addresses, 

101 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

below.  (In  Spanish;  lists  133  species  of  threatened  flowering  plants,  of  which  49  are 
endemic.) 

Dr  A.H.  Liogier  has  prepared  a  lengthy  list  of  endangered  plants;  this  is  not  published. 

The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  has  one  data  sheet  for  the  Dominican  Republic,  on 
Pseudophoenix  ekmanii.  Threatened  plant  conservation  is  also  discussed  in: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Conservation  and  the  endangered  species  of  plants  in  the 

Caribbean  Islands.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  105-114. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Sociedad  Dominicana  de  Orquidiologia,  c/o  Jardin  Botanico  Nacional  "Dr  Rafael  M. 

Moscoso",  Apto  21-9,  Santo  Domingo. 
Sociedad  Ecologica  del  Cibao,  Santiago. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  Botanico  Nacional  'Dr  Rafael  M.  Moscoso',  Apto  21-9,  Santo  Domingo. 

Useful  Addresses 

Centro  de  Investigaciones  de  Biologia  Marina,  Universidad  Autonoma  de  Santo 
Domingo,  Repiiblica  Dominicana  (CIBIMA/UASD),  Jonas  E.  Salk  56,  Santo 
Domingo. 

Herbario  Dr  Jose  de  Js.  Jimenez  Almonte,  Universidad  Catolica  Madre  y  Maestra, 
Santiago. 

Additional  References 

Hartschorn,  G.  et  al.  (1981).  The  Dominican  Republic,  country  environmental  profile, 

a  field  study.  AID  Contract  No.  AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247.  JRB  Associates,  8400 

Westpark  Drive,  Mclean,  Virginia  22102,  U.S.A.  109  pp. 
Holdridge,  L.R.,  (1945).  A  brief  sketch  of  the  Flora  of  Hispaniola.  In  Verdoorn  F. 

(Ed.),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  76-78. 
Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  and  Liogier,  A.H.  (1977).  Adiciones  a  los  nombros  vulgares  de  las 

Plantas  en  la  Repiiblica  Dominicana.  Moscosoa  1(2):  9-21.  (See  Liogier,  1974.) 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1974).  Diccionario  botanico  de  nombres  vulgares  de  la  Espanola.  Jardin 

Botanico  Dr  R.  Moscoso,  Santo  Domingo.  813  pp. 
Liogier,  A.  (1984).  La  Flora  de  la  Espanola:  sus  principales  carateri'sticas.  2da.  Joranda 

Cientifica  Academia  de  Ciencias  de  la  Repiiblica  Dominicana.  Santo  Domingo. 
Zanoni,  T.A.,  Long,  C.R.  and  Mckiernan,  G.  (1984).  Bibliografia  de  la  flora  y  de  la 

vegetacion  de  la  Isla  Espanola.  Moscosoa  3:  1-61.  (Extensive  annotated  bibliography 

of  the  flora  and  the  vegetation  of  Hispaniola.) 


Easter  Island 


Easter  Island  (27°S,  109°30'W)  is  a  triangular  volcanic  outcrop  in  the  western  Pacific 
Ocean  3700  km  west  of  Chile,  of  which  it  is  a  dependency.  It  is  also  known  as  Rapa-Nui 
and  Isla  de  Pascua.  Area  1 17  sq.  km;  population  1400  (1971  estimate).  The  highest  point  is 
Mt  Terevaka  (601  m),  part  of  the  extinct  Rano  Aroi  volcano  in  the  north.  Rana  Kao 
(457  m)  and  Rano  Raraku  (427  m)  form  the  south-west  and  south-east  parts  of  the  island. 


102 


Easter  Island 

Almost  the  entire  population  lives  at  Hanga-Roa  on  the  west  coast.  Rapa-Nui  National 
Park,  established  in  1935,  covers  68  sq.  km  mainly  around  the  coast. 

30  native  flowering  plant  species  of  which  3  grasses  and  Sophora  toromiro  endemic 
(Skottsberg,  1922).  12  species  of  ferns  of  which  2  endemic  (Christensen  and  Skottsberg, 
1920).  Most  genera  and  species  have  very  wide  distributions  (van  Balgooy,  1971,  cited  in 
Appendix  1). 

The  vegetation  is  mainly  Sporobolus  and  Stipa  grassland.  Sophora  toromiro  is  the  only 
tree  recorded  on  the  island  in  historic  times.  Undoubtedly  there  were  other  trees  before  the 
natural  vegetation  was  modified  by  fires,  timber  cutting  and  the  introduction  of  sheep. 

The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978)  included  Sophora  toromiro  as  "probably 
Extinct",  the  last  tree  on  the  island  having  died  before  1962.  Subsequently  it  was 
discovered  that  small  plants  were  in  cultivation,  principally  at  Goteborg  Botanic  Garden, 
Sweden  (see  Threatened  Plants  Committee  -  Newsletter  5:  1-2,  1980). 

References 

Skottsberg,  C.  (Ed.)  (1920-1956).  The  Natural  History  of  Juan  Fernandez  and  Easter 
Island,  3  vols.  Almqvist  and  Wiksells  Boktryckeri  AB,  Uppsala.  (1  -  Physical 
features,  geology;  2  -  botany;  3  -  zoology.  See  in  particular  C.  Christensen  and 
C.  Skottsberg,  1920,  on  the  ferns  of  Easter  Island,  ibid.  2:  47-53;  C.  Skottsberg, 
1922,  on  phanerogams,  ibid.  2:  61-84;  C.  Skottsberg,  1951,  a  supplement  to  the 
pteridophytes  and  phanerogams,  ibid.  2:  763-792.) 


Ecuador 

Area  461,477  sq.  km 

Population  9,090,000 

Floristics  Dodson  and  Gentry  (1978)  quote  estimates  ranging  from  10,000  to 
20,(XX)  species  of  vascular  plants.  Many  scientists  consider  Ecuador  to  have  more  plants 
per  unit  area  than  any  other  country  in  South  America;  this  is  demonstrated  by  the  over 
1250  species  from  136  families  recorded  in  1(X)  of  the  167  ha  plot  of  Pacific  lowland  rain 
forest  at  Rio  Palenque  Science  Center;  43  are  known  only  from  the  site  (Dodson  and 
Gentry,  1978)  and,  with  subsequent  work,  about  100  are  newly  described  (A.  Gentry, 
1984,  pers.  comm.).  Rio  Palenque  is  within  the  Choco  phytogeographic  region,  "that  part 
of  the  coastal  lowlands  of  western  Colombia  and  northwestern  Ecuador  covered  by  wet 
and  moist  forest  vegetation"  and  believed  to  be  exceptionally  rich  in  both  endemics  and 
other  species  (Gentry,  1982). 

Vegetation  Between  the  Andes  and  the  Pacific  Ocean,  desert  and  semi-desert, 
savanna,  deciduous  forest  (dominated  by  thorny  leguminous  trees  with  cacti),  semi- 
deciduous  forest  (mostly  now  destroyed)  and  in  the  north  lowland  rain  forest.  Gentry 
(1977)  separates  the  lowland  coastal  forest  into  a  narrow  strip  of  wet  forest  along  the  base 
of  the  Andes  (originally  small  in  extent,  now  critically  endangered,  the  minute  Rio 
Palenque  site  (see  above)  being  a  rare  survivor),  and  the  coastal  moist  forest,  more 
extensive  but  with  fewer  endemics.  In  the  Andes  itself,  lower  montane  rain  forest 
(700-2500  m),  cloud  forest  (2500-3400  m),  grass  paramos  (3400-4000  m),  shrub  and 
cushion  paramos  (4000-4500  m)  and  desert  paramos  (4500  m  to  snow  limit).  In  the 

103 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Interandean  valley  the  length  of  Ecuador,  little  natural  vegetation  remains;  most  is  now  a 
mixture  of  steppe  and  scrub.  In  the  lowlands  east  of  the  Andes,  extensive  lowland  rain 
forest,  covering  135,000  sq.  km  of  the  Amazonian  forest  (Unesco,  1981,  cited  in  Appendix 
1).  Most  of  this  section  from  Harling  (1979),  which  has  a  useful  bibliography. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  3400  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
142,300  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Ecuador  is  covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs 
of  Flora  Neotropica,  as  described  in  Appendix  1.  The  country  Flora  is: 

Harling,  G.  and  Sparre,  B.  (1973-  ).  Flora  of  Ecuador.  20  vols  (28  families)  published 
so  far,  7  vols  in  prep.  Department  of  Systematic  Botany,  University  of  Goteborg, 
and  the  Section  of  Botany,  Riksmuseum,  Stockholm,  Sweden. 

Floristic  knowledge  of  the  Pacific  lowlands  of  Ecuador  is  summarized  by  Gentry  (1978), 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  Floras  for  part  of  Ecuador  and  countrywide  family  accounts  include: 

Dodson,  C.H.  and  Gentry,  A.H.  (1978).  Flora  of  the  Rio  Palenque  Science  Center. 

Selbyana  4(1-6):  1-628.  (Tropical  Wet  Forest  site,  all  species  illustrated  with 

descriptions  and  keys,  frequency,  habitats  and  related  species.) 
Dodson,  C,  Gentry,  A.  and  Valverde,  F.M.  (1984).  Flora  of  Jauneche.  Banco  Central 

del  Ecuador  and  Selbyana  8:  1-512.  (Tropical  Moist  Forest  site,  all  species  illustrated 

with  descriptions  and  keys,  frequency,  habitats  and  related  species.) 
Dodson,  C.  and  Gentry,  A.  (in  press  for  1985).  Flora  of  Capeira  and  the  Guayaquil 

region.  Banco  Central  del  Ecuador  and  Ann.  Missouri  Bot.  Gard.  (Tropical  Dry 

Forest  site,  all  species  illustrated  with  descriptions  and  keys,  frequency,  habitats  and 

related  species.) 
Dodson,  C.  and  Marmol,  P.  (1980-84).  Orchids  of  Ecuador.  Icones  Plantarum 

Tropicarum  1-4:  Plates  1-500;  5:  Plates  501-600;  10:  Plates  901-1000.  (Illustrations 

of  orchids  of  western  Ecuador,  upland  Ecuador,  and  upland  and  eastern  Ecuador, 

respectively,  with  descriptions  and  dot  maps.) 
Gilmartin,  A.J.  (1972).  The  Bromeliaceae  of  Ecuador.  Phanerogamarum  Monographiae 

Tomus  4:  1-255. 
Hitchcock,  A.S.  (1927).  The  grasses  of  Ecuador,  Peru  and  Bolivia.  Contr.  U.S.  Nat. 

Herb.  24(8):  291-556. 
Little,  E.L.  (1969).  Arboles  comunes  de  la  Provincia  de  Esmeraldas.  FAO/SF:  76/ECU 

13,  Rome.  536  pp. 
Standley,  P.C.  (1931).  The  Rubiaceae  of  Ecuador.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist..  Bot.  Ser. 

7(2):  1-251. 
Valverde,  F.M.  (1980).  Flora  de  la  Peninsula  Santa  Elena.  Univ.  Guayaquil  Press. 

Infonnation  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  An 
analysis  of  vegetation  types  with  the  most  endangered  species  is: 

Gentry,  A.H.  (1977).  Endangered  plant  species  and  habitats  of  Ecuador  and 

Amazonian  Peru.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  136-148. 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in  other  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  J.T. 
Mickel  on  rare  and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328). 

Other  relevant  literature: 
104 


Ecuador 

Dodson,  C.  (1984).  Orchids  of  Ecuador.  (Unpublished  list  of  2200  orchids  known  to 
occur  in  Ecuador  of  which  25  are  Vulnerable,  2  Endangered  and  7  Rare.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Ley  Forestal  y  de  Conservacion  de  Areas  Naturales  y 
Vida  Silvestre  (Ley  No.  74  of  14  August  1981,  Registro  Oficial  24  August  1981)  governs 
conservation  and  includes  plants.  The  Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Ganaderia  is  responsible 
for  implementation  (Fuller  and  Swift,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Fundacion  Natura,  Jorge  Juan  481,  Casilla  243,  Quito. 

Botanic  Gardens  The  Ecuadorian  Orchid  Society  is  establishing  a  botanic  garden 
outside  Guayaquil.  The  Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Ganaderia  operate  an  orchid 
collection  and  sanctuary  at  Vilcabamba  in  Loja  province;  plans  exist  for  a  similar 
programme  at  Conocota  near  Quito. 

Useful  Addresses 

Dept.  de  Biologia,  Universidad  Catolica,  Apdo  2184,  Quito. 
Facultad  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Universidad  Central,  Quito. 
Facultad  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Universidad  de  Guyaquil,  Casilla  471,  Guayaquil. 
Museo  Ecuatoriana  de  Ciencias  Naturales,  Casa  de  la  Cultura,  Quito. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Director  Ejecutivo  del  Programa  Nacional  Forestal, 
Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Ganaderia,  Casilla  2919,  Quito. 

Additional  References 

Acosta-Solis,  M.  (1968a).  Naturalistas  y  Viajeros  Cientificos  que  han  contribuido  al 

conocimiento  Floristico  Fitogeografico  del  Ecuador.  Inst.  Ecuat.  de  Cienc.  Nat. 

Contribucion  65:  1-138.  (History  of  botanical  collecting.) 
Acosta-Solis,  M.  (1968b).  Divisiones  fitogrdficas  y  formaciones  geobotdnicos  del 

Ecuador.  Publ.  Cient.  de  la  Casa  de  la  Cultura  Ecuatoriana,  Quito. 
Gentry,  A.H.  (1982).  Phytogeographic  patterns  as  evidence  for  a  Choco  Refuge.  In 

Prance,  G.T.  (Ed.)  (1982),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  112-136. 
Harling,  G.  (1979).  The  vegetation  types  of  Ecuador  -  a  brief  survey.  In  Larsen,  K. 

and  Holm-Nielsen,  L.B.  (Eds),  Tropical  Botany.  Academic  Press,  London. 

Pp.  165-174. 
Putney,  A.D.  (1976).  Estrategia  prelimina  para  la  conservacidn  de  areas  silvestres 

sobresalientes  del  Ecuador.  UNDP/FAO-ECU/7 1/527.  61  pp. 
Svenson,  H.K.  (1945).  Vegetation  of  the  coast  of  Ecuador  and  Peru  and  its  relation  to 

the  Galapagos  Islands.  Am.  J.  Bot.  33:  394-498. 

V 

Egypt 

Area  1,000,250  sq.  km 

Population  45,657,000 

Floristics  2085  species  (Tackholm,  1974);  1095  species  said  to  occur  in  the  coastal 
strip  (Boulos,  1975),  but  probably  only  800-900  (M.N.  el  Hadidi,  1984,  pers.  comm.);  70 
endemics  (lUCN  figures). 


105 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Predominantly  Saharan  flora,  with  Mediterranean  elements  along  the  north  coast  (mostly 
winter  annuals);  Irano-Turanian  element  in  the  Sinai.  The  Nile  valley  has  a  distinctive 
flora  with  Sudanian  elements  in  the  southern  part.  The  Gebel  Elba  mountain  block  and  the 
surrounding  land  has  a  Sahelian  element,  which  also  reaches  south  Sinai.  Prominent 
centres  of  endemism  are  the  mountains  of  Sinai,  Gebel  Elba  and  Gebel  Uweinat,  and  some 
oases  in  the  western  desert.  Oases  often  have  a  Mediterranean  weed  element. 

Vegetation  Mostly  desert  with  little  or  no  perennial  vegetation  except  for 
scattered  desert  shrubs;  oases  consist  mostly  of  the  cultivated  Date  palm  Phoenix 
dactylifera.  Coastal  strip  of  overgrazed  and  badly  degraded  land.  Also  of  interest  is  the 
rich  aquatic  and  riverine  flora  associated  with  the  Nile. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Egypt  is  included  in  the  computerized  Atlas  der 
Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes  (Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980), 
Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and  is  being  covered  in  Med-Checklist,  all  of  which  are 
cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Tackholm,  V.  (1974).  Students'  Flora  of  Egypt,  2nd  Ed.  Cairo  Univ.,  Cairo.  888  pp. 

(Keys,  diagnoses,  distributions,  line  drawings.) 
Tackholm,  V.  and  Boulos,  L.  (1972).  Supplementary  notes  to  Students'  Flora  of  Egypt, 

Second  Edition.  Publ.  Cairo  Univ.  Herb.  5:  1-135.  (16  plates  of  black  and  white 

photographs.) 
Tackholm,  V.  and  Boulos,  L.  (1977).  Additions  and  corrections  to  the  second  edition 

of  Students'  Flora  of  Egypt.  Publ.  Cairo  Univ.  Herb.  7/8:  211-218. 
Tackholm,  V.  and  Drar,  M.  (1941-69).  Flora  of  Egypt.  Incomplete;  4  vols,  principally 

monocotyledons.  Bull.  Fac.  Sci.  Cairo  Univ.  17,  28,  30,  36. 

A  new  multipart  'Flora  of  Egypt'  is  in  preparation,  under  the  direction  of  Professor  M.N. 
el  Hadidi  of  the  Cairo  Herbarium.  Published  so  far  are  Amaranthaceae,  by  M.N.  el 
Hadidi  and  A.M.H.  el  Hadidy,  Globulariaceae,  by  A. A.  Fayed,  Santalaceae,  by  F.M. 
Sa'ad,  and  Vahliaceae,  by  D.M.  Bridson;  Plantaginaceae,  by  S.  Snogerup,  is  in  press  (due 
out  late  1984).  Published  in  Taeckholmia  Additional  Series  (1980-  ),  and  expected  to  take 
10-15  years  to  complete. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  National  Red  Data  Book  published,  but 
Professor  M.N.  el  Hadidi  has  drafted  one  containing  1 12  species  of  Egyptian  plants.  Egypt 
is  included  in  the  draft  list  for  North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN 
Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Abdallah,  M.S.  and  Sa'ad,  F.M.  (1980).  Proposals  for  conservation  of  endangered 
species  of  the  flora  of  Egypt.  Notes  Agric.  Res.  Centre  Herb.  Egypt  5:  1-12.  (Lists 
54  rare  or  endemic  species.) 

Boulos,  L.  (1985).  The  arid  eastern  and  south-eastern  Mediterranean  regions.  In 
Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.),  Plant  Conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  Area. 

Latest  lUCN  figures:  endemics:  Ex:2,  E:12,  V:6,  R:38,  1:6,  K:4,  nt:2;  non-endemics  rare 
or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:2,  V:9,  R:13,  1:2  (world  categories). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Garden,  Botany  Department,  Faculty  of  Science,  University  of  Alexandria, 

Moharram  Bey,  Alexandria. 
El  Saff  Botanic  Garden,  El  Saff,  Upper  Egypt. 
Orman  Botanic  Garden,  Giza-Orman,  Cairo. 

106 


Egypt 

Qubba  Botanic  Garden,  Qubba,  Cairo. 
Zohria  Trial  Gardens,  Gezira,  Cairo. 

There  is  also  a  botanic  garden  in  Asyut,  but  address  not  known. 

Useful  Addresses 

Plant  Protection  Department,  Agriculture  College,  Asyut. 
The  Herbarium,  Cairo  University,  Giza. 

CITES  Authority:  The  Director,  Flora  and  Phytotaxonomy  Researches,  Agricultural 
Research  Centre,  P.O.  Box:  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Dokki,  Cairo. 

Additional  References 

Batanouny,  K.H.  (1973).  Habitat  features  and  vegetation  of  deserts  and  semi-deserts  in 

Egypt.  Vegetatio  27(4-6):  181-199.  (12  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Boulos,  L.  (1975).  The  Mediterranean  element  in  the  flora  of  Egypt  and  Libya.  In 

CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  119-124. 
Hassib,  H.  (1952).  Distribution  of  plant  communities  in  Egypt.  Bull.  Fac.  Sci.  Cairo 

Univ.  29:  59-261. 
Kassas,  M.  et  al.  (1952-1970).  Habitat  and  plant  communities  in  the  Egyptian  desert.  I. 

Introduction.  J.  Ecol.  40:  342-351  (with  6  black  and  white  photographs);  II.  The 

features  of  a  desert  community.  Ibid.  41:  248-256;  III.  The  wadi  bed  ecosystem. 

Ibid.  42:  A1A-AA\  (with  6  black  and  white  photographs);  IV.  The  gravel  desert.  Ibid. 

47:  289-310  (with  8  black  and  white  photographs);  V.  The  limestone  plateau.  Ibid. 

52:  107-119  (with  8  black  and  white  photographs);  VI.  The  units  of  a  desert 

ecosystem.  Ibid.  53:  715-728  (with  8  black  and  white  photographs);  VII. 

Geographical  facies  of  plant  communities.  Ibid.  58:  335-350  (with  8  black  and  white 

photographs). 
Wickens,  G.E.  (1977).  Some  of  the  phytogeographical  problems  associated  with  Egypt. 

Publ.  Cairo  Univ.  Herb.  7/8:  223-230. 


El  Salvador 


Area  21,393  sq.  km 

Population  5,888,000 

Floristics  An  estimated  2500  species  of  vascular  plants  (Gentry,  1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  19  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures). 

Vegetation  On  the  coastal  plain  and  lower  southern  mountain  slopes  mostly 
savanna  and  broadleaved  forest;  in  the  mountains  of  the  north  and  south  temperate 
grassland,  remnants  of  deciduous  oak  and  pine  forests;  in  the  upland  area  around  Cerro 
Montecristo,  on  the  Guatemalan  border  (the  wettest  area),  cloud  forests,  the  last 
remaining  primary  forest  in  the  country,  now  protected,  but  only  12  sq.  km  (Daugherty, 
1973b).  Less  than  10%  of  the  country  has  forest  cover  and  very  little  wildlands  are  left. 
Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  40  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
1010  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  El  Salvador  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericana 
Project,  described  in  Appendix  1,  as  well  as  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of 


107 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  Also  "most  plants"  of  El  Salvador  are  included  in 
the  completed  Flora  of  Guatemala  and  related  articles  in  Fieldiana,  outlined  under 
Guatemala.  Useful  works  specifically  on  El  Salvador  include: 

Calderon,  S.  and  Standley,  P.C.  (1944).  Lista  Preliminar  de  Plantas  de  El  Salvador, 

2nd  Ed.  San  Salvador.  450  pp.  (Annotated  checklist.) 
Carlson,  M.C.  (1948).  Additional  plants  of  El  Salvador.  Bull.  Torr.  Bot.  Club  75(3): 

272-281. 
Guzman,  D.J.  (1950).  Flora  Salvadorena.  Imprenta  Nacional,  San  Salvador.  691  pp. 
Hamer,  F.  (1974-1981).  Las  Orquideas  de  El  Salvador,  3  vols.  Ministerio  de  Educacion, 

Direccion  de  Publicaciones,  San  Salvador.  1140  pp.  (Descriptions,  drawings,  colour 

plates  of  362  species;  in  English,  Spanish  and  German.) 
Lotschert,  W.  (1953).  Ferns  of  the  Republic  of  El  Salvador.  Ceiba  4(1):  241-250.  (List 

of  174  species.) 
Seller,  R.  (1980).  Una  Guia  Taxondmica  Para  Helechos  de  El  Salvador.  Ministerio  de 

Educacion,  San  Salvador.  58  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book,  but 
various  lists  have  been  prepared: 

Reyna  de  Aguilar,  M.L.  (1981).  Flora  en  vias  de  extincion.  Servicio  de  Parques 

Nacional  y  Vida  Silvestre.  (Unpublished  list  of  threatened  trees,  bromeliads,  orchids 
and  of  endemic  trees  in  protected  areas.) 

Witsberger,  D.  (1980).  Tree  species  of  El  Salvador  and  their  conservation  status. 
(Unpublished  list  of  trees  of  El  Salvador  with  annotations  for  endemics,  species  of 
low  population  considered  rare,  and  those  in  Montecristo  National  Park.) 

lUCN  is  preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  List  of 
rare,  threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based 
upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  V:4,  R:6,  L2,  K:7;  non-endemic  taxa  rare  or  threatened 
worldwide  -  E:4,  V:7,  R:3  (world  categories). 

10  threatened  plants  are  included  in  Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited 
in  Appendix  1 ,  and  3  species  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book.  Threatened 
plants  are  also  mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Ehas,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  W.G. 
D'Arcy  on  endangered  landscapes  in  the  region  (pp.  89-104)  and  J.T.  Mickel  on  rare 
and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  wildlife  legislation,  but  a  draft  law  is  under 
consideration  (Fuller  and  Swift,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  U.S.  Government  has 
determined  Abies  guatemalensis  (El  Salvador,  Honduras,  Guatemala,  Mexico)  as 
'Threatened'  under  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Friends  of  the  Earth,  Edificio  Comercial,  6°  Piso,  San  Salvador. 

National  Committee  for  Ecology,  Boulevard  del  Hipodromo  303,  San  Salvador. 

Useful  Addresses 

Instituto  Salvadoreno  de  Recursos  Naturales,  Ministerio  de  Agricultura  y  Ganaderia, 
Canton  El  Matazano,  Apdo  Postal  2265,  Soyapango,  San  Salvador. 

Seccion  de  Flora,  Servicio  de  Parques  Nacionales  y  Vida  Silvestre,  DIGERENARE, 
Apdo  Postal  2265,  San  Salvador. 


108 


El  Salvador 

Additional  References 

Blutstein,  H.I.  et  al.  (1970).  El  Salvador:  A  Country  Study.  The  American  University, 

Washington,  D.C.  260  pp. 
Daugherty,  H.E.  (1973a).  The  Montecristo  Cloud-forest  of  El  Salvador  -  a  chance  for 

protection.  Biol.  Conserv.  5(3):  227-230. 
Daugherty,  H.E.  (1973b).  Conservacion  Ambiental  Ecoldgica  de  El  Salvador  con 

Recomendaciones  para  un  Programa  de  Accidn  Nacional.  Artes  Grafica 

Publicitarias,  San  Salvador.  56  pp. 
Holdridge,  L.R.  (1959).  Mapa  Ecologico  de  El  Salvador.  Instituto  Interamericano  de 

Ciencias  Agn'colas  de  la  Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (OEA),  San  Jose, 

Costa  Rica. 


Equatorial  Guinea 


Equatorial  Guinea  comprises  mainland  Mbini  (Rio  Muni)  and  five  islands  and  islets  in  the 
Gulf  of  Guinea:  Bioko  (Fernando  Po  or  Macias  Nguema  Biyogo)  is  the  largest  island  in  the 
Gulf,  32  km  from  Cameroon;  Pagalu  (Annobon)  is  the  smallest  of  the  offshore  islands, 
180  km  SSW  of  S.  Tome  and  340  km  from  the  nearest  mainland  (Gabon);  Corisco,  Elobey 
Grande  and  Elobey  Chico  are  small  coastal  islets.  The  other  major  islands  in  the  Gulf  of 
Guinea  are  Sao  Tome  and  Principe,  q.v. 

Area  28,051  sq.  km,  including  Mbini  (26,017  sq.  km),  Bioko  (2017  sq.  km)  and 
Pagalu  (17  sq.  km). 

Population  383,000 

Floristics 

Mbini  No  figures  available,  but  flora  likely  to  be  rich  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  Floristic  affinities  Guinea-Congolian. 

Bioko  1105  species  (Exell,  1973a);  49  endemic  species  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  (Exell,  1944  gives  a  figure  of  99  endemic  species,  but  this  was  before  the 
revision  of  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa.)  Floristic  affinities  with  mainland  West 
Africa  (particularly  Mt  Cameroun)  and  the  other  islands  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea. 

Pagulu  208  species  (Exell,  1973a),  with  17  endemic  species  (out  of  a  total  of  1 15, 
Exell,  1944).  Floristic  affinities  with  the  other  islands  in  the  Gulf  of  Guinea  between  it  and 
the  mainland. 

Vegetation 

Mbini  Lowland  rain  forest,  with  small  areas  of  mangrove  forest  at  the  coast. 

Bioko  Original  low  altitude  vegetation:  lowland  rainforest,  but  very  little  left 
now,  replaced  by  secondary  and  cultivation  communities  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  dense 
population.  Afromontane  communities  of  montane  forest  and  grassland  occur  at  higher 
altitudes. 

Pagulu  Difficult  to  assess  original  vegetation,  since  so  little  now  remains,  but 
predominantly  lowland  and  submontane  evergreen  forest,  with  mist-forest  on  the  upper 
slopes  of  the  peaks.  Most  low  and  medium  altitude  vegetation  now  destroyed;  replaced  by 
savanna-like  cultivated  land  with  scattered  bushes.  Dry  forest  and  mist  forest  are  still  quite 
well  represented. 

109 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  30  (27  in  Mbini)  sq. 
km/annum  out  of  12,950  (11,800  in  Mbini)  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Mbini 
Guinea  Lopez,  E.  (1946).  Ensayo  Geobotdnico  de  la  Guinea  Continental  Espanola. 
Direccion  de  Agricultura  de  los  Territorios  Espaiioles  del  Golfo  de  Guinea,  Madrid. 
388  pp.  (See  especially  pp.  218-368,  where  records  of  plants  are  given;  illustrated 
throughout  with  maps,  line  drawings,  paintings,  and  black  and  white  photographs.) 

Bioko  Included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa,  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Benl,  G.  (1978-1982).  The  Pteridophyta  of  Fernando  Po.  (Contributions  to  a  Flora  of 
the  island.)  Acta  Botanica  Barcinonensia  31:  1-31;  32:  1-34;  33:  1-46. 

Escarre,  A.  (1968-1970).  Aportaciones  al  conocimieiito  de  la  flora  de  Fernando  Poo. 
Acta  Phytotax.  Barcinonensia  2  (1968),  15  pp.;  3  (1969),  23  pp.;  5  (1970),  32  pp.  (by 
A.  Escarre  and  T.  Reinares).  (Never  completed;  covers  5  families  only.) 

Pagulu 
Exell,  A.W.  (1963).  Angiosperms  of  the  Cambridge  Annobon  Island  expedition. \Sm//. 
Brit.  Mus.  (Nat.  Hist.)  Bot.  3(3):  93-118. 

Pagalu  is  also  included  in  the  following  Floras: 

Exell,  A.W.  (1944).  Catalogue  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  S.  Tome  (with  Principe  and 
Annobon).  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London.  428  pp.  (Annotated 
checklist;  line  drawings.) 

Exell,  A.W.  (1956).  Supplement  to  the  Catalogue  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  S.  Tom^ 
(with  Principe  and  Annobon).  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London.  58  pp. 

Bioko  and  Pagalu  are  both  included  in: 

Exell,  A.W.  (1973a).  Angiosperms  of  the  islands  of  the  Gulf  of  Guinea  (Fernando  Po, 
Principe,  S.  Tome  and  Annobon).  Bull.  Brit.  Mus.  (Nat.  Hist.)  Bot.  4(8):  325-411. 
London.  (Checklist  with  distributions.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  and  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  three  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic  to 
Mbini,  58  endemic  to  Bioko  and  17  endemic  to  Pagalu;  no  categories  assigned. 

Additional  References 

Exell,  A.W.  (1952/1955).  The  vegetation  of  the  islands  of  the  gulf  of  Guinea.  Lejeunia 

16:  57-66. 
Exell,  A.W.  (1968).  Principe,  S.  Tome  and  Annobon.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968), 

cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  132-134.  (Includes  lists  of  examples  of  endemic  species  for 

each  of  the  three  islands.) 
Exell,  A.W.  (1973b).  Relacoes  floristicas  entre  as  ilhas  do  golfo  da  Guine  e  destas  com 

o  continente  africano.  Garcia  de  Orta,  S4r.  Bot.  1(1-2):  3-10. 
Guinea,  E.  (1968).  Fernando  Po.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  130-132. 
Mildbraed,  J.  (1922).  Wissenschaftliche  Ergebnisse  der  Zweiten  Deutschen  Zentral- 

Afrika-Expedition  1910-1911,  2,  Botanik.  Klinkhardt  and  Biermann,  Leipzig.  202 

pp.  (With  90  plates  of  black  and  white  photographs.) 


110 


Ethiopia 


Area  1,023,050  sq.  km 

Population  35,420,000 

Floristics  Cufodontis  (1953-1972)  includes  6283  species  in  his  Enumeratio,  cited 
in  Appendix  1;  also  includes  Somalia  (c.  518  endemic  species),  but  probably  of  the  right 
order  of  magnitude  for  the  flora  of  Ethiopia  if  Somalian  endemics  are  excluded  and  new 
species  and  records  included.  Endemism  fairly  high  in  the  mountains  and  in  the  sub-desert 
Ogaden  in  south-east  Ethiopia;  also  the  forests  in  the  south-west.  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1)  gives  a  value  of  almost  21<l/o  specific  endemism  from  a  sample  of  less  than 
3000  species;  this  is  almost  certainly  too  high,  10%  being  probably  more  accurate. 

Large  proportion  of  area  in  Afromontane  region,  with  small  pockets  of  the  Afroalpine 
region  at  the  highest  altitudes;  flora  of  these  regions  greatly  impoverished,  and  related  to 
the  highland  flora  in  other  parts  of  Africa.  Affinities  also  with  the  floras  of  South  Africa, 
Europe  and  the  Himalayas.  Most  of  lowland  southern  Ethiopia  belongs  to  the  Somalia- 
Masai  region  with  east  African  affinities,  although  forests  of  the  south-west  have  links 
with  the  west  African  forests.  Flora  of  western  Ethiopia  is  Sudanian. 

Vegetation  The  natural  vegetation  of  the  plateaux  and  highlands  above  1800  m  is 
largely  coniferous  forest;  most  has  disappeared  and  is  only  found  in  the  more  inaccessible 
regions;  there  are  also  expanses  of  mountain  grassland.  Zonation  in  the  mountains  from 
forest  through  bamboo  and  heath  thicket  to  tufted  grass  moorland  is  similar  to  that  on  the 
high  Kenyan  mountains,  but  less  well  marked.  In  the  south-west  higher  rainfall  and  lower 
elevation  has  produced  extensive  broadleaved  rain  forests  with  a  high  diversity  of  species. 
In  the  lowlands,  there  is  a  range  of  dry-zone  vegetation,  from  limited  areas  of  desert 
through  Acacia-Commiphora  bushland  to  Acacia  woodland.  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  60  sq.  km/annum  out  of  27,500  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Ethiopia  is  included  in  Enumeratio  Plantarum  Aethiopiae 
Spermatophyta  (Cufodontis,  1953-1972),  and  in  Adumbratio  Florae  Aethiopicae,  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Breitenbach,  F.  von  (1963).  The  Indigenous  Trees  of  Ethiopia,  2nd  Rev.  Ed.  (1st  Ed. 

1960).  Ethiopian  Forestry  Association,  Addis  Ababa.  306  pp.  (Keys  to  families, 

genera;  full  descriptions;  129  line  drawings.) 
Burger,  W.C.  (1967).  Families  of  Flowering  Plants  in  Ethiopia.  Experiment  Station 

Bulletin  No.  45,  USAID,  Oklahoma  State  Univ.  Press,  Oklahoma.  236  pp.  (Keys  to 

families;  family  descriptions;  74  line  drawings.) 
Fiori,  A.  (1909-1912).  Boschi  e  Piante  Legnose  dell'Eritrea.  Firenze.  428  pp. 

(Illustrated;  rather  old,  but  gives  records  for  rare  plants.) 
Pirotta,  R.  (1903-1907).  Flora  delta  Colonia  Eritrea,  parts  1-3.  Annuario  del  R.  Istituto 

Botanico  di  Roma  8,  Rome.  464  pp.  (Never  completed;  final  part  lost  by  printers, 

according  to  Frodin.) 

There  is  a  new  project  to  write  a  Flora  of  Ethiopia  headed  by  Professor  Tewolde-Berhan  of 
the  University  of  Asmara.  It  is  expected  to  take  15-20  years  to  complete  and  will  comprise 
7  volumes.  Volume  3  (including  Leguminosae)  and  substantial  parts  of  volume  2  are  in 
manuscript. 

J  111 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Field-guides 

Edwards,  S.  (1976).  Some  Wild  Flowering  Plants  of  Ethiopia.  Addis  Ababa. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants 

Hedberg,  I.  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Ethiopia,  pp.  92-93,  by  M.G. 
Gilbert,  contains  29  endemic  succulent  taxa  -  E:l,  V:4,  R:12,  1:12.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  c.  450  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  only  a 
few  (mostly  succulents)  known  to  be  rare  or  threatened. 

Two  species  which  occur  in  Ethiopia  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book 
(1978). 

Useful  Addresses 

Flora  of  Ethiopia  project,  P.O.  Box  3434,  Addis  Ababa. 

Additional  References 

Beals,  E.W.  (1968).  Ethiopia.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.   137-140. 
Friis,  I.  (1983).  Phytogeography  of  the  tropical  north-east  African  mountains.  In 

Killick,  D.J.B.  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  525-532. 
Friis,  I.,  Rasmussen,  F.N.  and  Vollesen,  K.  (1982).  Studies  in  the  flora  and  vegetation 

of  southwest  Ethiopia.  Opera  Botanica  63:  1-70. 
Hedberg,  I.  (in  prep.).  Proceedings  of  a  symposium  on  the  Ethiopian  flora  held  in 

Uppsala  in  May  1984.  To  be  published  in  Symb.  Bot. 
Hedberg,  O.  (1983).  Ethiopian  Flora  project.  In  Killick,  D.J.B.  (1983),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  571-574. 
Logan,  W.E.M.  (1946).  An  introduction  to  the  forests  of  central  and  southern 

Ethiopia.  Inst.  Pap.  Imp.  For.  Inst.  24.  64  pp.  (Includes  small-scale  vegetation 

map.) 
Pichi-SermoUi,  R.E.G.  (1957).  Una  carta  geobotanica  dell'Africa  orientale  (Eritrea, 

Ethiopia,  Somalia).  Webbia  13:  15-132.  (Includes  map  1:5,000,000.) 


Faeroe  Islands 


Over  20  islands  in  the  north  Atlantic  between  Shetland  and  Iceland,  forming  a  self- 
governing  community  within  the  Kingdom  of  Denmark. 

Area  1399  sq.  km 

Population  42,000 

Floristics  262  native  vascular  species  (Hansen,  1972);  1  endemic  species.  3 
floristic  elements:  Arctic  (c.  25%),  sub-Arctic  (50%)  and  Atlantic  (c.  25%). 

Vegetation  Mostly  dwarf  scrub  with  bog  and  grassy  heath  communities.  Above 
300  m  alpine  tundra  covers  the  mountainous  North  Islands  and  the  north-facing  peaks  of 
the  Central  Islands  group  (Warming,  1901-1908). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited 
in  Appendix  I)  and: 


112 


Faeroe  Islands 

Ostenfeld,  C.H.  and  Grontved,  J.  (1934).  The  Flora  of  Iceland  and  the  Faeroes.  Levin 

and  Munksgaard,  Copenhagen.  195  pp. 
Rasmiissen,  R.  (1952).  Fevoya  Flora,  2nd  Ed.  Jacobsens,  Torshavn.  231  pp.  (School 

and  excursion  manual  with  keys;  line  drawings.) 

Field-guides 

Bloch,  D.  (1980).  Fareflora.  Feroza  Frodstaparfelag,  Torshavn.  156  pp.  (English 
edition  also  available.) 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  Only  1  non-endemic  species  is  listed  as 
threatened  on  the  lUCN  list,  the  orchid  Hammarbya  paludosa. 

Useful  Addresses 

Museum  of  Natural  History,  3800  Torshavn. 

Additional  References 

Hansen,  K.  (1964).  The  botanical  investigations  of  the  Faroe  Islands  1960-61  and  some 

contributions  to  the  Flora.  Bot.  Tidssk.  60(1-2):  99-107. 
Hansen,  K.  (1966).  Vascular  plants  in  the  Faeroes.  Horizontal  and  vertical  distribution. 

Dansk  Bot.  Ark.  24(3):  1-141.  (Distribution  maps  for  vascular  plants.) 
Hansen,  K.  (1972).  Vertical  vegetation  zones  and  vertical  distribution  types  in  the 

Faeroes.  Saertryk  Bot.  Tidssk.  67:  33-63.  (Useful  ecological  description.) 
Warming,  E.  et  al.  (1901-1908).  Botany  of  the  Faeroes  based  upon  Danish 

Investigations,  3  parts.  Gyldendalske,  Kobenhavn.  (Part  3  contains  a  detailed 

phytosociological  description  by  C.H.  Ostenfeld,  pp.  867-1026.) 


Falkland  Islands  (Islas 
Malvinas) 


The  Falkland  Islands,  an  archipelago  520  km  east  of  the  straits  of  Magellan,  comprise  two 
main  islands.  East  Falkland  (5(XX)  sq.  km)  and  West  Falkland  (3500  sq.  km),  together  with 
about  230  smaller  islands.  The  highest  point  is  Mt  Usborne  (705  m)  on  East  Falkland.  They 
are  a  Dependent  Territory  of  the  U.K. 

Area  12,173  sq.  km 

Population  2000 

Floristics  163  native  species  of  flowering  plants  and  pteridophytes,  and  93 
introduced  species;  16  endemic  species  (Moore,  1968).  Phlebolobium  (Cruciferae)  is  an 
endemic  genus.  Floristic  affinities  with  the  southern  Andes  and  Patagonia. 

Vegetation  Maritime  tussock  grassland,  with  Poa  flabellata,  now  heavily 
overgrazed;  Hebe  and  Chiliotrichum  bush  in  places;  dwarf  shrub  heath,  dominated  by 
Empetrum,  on  better  drained  ground;  Cortaderia  grassland  in  areas  of  poorer  drainage; 
bog  communities  in  very  poorly  drained  areas;  'feldmark'  formation  above  6(X)  m,  in 
which  there  are  large  areas  of  open  ground  with  cushion-forming  vascular  plants,  mosses 
and  lichens. 


113 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Moore,  D.M.  (1968).  The  Vascular  Flora  of  the  Falkland  Islands.  British  Antarctic 

Survey  Scientific  Report  no.  60.  NERC,  London.  202  pp.  (Includes  description  of 

vegetation.) 
Moore,  D.M.  (1973).  Additions  and  amendments  to  the  vascular  flora  of  the  Falkland 

Islands.  Brit.  Antarctic  Survey  Bull.  32:  85-88. 
Vallentin,  E.F.  and  Cotton,  E.M.  (1921).  Illustrations  of  the  Flowering  Plants  and 

Ferns  of  the  Falkland  Islands.  Reeve,  London.  (64  colour  plates,  with  text.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Calandrinia  feltonii  is  included  in  The  lUCN 
Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:l,  R:3,  nt:8. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Falkland  Islands  Foundation,  Hon.  Secretary,  c/o  WWF-United  Kingdom,  Panda 
House,  11-13  Ockford  Road,  Godalming,  Surrey  GU7  IQU,  U.K. 

Additional  References 

Correa  Luna,  H.  et  al.  (1975).  Campana  cientifica  en  las  Islas  Malvinas,  1974 

(Noviembre  17  a  Diciembre  2).  Anal.  Soc.  Cientif.  Argentina  199:  51-180.  (Articles 
on  conservation,  agronomy,  physiognomy  and  fauna  by  visiting  Argentine 
scientists.) 

Erskine,  P.J.  (1985).  Flowers  of  the  Falklands.  Alpine  Garden  Society  Bulletin  53(1): 
69-87.  (Notes  on  vegetation  and  19  flowering  plant  species.) 

Skottsberg,  C.  (1913).  A  botanical  survey  of  the  Falkland  Islands.  K.  Svenska  Vetensk 
Akad.  Handl.  50(3):  1-129. 


Falkland  Islands:  South 
Georgia 


South  Georgia,  a  dependency  of  the  Falkland  Islands,  is  situated  at  latitude  54°S  and 
longitude  36-38° W,  1287  km  east  of  the  Falkland  Islands  and  2000  km  east  of  Tierra  del 
Fuego.  Area  3757  sq.  km;  the  population  comprises  the  staff  of  the  British  Antarctic 
Survey  Station.  Much  of  the  land  is  permanently  covered  by  ice. 

There  are  24  native  vascular  species  (Smith  and  Walton,  1975).  The  vegetation  consists  of 
coastal  tussock  grassland  (mainly  of  Poa  flabellatd);  dry  meadows  of  Festuca  contracta; 
dwarf  shrub  (Acacia  magellanica)  and  mire  communities  on  higher  ground,  and  sparsely 
vegetated  fell-fields  in  the  more  exposed  high  areas. 

References 

Greene,  S.W.  (1964).  The  Vascular  Flora  of  South  Georgia.  British  Antarctic  Survey 

Scientific  Report  no.  45.  London.  58  pp.  (Includes  distribution  maps.) 
Greene,  S.W.  (1969).  New  records  for  South  Georgian  vascular  plants.  Brit.  Antarctic 

Survey  Bull.  22:  49-59. 
Greene,  S.W.  and  Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  An  annotated  checklist  of  the  sub-antarctic 

and  antarctic  vascular  flora.  Polar  Record  17(110):  473-484. 
Smith,  R.I.L.  and  Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  South  Georgia,  Subantarctic.  Ecol.  Bull. 

(Stockolm)  20:  399-423. 


114 


Falkland  Islands:  South  Georgia 

Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  Nomenclatural  notes  on  South  Georgian  vascular  plants.  Brit. 
Antarctic  Survey  Bull.  40:  77-79. 


Falkland  Islands:  South 
Sandwich  Islands 


The  South  Sandwich  Islands,  dependencies  of  the  Falkland  Islands,  are  a  chain  of 
uninhabited  islands,  of  area  310  sq.  km,  situated  756  km  south-east  of  South  Georgia. 
They  have  active  volcanoes  and  support  very  scattered  communities  of  crustaceous  lichens, 
algae  and  mosses.  58  plant  species  recorded,  but  only  one  species  of  higher  plant 
{Deschampsia  antarctica). 

References 

Longton,  R.E.  and  Holdgate,  M.W.  (1979).  The  South  Sandwich  Islands:  4.  Botany. 
British  Antarctic  Survey  Scientific  Report  no.  94.  NERC,  Cambridge.  53  pp. 
(Includes  checklist  and  description  of  plant  communities.) 


Fiji 


The  Fiji  group  includes  some  332  islands  in  the  south-west  Pacific  Ocean,  between 
latitudes  10°  and  25°S,  and  longitudes  176°E  and  173°W,  about  2000  km  north  north-west 
of  New  Zealand.  3  types  of  islands:  high  volcanic  islands,  reaching  1323  m  on  Viti  Levu; 
limestone  islands;  and  low  coral  islands  and  atolls.  About  97  islands  permanently 
inhabited;  most  of  the  population  live  on  the  coast  and  along  river  valleys  on  Viti  Levu  and 
Vanua  Levu. 

Area  18,235  sq.  km 

Population  674,000 

Floristics  c.  1500  native  vascular  plant  species,  including  310  pteridophytes;  in 
addition  there  are  c.  KXX)  introduced  flowering  plant  species  (A.C.  Smith,  1984,  in  litt.). 
About  40-50%  of  native  species  are  endemic,  including  all  26  palm  species  (Smith,  in  litt.). 
One  family  and  11  genera  endemic  (van  Balgooy,  1971,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Floristic 
affinities  with  Malesia,  New  Hebrides,  Samoa  and  Tonga. 

Vegetation  Rain  forest  (veikauloa)  in  south  and  east  of  larger  islands  and  most 
parts  of  small  volcanic  islands,  where  not  disturbed  (Smith,  1951);  montane  rain  forest  up 
to  1735  m  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Dry  zone  (talasinga)  vegetation,  including 
dry  forests,  savanna  woodlands  and  grasslands  on  north  and  west  slopes  of  large  islands 
and  inland  to  450  m;  dry  forest  mostly  replaced  by  sugar  cane  plantations.  Intermediate 
zone  vegetation  immediately  leeward  of  wet  forests.  Mangrove  forest  still  extensive  along 
larger  rivers  and  muddy  coasts.  Natural  forest  cover  is  estimated  at  8650  sq.  km  (S. 
Siwatibau,  1984,  in  litt.).  For  an  account  of  the  vegetation  see  Schmid  (1978). 


115 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Flora  is: 

Smith,  A.C.  (1979- ).  Flora  Vitiensis  Nova:  A  New  Flora  of  Fiji.  Pacific  Tropical 
Botanic  Garden,  Hawaii.  (2  vols  so  far.  1  -  Gymnosperms  and  monocotyledons 
except  orchids,  495  pp.;  2  -  dicotyledons,  810  pp.;  3,4  -  dicotyledons  and  orchids, 
in  prep.) 

Also  relevant: 

Brownlie,  C.  (1977).  The  Pteridophyte  Flora  of  Fiji.  Cramer,  FL-9490,  Vaduz, 

Liechtenstein.  397  pp. 
Parham,  J.W.  (1972).  Plants  of  the  Fiji  Islands,  2nd  Ed.  Govt  Printer,  Suva.  462  pp. 

(Checklist  with  short  descriptions  and  line  drawings.) 
Seemann,  B.  (1865-1873).  Flora  Vitiensis:  A  Description  of  the  Plants  of  the  Viti  or  Fiji 

Islands,  with  an  Account  of  their  History,  Uses  and  Properties.  London.  453  pp. 

(Reprinted  1977  by  Cramer,  FL-9490,  Vaduz,  Liechtenstein;  many  colour  plates.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  comprehensive  list  of  threatened  plants. 
An  lUCN  manuscript  list  of  Fijian  palms  includes  E:l,  V:2,  R:14, 1:5.  Neoveitchia storckii 
is  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

The  National  Trust  of  Fiji,  P.O.  Box  2089,  Government  Buildings,  Suva.  (Government 
statutory  body  with  a  voluntary  membership.) 

Botanic  Gardens 

Suva  Botanical  Gardens,  Box  176,  Suva,  Fiji. 

Additional  References 

Berry,  M.J.  and  Howard,  W.J.  (1973).  Fiji  Forest  Inventory,  3  vols.  Land  Resources 

Study  no.  12.  Overseas  Development  Administration,  Tolworth,  U.K. 
Derrick,  R.A.  (1965).  The  Fiji  Islands:  A  Geographical  Handbook,  2nd  Ed. 

Government  Press,  Suva.  336  pp. 
Schmid,  M.  (1978)  The  Melanesian  forest  ecosystems  (New  Caledonia,  New  Hebrides, 

Fiji  Islands  and  Solomon  Islands).  In  Unesco/UNEP/FAO  (1978),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  654-683. 
Smith,  A.C.  (1951).  The  vegetation  and  flora  of  Fiji.  Scientific  Monthly  73:  3-15. 


Finland 


Area  337,032  sq.  km 
Population  4,859,000 

Floristics  About  1100  native  vascular  species  (Hamet-Ahti  et  al.,  1984); 
1250-1450  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (cited  in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  no 
endemics.  Entire  country  was  glaciated  so  flora  still  young.  Elements:  mostly  Boreal,  with 
some  Arctic/alpine  influence  in  the  mountains  of  the  north. 

Vegetation  Extensive  tracts  of  natural,  coniferous  forests  cover  about  70%  of 
land  surface,  open  mires  about  10%,  and  treeless  alpine  areas  5%.  In  the  north,  a  narrow 
lichen-tundra  belt;  in  central  northern  Finland,  extensive  areas  of  peat  bogs  bordered  by 
pine  and  spruce  (Finland,  Sweden  and  Norway  contain  80%  of  Europe's  peatlands);  south 

116 


Finland 

of  the  Arctic  Circle,  pine  is  more  widespread  with  heathlands;  in  the  south,  herb-rich 
meadows,  once  abundant,  now  disappearing,  due  to  dechne  of  traditional  agriculture, 
c.  60,000  lakes  throughout  the  country  support  extensive  shore-line  vegetation. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al., 
1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  and  the  below: 

Hiitonen,  I.  (1933).  Suomen  Kasvio  (Flora  of  Finland).  Kustannusosakeyhtid  Otava, 

Helsinki.  771  pp.  (In  Finnish;  illus.) 
Hjelt,  H.  (1888-1926).  Conspectus  florae  Fennicae,  7  vols.  Acta  Soc.  Fauna  Flora 

Fennica  5:  1-562;  21:  1-261;  30:  1-140;  35:  1-411;  41:  1-502;  51:  1-450;  54:  1-397.  (In 

Latin  and  Swedish.) 

A  regional  plant  atlas  is  Hulten  (1971),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  For  a  bibliography  of  recent 
floristic  work  see: 

Collander,  R.,  Erkamo,  V.  and  Lehtonen,  P.  (1973).  Bibliographica  Botanica  Fenniae 

1901-1950.  Acta  Soc.  Fauna  Flora  Fennica.  646  pp. 
Jalas,  J.  (1975).  Progress  in  the  study  of  vascular  plants  in  Finland  1962-1971.  Mem. 

Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  395-462. 

National  botanical  journals:  Annales  Bot.  Fennici,  Helsinki;  Memoranda  Soc.  Fauna 
Flora  Fennica,  Helsinki;  Acta  Bot.  Fennica,  Helsinki. 

The  Botanical  Museum  of  the  University  of  Helsinki  operates  a  computerized  'Flora 
Register'  containing  information  about  vascular  plant  species  gathered  from  literature, 
herbarium  specimens  and  other  unpublished  sources.  At  present  it  contains  over  1  million 
records,  including  information  on  threatened  plants. 

Field-guides 

Hamet-Ahti,  L.,  Suominen,  J.,  Ulvinen,  T.,  Uotila,  P.  and  Vuokko,  S.  (Eds),  (1984). 

Retkeilykasvio  (Field  Flora  of  Finland).  Helsinki.  544  pp.  (Keys;  distribution  maps 

at  Province  level;  Hne  drawings;  in  Finnish.) 
Hiitonen,  I.  and  Poijarvi,  A.  (1958).  Koulu-ja  retkeilykasvio  (School  and  excursion 

Flora),  9th  Ed.  Helsinki.  472  pp.  (In  Finnish.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  national  threatened  plant  programme  is 
being  undertaken  by  the  Committee  for  the  Protection  of  Threatened  Animals  and  Plants, 
in  the  Ministry  of  the  Environment,  Nature  Conservation  Division,  Helsinki  (address 
below).  This  programme  includes  the  production  of  a  national  Red  Data  Book,  for 
publication  in  1985,  and  the  development  of  a  national  protection  and  monitoring  scheme. 
Preliminary  lists  of  threatened  plants  have  been  compiled  for  both  vascular  and  lower 
plants.  For  vascular  plants  both  national  and  regional  lists  will  be  produced.  They  are 
presently  available  in  the  following  reference  book: 

Vuokko,  S.  (1983).  Uhatut  kasvimme  (Our  threatened  plants).  Suomen 

Luonnonsuojelun  Tuki  Oy,  Helsinki.  96  pp.  (Popular  book  including  lists  of 
protected  plants  in  Finland,  Aland  and  the  rest  of  Scandinavia;  illus.) 

The  lists  update  the  earlier  national  threatened  plant  list,  which  was  produced  in 
collaboration  with  WWF-Finland: 

Borg,  P.  and  Malmstrom,  K.  (1975).  Suomen  uhanalaiset  elain-ja  kasvilajit  (Threatened 
animals  and  plants  in  Finland).  Luonnon  Tutkija  79:  33-43.  (Lists  62  vascular  plant 
species  threatened  throughout  the  country.) 

Also  relevant:  ^ 

117 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Haeggstrom,  C.-A.,  Haeggstrom,  E.  and  Lindgren,  L.  (1982).  Rapport  om  fridlysta 

och  sdllsynta  vaxter  pa  Aland  (Report  on  the  protected  and  rare  plants  on  the  Aland 

Islands).  Natd  biologiska  station.  137  pp. 
Kaakinen,  E.,  Salminen,  P.  and  Ulvinen,  T.  (1979).  Lapin  kolmion  lettojen  tuho 

(Fenland  loss  in  the  Lapland  Triangle).  Suomen  Luonto  38:  130-131.  (Describes 

plant  species  on  the  decline.) 
Murto,  R.  (1982).  Tutkimuksia  Uudenmaan  Laanin  Uhanalaisista  Kasveista.  1. 

Tammisaaren  ja  Inkoon  saaristo.  (Studies  on  the  threatened  plants  in  the  Province 

of  Uusimaa.  1.  Archipelago  of  Tammisaari  and  Inkoo.)  Helsingin  yliopiston 

kasvimuseo.  62  pp.  (To  be  continued.) 
Suominen,  J.  (1974).  Tuloksia  uhanalaisten  kasvien  tiedustelusta  (Results  from  an 

enquiry  about  endangered  plants  in  Finland).  Suomen  Luonto  33:  24,  29. 
Tampereen  seutukaavaliitto.  (1982).  Pirkanmaan  uhanalaiset  kasvit  ja  niiden 

esiintymisalueet  (Threatened  plants  and  their  localities  in  the  Province  of  Tampere). 

Tampereen  seutukaavaliiton  julkaisu,  Ser.  B,  116:  1-22. 
Uotila,  P.  (1983).  Project  hotade  vaxter  i  Nylands  Ian  (Projects  about  threatened  plants 

in  the  Province  of  Uusimaa,  S.  Finland).  Memoranda  Soc.  Fauna  Flora  Fennica  59: 

106-112.  (Maps.) 

Finland  is  included  in  the  Nordic  Council  of  Ministers'  threatened  plant  list  and 
supplements  (Ovesen  et.  al,  1978  and  1982)  and  in  the  European  list  (Threatened  Plants 
Unit,  1983),  all  cited  in  Appendix  1;  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  the  latter:  non- 
endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:7,  R:6,  1:1  (world  categories). 

In  May  1984,  WWF-Finland  launched  a  national  Plants  Campaign  in  the  Botanical 
Garden  and  Department  of  Botany  in  the  University  of  Helsinki,  as  part  of  their 
contribution  to  the  lUCN/WWF  Plants  Programme  1984-85.  Further  details  available 
from  WWF-Finland  and  the  Garden  (addresses  below). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  recent  1983  law  (Laki  luonnonsuojelulain 
muuttamisesta)  strengthens  the  earlier  Nature  Conservation  Act  of  1952.  Under  the  new 
law,  in  the  Statute  on  the  Protection  of  Wild  Plants,  94  vascular  plant  species  receive 
complete  protection,  an  additional  9  species  receive  complete  protection  in  southern 
Finland  only  and  8  species  in  northern  Finland  only.  It  is  prohibited  to  pick,  damage  or 
transport  any  of  the  species  listed.  It  is  also  forbidden  to  use  for  trade  purposes  a  further  7 
species,  listed  in  paragraph  4  of  the  Statute.  Breaking  the  branches  of  Hippophae 
rhamnoides  is  also  prohibited. 

In  the  autonomous  islands  of  Aland,  the  recent  1984  Statute  (above),  provides  complete 
protection  (stricter  than  that  for  the  mainland  species)  for  52  vascular  plant  species.  It  is 
also  forbidden  to  uproot  Dactylorhiza  sambucina  and  to  cut  down  wild  Quercus  robur  or 
Juniperus  communis  of  a  size  specified  in  the  Statute.  For  the  list  of  protected  species  see 
Vuokko  (1983). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Suomen  Luonnonsuojeluliitto  (Finnish  Association  for  Nature  Protection),  P.O.  Box 

169,  00151  Helsinki. 
WWF-Finland  (Maailman  Luonnon  Saation  Suomen  Rahasto),  Uudenmaankatu  40, 

00120  Helsinki. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Helsinki,  Unioninkatu  44,  00170  Helsinki. 
Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Joensuu,  P.O.  Box  111,  80101  Joensuu  10. 
Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Jyvaskyla,  Yliopistonkatu  9,  40100  Jyvaskyla. 

118 


Finland 

Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Kuopio,  P.O.  Box  138,  70101  Kuopio. 
Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Oulu,  Box  191,  90101  Oulu  10. 
Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Turku,  20500  Turku  50. 

Useful  Addresses 

Maa-ja  Metsalousministerio,  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Forestry,  Bureau  of  Natural 

Resources,  Vuorikatu  16,  Helsinki  10. 
Ministry  of  the  Environment,  Nature  Conservation  Division,  P.O.  Box  306,  00531 

Helsinki. 
National  Board  of  Forestry,  P.O.  Box  233,  00120  Helsinki.  (11  provincial  offices  and 

several  local  offices.) 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authority:  Committee  for  the  Protection  of 

threatened  animals  and  plants.  Ministry  of  the  Environment,  address  above. 

Additional  References 

Kalliola,  R.  (1970).  Some  features  of  nature  and  conservation  in  Finland.  Biol. 

Conserv.  2(2):  120-124. 
Kalliola,  R.  (1973).  Suomen  kasvimaantiede.  Porvoo.  308  pp.  (The  plant  geography  of 

Finland,  with  good  bibliography.) 
Jalas,  J.  (1958,  1965,  1980).  Suuri  Kasvikirja  (The  Great  Plant  Book),  3  vols.  Otava, 

Keuruu-Helsinki.  (A  national  account  of  floristics.) 


France 

Area  549,619  sq.  km 

Population  54,449,000 

Floristics  4300-4450  native  vascular  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  73  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures).  Diversity  greatest 
in  montane  areas:  Pyrenees,  Massif  Central,  Alps  and  Jura.  Elements:  Mediterranean, 
Central  European,  Atlantic,  Boreal  and  alpine. 

Vegetation  Largely  an  agricultural  landscape,  especially  in  north  and  west-central 
regions.  About  1/4  of  total  land  area  (c.  140,000  sq.  km)  under  forest,  comprising  2/3 
deciduous  broadleaved  (2/3  of  which  is  coppice)  and  1/3  evergreen.  The  4  main  montane 
areas  (listed  above)  support  a  notable  alpine  flora.  Dry  grassland  is  still  extensive,  but  is 
shrinking  fast  due  to  agricultural  change;  valuable  areas  remain  in  the  Jura,  pre-Alps, 
Quercy  and  the  Gausses  (Wolkinger  and  Plank,  1981,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  On  south 
coast,  Mediterranean  influence  present  {Quercus  ilex,  Q.  pubescens,  Q.  mas)  with  garigue 
and  diminishing  areas  of  maquis.  For  a  vegetation  map  see  Rey  and  Dupias  (1969). 

Checklists  and  Floras  France  is  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin 
et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  France  will  also  be  covered  under  the  Med- 
Checklist  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  For  national  Floras  see: 

Bonnier,  G.  and  Douin,  R.  (1911-1935).  Flore  Complete  Illustree  en  Couleurs  de 
France,  Suisse  et  Belgique,  13  vols.  Neuchatel.  (Colour  plates.) 

Coste,  H.  (1901-1906).  Flore  de  la  France,  3  vols.  Klincksieck,  Paris.  5  supplements  by 
P.  Jovet  and  R.  de  Vilmorin.  Blanchard,  Paris.  (Reprinted  1937,  1950.) 


119 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Fournier,  P.  (1977).  Les  Quatre  Flores  de  la  France,  2nd  Ed.  2  vols.  Lechevalier,  Paris. 

(1  -  descriptions,  2  -  line  drawings.) 
Guinochet,  M.  and  Vilmorin,  R.  de  (1973-1982).  Flore  de  France,  4  vols.  Centre 

National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique,  Paris.  (Includes  Corsica;  line  drawings; 

habitat  and  ecological  details.) 

Regional  Floras: 

Abbayes,  H.  des,  Claustres,  G.,  Corillion,  R.  and  Dupont,  P.  (Eds)  (1971).  Flore  et 
V4g4tation  du  Massif  Armoricain  1:  Flore  Vasculaire.  Presses  Universitaires  de 
Bretagne,  Saint-Brieuc.  1226  pp.  (Covers  the  Departements  of  Morbihan,  Loire- 
Atlantique,  Finistere,  C6tes-du-Nord,  Ille-et-Vilaine,  most  of  Mayenne;  line 
drawings.) 

De  Langhe,  J.-E.  et  al.  (1978).  Nouvelle  Flore  de  la  Belgique,  du  Grand-Duchi  de 
Luxembourg,  du  Nord  de  la  France  et  des  Regions  Voisines.  Jardin  Botanique 
National  de  Belgique,  Meise.  899  pp. 

Field-guides 

Bournerias,  M.  (1979).  Guide  des  Groupements  Veg^taux  de  la  Region  Parisienne, 

2nd  Ed.  510  pp. 
Claustres,  G.  and  Lemoine,  C.  (1980).  Connaitre  et  Reconnoitre  la  Flore  et  la 

Vegetation  des  Cotes  Manche-Atlantique.  Rennes.  331  pp.  (Ecological  information; 

illus.) 
Guittonneau,  A.  and  Huon,  A.  (1983).  Connaitre  et  Reconnoitre  la  Flore  et  la 

Vegetation  Mediterranennes.  Rennes.  334  pp. 
Jeanjean,  A.F.  (1961).  Catalogue  des  Plantes  Vasculaires  de  la  Gironde.  Bordeaux. 

362  pp. 
Rol,  R.  (1962-1965).  Flore  des  Arbres,  A r busies  et  Arbrisseaux,  4  vols.  La  Maison 

Rustique,  Paris.  (1  -  plaines  et  collines;  2  -  montagnes,  by  R.  Rol  and 

P.  Toulgouat;  3  -  region  mediterraneenne,  by  R.  Rol  and  M.  Jacamon;  4  -  essences 

introduites,  by  R.  Rol  and  P.  Toulgouat;  colour  photographs.) 
Romagnesi,  H.  and  Weill,  J.  (1977).  Fleurs  Sauvages  de  France  et  des  Regions 

Limitrophes,  2  vols.  288  pp. 
Stefenelli,  S.  (1979).  Guide  des  Fleurs  de  Montagne:  Pyrenees  -  Massif-Central  -  Alpes 

-  Apennins  (French  adaptation).  Duculot,  Paris-Gembloux.  160  pp.  (Colour 

photographs  and  ecological  data  for  each  species.) 

See  also  Grey- Wilson  (1979)  and  Polunin  and  Smythies  (1973),  both  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  Red  Data  Book  but  a  series  of  3 
unpublished  papers  compiled  under  the  direction  of  the  Ministere  de  la  Qualite  de  la  Vie: 

Aymonin,  G.G.  (1974-1977).  Etudes  sur  les  regressions  d'especes  vegetales  en  France. 
Rapport  No.l  -  Especes  vegetales  considerees  comme  actuellement  disparues  du 
territoire;  Rapport  No. 2  -  Listes  preliminaires  des  especes  endemiques  et  des  especes 
menacees  en  France;  Rapport  No. 3  -  Liste  generale  des  especes  justifiant  des 
mesures  de  protection.  Museum  National  d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris.  (Unpublished; 
reports  1  and  2  list  over  1000  taxa;  report  3  analyses  the  data  in  1  and  2  and 
recommends  levels  of  protection.) 

See  also: 

Aymonin,  G.G.  (1973).  Quelques  rarefactions  et  disparitions  d'especes  vegetales  en 
France.  Causes  possibles  et  consequences  chorologiques.  C.R.  Soc.  Biog^ogr.  430: 
49-64. 

120 


France 

Aymonin,  G.G.  (1980a).  Strategies  de  sauvegarde  pour  les  especes  vegetales.  Quelques 

aspects  recents.  Bull.  Soc.  Et.  Sc.  Beziers,  n.s.  8(48):  24-37. 
Aymonin,  G.G.  (1980b).  Une  estimation  du  degre  de  modification  des  milieux  naturels: 

I'analyse  des  regressions  dans  la  flore.  Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  France  127(2):  187-195. 
Aymonin,  G.G.  (1981).  Sur  quelques  especes  remarquables  des  complexes  boises  de 

Bourgogne  et  leur  situation  de  regression  en  Europe.  Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  France 

128(3/4):  95-100. 
Aymonin,  G.G.  (1982).  Phenomenes  de  desequilibres  et  appauvrissements  floristiques 

dans  les  vegetations  hygrophiles  en  France.  In  Symoens,  J.J.,  Hooper,  S.S.  and 

Compere,  P.  (Eds),  Studies  on  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  Proceedings  of  the 

International  Colloquium  on  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  23-25  January  1981,  Brussels. 

Societe  Royale  de  Botanique  de  Belgique,  Brussels.  Pp.  377-389. 
Binet,  P.  and  Provost,  M.  (1971).  Les  plantes  rares  en  Normandie.  Sci.  Nat.  103:  2-6. 
Bournerias,  M.  (1983).  Especes  vegetales  protegees,  especes  et  biotopes  a  proteger  dans 

le  bassin  de  la  Seine  et  le  Nord  de  la  France.  Nat.  Par.  39:  19-36. 
Daunas,  R.  (1977).  La  protection  des  especes  vegetales  en  France:  plantes  rares  ou  en 

voie  de  disparition  en  Poitou-Charentes  et  Regions  limitrophes.  Bull.  Soc.  Bot. 

Centre-Ouest,  n.s.  8:  133-138.  (Includes  a  list  of  plants  in  need  of  national 

protection.) 
Deschatres,  R.  (1982).  Plantes  rares,  plantes  menacees,  plantes  protegees.  Rev.  Sclent. 

Bourb.  3-24.  (Not  seen.) 
Jovet,  P.  and  Aymonin,  G.G.  (1980).  Phenomenes  d'appauvrissement  dans  une  flore 

locale  et  leur  signification  generate:  L'exemple  du  Pays  Basque  occidental  fran?ais. 

C.R.  Soc.  Biogeogr.  489:  31-40. 
Le  Brun,  P.  (1959).  Plantes  rares  et  menacees  de  la  France  mediterraneene.  In  Animaux 

et  V4g^taux  de  la  Region  Mediterraneene,  Proceedings  of  the  lUCN  7th  Technical 

Meeting,  vol.  5.  lUCN,  Brussels.  Pp.  103-111. 
Meriaux,  J.-L.  (1982).  Especes  rares  ou  menacees  des  biotopes  lacustres  et  fluviatiles  du 

nord  de  la  France.  In  Symoens,  J. J.,  Hooper,  S.S.  and  Compere,  P.  (Eds),  Studies 

on  Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  Proceedings  of  the  International  Colloquium  on 

Aquatic  Vascular  Plants,  23-25  January  1981,  Brussels.  Societe  Royale  de  Botanique 

de  Belgique,  Brussels.  Pp.  398-402. 
Royer,  J.-M.  (1971).  Repartition  et  ecologie  de  quelques  plantes  rares  de  la  cote 

calcaire  de  Saone-et-Loire.  Bull.  Mens.  Soc.  Linn.  Lyon  40(8):  243-249.  (Maps.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:4,  E:7,  V:10, 
R:24,  1:2,  K:15,  nt:ll;  doubtfully  endemic  taxa  -  V:l,  R:l,  K:l;  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  E:3,  V:39,  R:22,  1:8  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished),  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  includes  data  sheets  on  16  French  Endangered  plant  species.  The  lUCN  Plant  Red 
Data  Book  (1978)  includes  4  species  for  France. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Under  the  "Protection  de  la  nature"  Law,  No.  76-629  of 
1976,  general  protection  is  given  to  wild  plants  "where  their  conservation  is  considered 
justified".  More  recently  (13  May  1982)  a  list  of  protected  plant  species  was  published 
(Anon,  1982  and  1983)  granting  2  levels  of  protection  under  this  law  to  c.  400  species  of 
pteridophytes  and  angiosperms.  Over  300  of  these  species  receive  complete  protection 
throughout  the  country  from  picking,  collection,  uprooting  and  sale.  For  the  remaining 

121 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

species,  it  is  forbidden  to  destroy  all  or  part  of  them;  their  collecting,  harvesting  or 
transport  may  be  authorized  by  the  Ministere  de  L'Environnement  et  du  Cadre  de  Vie. 

Anon  (1982).  Listes  des  especes  vegetales  protegees  sur  I'ensemble  du  territoire 
national.  J.  Off.  Mp.  Frangaise,  13  May,  1982.  Pp.  4559-4562. 

Anon  (1983).  Listes  departementales  des  especes  vegetales  protegees  sur  I'ensemble  du 
territoire  national.  Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  Centre-Ouest.  n.s.  14:  13-16. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Federation  Fran^aise  des  Societes  de  Protection  de  la  Nature  (FFSPN),  57  rue  Cuvier, 

75005  Paris. 
Societe  Botanique  de  France,  rue  J.-B.  Clement,  92290  Chatenay-Malabry,  C.C.P. 

Paris  1528. 
Societe  Nationale  de  Protection  de  la  Nature  et  d'Acclimation  de  France  (SNPN). 

(Address  as  for  the  FFSPN.) 
WWF-France  (Association  Fran^aise  du  World  Wildlife  Fund),  14  rue  de  la  Cure, 

75016  Paris. 

Some  members  of  FFSPN: 

Federation  Rhone-Alpes  pour  la  Protection  de  la  Nature  (FRAPNA),  Univ.  Claude 

Bernard,  43  bd,  69622  Villeurbane  Cedex. 
Societe  pour  I'Etude  et  la  Protection  de  la  Nature  en  Bretagne  (SEPNB),  BP  32,  29276 

Brest  Cedex. 

Botanic  Gardens  Many,  as  listed  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1;  only 
subscribers  to  the  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body  are  given  below: 

Conservatoire  Botanique  de  Porquerolles,  Parque  National  de  Port-Cros,  50  Avenue 
Gambetta,  83400  Hyeres.  (Conservation  activities  described  in  Threatened  Plants 
Committee  -  Newsletter  No.  8:  11,  1981.) 

Conservatoire  Botanique  du  Stangelarc'h,  29200  Brest. 

Jardins  Botaniques  de  la  Ville  de  Nice,  20  Traverse  des  Arboras,  06200  Nice. 

Jardins  Botaniques  de  Nancy,  100  rue  du  Jardin  Botanique,  54600  Villers-Les-Nancy. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  de  la  Protection  de  la  Nature,  Convention  de 
Washington,  Secretariat  d'Etat  aupres  du  Premier  Ministre,  charge  de 
I'Environnement  et  de  la  Qualite  de  la  Vie,  14  bd  du  General-Leclerc,  92524  Neuilly- 
sur-Seine. 

CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Secretariat  Faune  Flore,  Museum  National  d'Histoire 
Naturelle,  57  rue  Cuvier,  75231  Paris  Cedex  05. 

Additional  References 

Bordas  (Ed.)  (1979).  Guide  de  la  Nature  en  France.  Paris.  504  pp.  (Includes  description 

of  flora  and  vegetation.) 
Olivier,  L.  (1979).  Multiplication  and  re-introduction  of  threatened  species  of  the 

littoral  dunes  in  Mediterranean  France.  In  Synge,  H.  and  Townsend,  H.  (Eds), 

Survival  or  Extinction.  Proceedings  of  a  Conference  11-17  September  1978,  Kew. 

Bentham-Moxon  Trust,  Kew.  Pp.  91-93. 
Rey,  P.  and  Dupias,  G.  (Eds)  (1969).  Carte  de  la  Vegetation  de  la  France,  1:200,000. 

Centre  National  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique  (CNRS),  Toulouse,  Paris. 


122 


France:  Corsica 

(A  d^partement  of  France) 

Area  8723  sq.  km 

Population  230,100  (1981  estimate,  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  2159-2250  native  vascular  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  25(X)  species  according  to  Gamisans  (1982).  31 
endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures);  170  according  to  Contandriopoulos  (1964);  as  many  as  250 
estimated  by  M.  Conrad  (1984,  in  lift.),  but  this  includes  varieties,  not  normally  included 
by  lUCN  (and  Flora  Europaea)  for  Europe,  and  transfrontier  endemics.  Mediterranean 
element  dominant. 

Vegetation  Coastal  and  lowland  vegetation  much  modified  by  agriculture  and 
tourism  but  maquis  still  widespread  up  to  8(X)  m,  especially  on  siliceous  soils,  with 
scattered  oaks  {Quercus  ilex,  Q.  suber)  and  pine  (Pinus  halepensis).  In  the  supra- 
mediterranean  zone  (8(X)-1000  m),  mixed  deciduous  and  evergreen  woodland  {Q. 
pubescens,  Pinus  nigra  ssp.  laricio,  Castanea  saliva);  in  the  mountain  zone  (1(XX)-17(X)  m), 
mainly  forest  of  beech  and  pine  {P.  nigra  ssp.  laricio);  in  the  north  a  subalpine  zone 
(16(X)-21(X)  m)  with  white  fir  {Abies  alba)  or  bushland  with  alder;  in  the  south,  between 
1800-22(X)  m,  shrub  belt  with  juniper;  alpine  belt  (above  21(X)  m)  of  species-rich  grassland. 
For  a  vegetation  map  see  Dupias  et  al.  (1965). 

Checklists  and  Floras  See  under  France  and: 

Bouchard,  J.  (1977).  Flore  pratique  de  la  Corse,  3rd  Ed.  Numero  special  du  Bull.  Soc. 
Sci.  Hist.  Nat.  Corse,  No.  7.  Societe  des  Sciences  Historiques  et  Naturelles  de  la 
Corse,  Bastia.  407  pp.  (Lists  endemic  taxa;  phytogeography;  maps;  line  drawings.) 

Conrad,  M.  (1974- ).  Flora  Corsicana  Iconographia:  Flore  de  la  Corse:  Iconographie 
des  Esp^ces  et  Varietes  End^miques  Corses,  Cyrno-sardes  et  Tyrrh^niennes. 
L'Association  pour  I'Etude  Ecologique  du  Maquis  (APEEM),  Laboratoire 
d'Ecologie  de  Pirio,  Manso,  Corse.  5  fascicles  published,  2  in  press.  (Colour  plates.) 

Gamisans,  J.  (1982).  Catalogue  abrege  de  la  Flore  de  la  Corse.  Trav.  Sci.  Pare  Nation. 
8:  25-671. 

Litardiere,  R.  de  and  Briquet,  J.  (1936-1955).  Prodrome  de  la  Flore  Corse,  3  vols. 

Field-guides 

Conrad,  M.  (1973).  Promenades  en  Corse  parmi  ses  Fleurs  et  ses  Forets.  Archives 
departementales,  Ajaccio. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  See  under  France  and: 

Conrad,  M.  and  Gamisans,  J.  (Eds)  (n.d.).  Les  especes  vegetales  les  plus  menacees  en 
Corse.  Conservatoire  Botanique  de  Porquerolles.  (Unpublished.) 

Gamisans,  J.,  Conrad,  M.  and  Olivier,  L.  (1981).  Inventaire  des  especes  rares  ou 
menacees  de  la  Corse;  la  situation  des  especes  menacees  de  la  Corse.  Conservatoire 
Botanique  de  Porquerolles,  Hyeres.  (2  unpublished  reports;  describe  conservation 
status  and  habitats  of  over  300  rare  or  threatened  taxa.) 

A  programme  to  monitor  the  status  of  rare  and  threatened  plants  in  Corsica  is  being 
undertaken  at  the  Conservatoire  Botanique  de  Porquerolles,  Hyeres,  in  association  with 
the  Pare  Naturel  Regional  de  la  Corse.  This  includes  maintaining  a  list  of  rare  and 


123 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

threatened  taxa,  protecting  their  locaHties  in  the  wild,  developing  a  seed  bank  and 
maintaining  stocks  in  cultivation. 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:2,  V:2, 
R:l  1,  nt:15;  doubtfully  endemic  taxa  -  E:l;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  - 
E:2,  V:5,  R:4  (world  categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  See  under  France.  A  separate  ordinance  has  recently  been 
proposed  for  species  threatened  in  Corsica  only. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Association  des  Amis  du  Pare  Naturel  Regional  de  la  Corse,  Palais  Lantivy,  avenue  du 

General  Fiorella,  20,000  Ajaccio. 
Societe  des  Sciences  Historiques  et  Naturelles  de  la  Corse,  36  rue  Cesar  Campinchi, 

20200  Bastia. 

Botanic  Gardens  See  under  France.  The  following  botanic  gardens  actively 
participate  in  the  conservation  of  the  Corsican  flora: 

Conservatoire  Botanique  de  Porquerolles,  50  Avenue  Gambetta,  834(X)  Hyeres,  France. 
Conservatoire  Botanique  du  Stangalarc'h,  19100  Brest,  France. 
Conservatoire  et  Jardin  Botaniques,  Case  postale  21,  1211  Geneve  21,  Switzerland. 
Jardin  Botanique  de  I'Universite  Liege,  Sart  Tilman,  40(X)  Liege,  Belgium. 

Useful  Addresses 

Association  pour  I'Etude  Ecologique  de  Maquis  (APEEM),  Lycee  Giocante  de 

Casablanca,  10100  Bastia. 
Comite  pour  I'inventaire  des  zones  naturelles  d'interet  ecologique,  faunistique  et 

floristique,  Credec,  1  Avenue  du  Colonel  Feracci,  20250  Corte. 

Additional  References 

Aymonin,  G.G.  (1975).  La  nature  Corse:  menaces  et  espoirs  (propos  preliminaire). 

Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  France  121:  5-8. 
Brun,  B.,  Conrad,  M.  and  Gamisans,  J.  (1975).  La  Nature  en  France:  Corse.  Horizons 

de  France,  Paris. 
Contandriopoulos,  J.  (1964).  Recherches  sur  la  flore  endemique  de  la  Corse  et  sur  ses 

origines  II.  Rev.  Gin.  Bot.  71(845):  361-384. 
Delvosalle,  L.  (1953).  Aspects  vegetaux  de  la  Corse.  Naturalistes  Beiges  34(12): 

234-248. 
Dupias,  J.  (1976,  1978).  La  vegetation  des  montagnes  Corses.  Phytocoenologie  3:  4; 

4:1-4. 
Dupias,  G.,  Gaussen,  H.,  Izard,  M.  and  Rey,  P.  (1965).  Carte  de  la  Vigitation  de  la 

France.  No.  80-81  Corse.  CNRS,  Paris.  (Text  and  map,  1:200,000.) 
Gamisans,  J.  (1970-1983).  Contribution  a  I'etude  de  la  flore  Corse.  Candollea  25(1): 

105-141  (1970);  26(2):  309-358  (1971);  27(1):  47-63  (1972);  27(2):  189-209  (1972); 

28(1):  39-82  (1973);  29(1):  39-55  (1974);  32(1):  51-72  (1977);  36(1):  1-17  (1981);  38(1): 

217-235  (1983). 
Gamisans,  J.  (1977).  La  vegetation  des  montagnes  Corses.  Phytocoenologie  4(1): 

35-131;  4(2):  133-179;  4(3):  317-376.  (Several  papers,  giving  detailed 

phytosociological  accounts.) 
Gamisans,  J.  (1980).  Bibliographic  Botanique  Corse,  1955-1979.  Candollea  35(1): 

211-221. 


124 


France:  Corsica 

Litardiere,  R.  de  (1928-1955).  Nouvelles  contributions  k  I'etude  de  la  flore  de  la  Corse. 
9  fascicles.  Arch.  Bot.  (1928-1930)  and  Candollea  (1931-1955). 


French  Guiana 


French  Guiana  is  an  overseas  departement  of  France  on  the  Atlantic  north-east  coast  of 
South  America. 

Area  91,000  sq.  km 

Population  72,000 

Floristics  de  Granville  (1982)  estimates  6000-8000  species  of  vascular  plants;  J.C. 
Lindeman  (1984,  pers.  comm.),  however,  estimates  8000  species  of  vascular  plants  for  all  3 
Guianas,  implying  the  total  for  French  Guiana  is  rather  lower.  Cremers  (1984)  estimates 
about  5000  plant  species.  Affinities  with  Amazonian  forest  flora;  still  imperfectly  known. 

Vegetation  Over  90%  of  the  country,  undisturbed  equatorial  rain  forest  of 
Amazon  type;  above  500  m  small  areas  of  cloud  forest,  rich  in  endemics;  along  the  coast  a 
thin  strip  of  mangrove;  covering  less  than  1.7%  of  the  land  are  coastal  swamps  and  wet 
and  dry  savannas  and  rock  savannas  on  granite  outcrops  (de  Granville,  1982).  Estimated 
rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  10  sq.  km/annum  out  of  89,000  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Cliecklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica,  described  in  Appendix  1 .  The  country  Floras  are: 

Bena,  P.  (1966).  Essences  forestieres  de  Guyane.  Bureau  Agricole  et  Forestier 

Guyanais,  Imprimerie  National,  Paris.  488  pp.  (Trees,  illus.) 
Benoist,  R.  (1933).  Les  Bois  de  la  Guyane  Frangaise.  Ed.  des  Archives  de  Botanique, 

Caen,  France. 
Granville,  J. -J.  de  (1978).  Recherches  Sur  la  Flore  et  La  Vegetation  Guyanaises. 

Universite  des  Sciences  et  Techniques  du  Languedoc,  Montpellier.  Thesis.  272  pp. 
Lemee,  A.  (1952-56).  Flore  de  la  Guyane  Frangaise,  4  vols.  Librairie  Lechevalier,  Paris. 

(Descriptions;  keys  only  to  genera,  in  selected  families.) 

A  30-year  project  to  prepare  the  Flora  of  the  Guianas  is  being  coordinated  by  the  Institute 
of  Systematic  Botany,  University  of  the  Utrecht,  The  Netherlands,  and  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  in  collaboration  with  Office  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique 
et  Technique  Outre-Mer,  Cayenne,  French  Guiana,  and  other  leading  botanical 
institutions.  Part  1  (Cannaceae,  Musaceae  and  Zingiberaceae  by  P.J.M.  Maas)  is  in  press. 

Field-guides 

Cremers,  G.  (1982).  Vegetation  et  Flore  illustr^e  des  savanes:  I 'example  de  la  Savane 

Bordelaise.  Collection  "La  Nature  de  I'Homme  en  Guyane",  ORSTOM,  Cayenne. 
Detienne,  P.,  Jacquet,  P.  and  Mariaux,  A.  (1982).  Manuel  d 'identification  des  Bois 

Tropicaux.  Tome  3:  Guyane  fran?aise.  Centre  Technique  Forestier  Tropical.  Nogent 

sur  Marne,  France. 
Granville,  J. -J.  de  (1981).  Flore  et  Vegetation.  Office  Departemental  du  Tourisme  de  la 

Guyane.  Cayenne. 


125 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  J.- J.  de  Granville  and  G.  Cramers  have 
prepared  a  list  of  90  very  rare  species  endemic  to  French  Guiana,  35  of  them  not  yet 
described,  and  of  172  non-endemic  species  very  rare  in  French  Guiana.  According  to  de 
Granville  (1984,  pers.  comm.),  the  endemic  Hst  "will  certainly  increase  in  the  future". 
These  lists  form  the  basis  for  a  list  of  14  botanical  reserves  proposed  by  de  Granville 
(1975). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

IBIS,  Mouvement  pour  le  Respect  et  la  Conservation  du  Patrimoine  Naturel  Guyanais, 

99  rue  du  Lieutenant  Becker,  97300  Cayenne. 
Societe  pour  I'Etude,  la  Protection  et  I'Amenagement  de  la  Nature  en  Guyana 

(SEPANGUY),  c/o  Services  Veterinaires,  Avenue  Pasteur,  B.P.  411,  97300 

Cayenne,  and  B.P.  120,  97310  Kourou. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Institut  de  Botanique,  ORSTOM,  Ronte  de  Montabo,  B.P.  165,  97301  Cayenne  Cedex. 

(Very  small.) 
Jardin  Botanique  Municipal,  97300  Cayenne.  (No  plants  from  French  Guiana.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Delegation  Regionale  a  I'Architecture  et  a  I'Environnement  (Guadeloupe-Guyane- 

Martinique),  B.P.  1002,  97178  Pointe-a-Pitre  Cedex,  Guadeloupe. 
Institute  of  Systematic  Botany,  University  of  Utrecht,  Heidelberglaan  1,  P.O.  Box 

80102,  3508  TC  Utrecht,  Netherlands. 
Office  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique  et  Technique  Outre-Mer  (ORSTOM),  Route  de 

Motabo,  B.P.  165,  97305  Cayenne  Cedex. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  de  la  Protection  de  la  Nature  Convention  de 

Washington,  Secretariat  d'Etat  aupres  du  Premier  Ministre,  Charge  de 

I'Environnement  et  de  la  Qualite  de  la  Vie,  14  bd  du  General  Leclerc,  92524  Neuilly- 

Sur-Seine,  France. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Secretariat  Faune  et  Flore,  Museum  National  d'Histoire 

Naturelle,  35  rue  Cuvier,  75231  Paris  Cedex  05,  France. 

Additional  References 

Atlas  des  Departements  d'Outre-mer:  4  -  La  Guyane  (1979).  CNRS/ORSTOM,  Paris, 

France.  (Maps  with  chapters  on  topography,  geology,  geomorphology,  pedology, 

hydrology,  vegetation  and  climate.) 
Benoist,  R.  (1924,  1925).  La  vegetation  de  la  Guyane  Fran?aise.  Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  France 

71:  1169-1177;  72:  1066-1078. 
Cremers,  G.  (1984).  L'Herbier  du  Centre  ORSTOM  de  Cayenne  a  25  ans.  Taxon  33: 

428-432. 
Granville,  J. -J.  de  (1975).  Projets  de  reserves  botaniques  et  forestieres  en  Guyane. 

ORSTOM,  Cayenne.  29  pp.  (16  maps.) 
Granville,  J. -J.  de  (1978).  Recherches  sur  la  flore  et  la  vegetation  Guyanaises.  Doctor's 

Thesis,  Univ.  Languedoc,  Montpellier.  277  pp. 
Granville,  J.- J.  de  (1982).  Rain  forest  and  xeric  flora  refuges  in  French  Guiana.  In 

Prance,  G.  (Ed.)  (1982),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  159-181.  (Vegetation  map.) 
Hoock,  J.  (1971).  Les  savanes  guyanaises:  Kourou.  Essai  de  phyto^cologie  numerique. 

Memoire  ORSTOM  No.  44,  Paris. 


126 


Gabon 

Area  267,667  sq.  km 

Population  1,146,000 

Floristics  c.  8000  species  in  the  forests  (F.J.  Breteler,  1984,  in  lift.);  c.  6,000 
species  (Floret,  1976;  Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  no  accurate  figure  for  endemism 
available,  but  out  of  the  23  parts  of  the  Flore  du  Gabon  published  by  1978,  243  species  out 
of  1333  total  (just  over  22%)  were  endemic  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Floristic 
affinities  Guinea-Congolian. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  lowland  rain  forest,  with  mangrove  and  swamp  forest 
at  the  coast  and  considerable  areas  of  secondary  grassland;  forest  as  a  whole  covers  85% 
of  the  area.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  150  sq. 
km/annum  out  of  205,000  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  According  to  Myers  (1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1),  who  gives  the  same  figure  for  the  coverage  of  moist  forest,  evergreen  rain 
forest  covers  25,000  sq.  km  near  the  coast;  most  of  the  remainder  is  evergreen  or  semi- 
deciduous  moist  forest.  As  Gabon's  forests  are  relatively  intact  and  floristically  rich,  they 
are  likely  to  become  an  important  target  area  for  plant  conservation.  The  forests  near  the 
coast  are  the  least  well  preserved,  supporting  the  densest  population. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Aubreville,  A.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1961- ).  Flore  du  Gabon,  25  fasc.  Museum  National 

d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris.  (About  a  quarter  completed;  62  famihes  covered  so  far, 

including  Caesalpiniaceae  and  Rubiaceae.) 
Saint  Aubin,  G.  de  (1963).  La  Foret  du  Gabon.  Publication  No.  21,  Centre  Technique 

Forestier  Tropical,  Nogent-sur-Marne.  208  pp.  (Descriptions,  distributions;  black 

and  white  photographs  throughout.) 

Field-guides  Letouzey  (1969-1972),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  contains  information 
about  the  forests  of  Gabon. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  Hsts  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  340  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  beheved  to  be  endemic:  E:l, 
V:9,  R:44,  1:31,  nt:6;  the  remainder  are  K. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Arboretum  de  Sibange,  near  Libreville.       

Useful  Addresses 

National  Herbarium  of  Gabon,  CENAREST,  B.P.  842,  Libreville. 

Additional  References 

Catinot,  R.  (1978).  The  forest  ecosystems  of  Gabon:  an  overview.  In  Unesco- 

UNEP/FAO  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  575-579. 
Floret,  J.J.  (1976).  Flore  du  Gabon.  In  Miege,  J.  and  Stork,  A.L.  (1975,  1976),  cited  in 

Appendix  1,  pp.  575-580. 
Halle,  N.  and  Le  Thomas,  A.  (1968).  Gabon.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  111-112. 
Heitz,  H.  (1943).  La  Foret  du  Gabon.  Larose,  Paris.  292  pp.  (Descriptions,  references; 

numerous  line  drawings  and  black  and  white  photographs.) 


127 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Pellegrin,  F.  (1924-1938).  La  flore  du  Mayombe  d'apres  les  rdcoltes  de  M.  Georges  Le 
Testu.  M4m.  Soc.  Linn.  Normandie  26(2)  (1924),  126  pp.;  n.s.  1(3)  (1928),  85  pp.; 
n.s.  1(4)  (1938),  115  pp.  (Covers  only  the  south-central  uplands.) 


Galapagos  Islands 


45  volcanic  islands  and  islets  on  the  equator,  in  the  Pacific  Ocean  c.  972  km  west  of 
Ecuador,  of  which  they  are  a  part.  Most  of  the  islands  are  relatively  low;  however,  Isabela 
and  Fernandina  have  volcanoes  reaching  15(X)  m.  The  highest  point  is  on  Isabela  (1707  m). 
About  92%  of  the  land  area  is  included  in  the  National  Park.  In  1978,  the  islands  were 
designated  a  World  Heritage  Site  under  the  World  Heritage  Convention. 

Area  7844  sq.  km 

Population  4037  (1974  census.  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  543  indigenous  vascular  taxa,  of  which  229  endemic  (lUCN  figures 
from  Porter,  1978  and  in  prep.).  Most  of  the  endemics  occur  in  the  arid  and  Scalesia  zones. 
The  flora  is  mostly  related  to  that  of  adjacent  South  America  (Porter,  1984). 

Vegetation  Coastal  mangroves;  Crytocarpus  and  Maytenus.  forest  up  to  10  m 
altitude;  arid  zone  up  to  300  m,  with  cacti.  Acacia,  Erythrina  and  Scalesia;  transition  zone, 
mainly  between  75-180  m,  with  Pisonia,  Tournefortia  and  Bursera;  humid  zone  above 
180  m,  with  dense  evergreen  Scalesia  forests  from  180-550  m;  closed  Miconia  scrub  and 
evergreen  Xanthoxylum  forest  between  4(X)-700  m;  pampa  or  fern-sedge  zone  from  550  m 
to  the  summits  of  most  volcanoes.  The  summits  of  Cerro  Wolf  and  Cerro  Azul  on  Isabela 
are  arid.  For  more  detailed  description  of  vegetation  types  see  Hamann  (1981),  and 
Wiggins  and  Porter  (1971). 

All  the  larger  islands,  including  Isabela,  San  Crist6bal,  Santa  Cruz  and  Santa  Maria,  have 
extensive  areas  of  humid  upland  vegetation,  threatened  by  overgrazing;  the  smaller  islands 
are  drier,  and  almost  entirely  covered  by  arid  zone  vegetation. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Wiggins,  I.L.  and  Porter,  D.M.  (1971).  Flora  of  the  Galdpagos  Islands.  Stanford  Univ. 
Press,  California.  998  pp.  (Treats  702  taxa;  introduction  covers  geography, 
vegetation,  fauna.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  main  list  is: 

Porter,  D.M.  (in  prep.).  Red  Data  Bulletin:  Galapagos  Islands.  (232  endemic  vascular 
plant  taxa  with  notes  on  their  distribution  and  conservation  status.) 

21  species  are  listed  as  threatened  in  Organizaci6n  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited 
in  Appendix  1.  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:9,  V:15,  R:lll,  1:15,  K:2,  nt:77. 

An  index  of  threatened  plants  in  cultivation  is: 

Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1984).  The  Botanic 
Gardens  List  of  Rare  and  Threatened  Species  of  the  Galapagos  and  Juan  Fernandez 
Islands.  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body,  Report  No.  11.  lUCN, 
Kew.  6  pp.  (Lists  17  rare  and  threatened  taxa,  from  the  Galapagos,  reported  in 
cultivation,  with  gardens  Hsted  against  each.) 

128 


Galdpagos  Islands 

Useful  Addresses 

Charles  Darwin  Foundation  for  the  Galdpagos,  Casilla  3891,  Quito,  Ecuador. 

(Publishes  a  journal,  Noticias  de  Galapagos,  on  conservation  issues  and  research  on 

the  islands.) 
Charles  Darwin  Research  Station,  Bahia  Academia,  Isla  Santa  Cruz,  Galapagos. 
Superintendente    Parque    Nacional    Galapagos,    Puerto    Ayora,    Isla    Santa    Cruz, 

Galapagos. 

Additional  References 

Bowman,  R.I.  (Ed.)  (1966).  The  Galdpagos:  Proceedings  of  the  Galdpagos 

International  Scientific  Project  of  1964.  Univ.  of  California  Press,  Berkeley.  318  pp. 

(Covers  physical  environment,  flora,  fauna,  evolution  and  adaptation  of  biota.  See 

in  particular  I.L.  Wiggins  on  the  origins  and  relationships  of  the  flora,  pp.  175-182; 

E.Y.  Dawson  on  cacti,  pp.  209-214;  and  CM.  Rick  on  some  plant-animal 

relationships,  pp.  215-224.) 
Carlquist,  S.  (1965),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (Origin,  evolution  and  adaptations  of  plants 

and  animals.) 
Carlquist,  S.  (1974),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (Dispersal  and  evolution  of  plants  and 

animals;  separate  chapter  on  flora.) 
Hamann,  O.  (1979).  The  survival  strategies  of  some  threatened  Galapagos  plants. 

Noticias  de  Galdpagos  30:  22-25. 
Hamann,  O.  (1981).  Plant  communities  of  the  Galapagos  Islands.  Dansk  Bot.  Arkiv 

34(2).  163  pp.  (Detailed  analysis  of  plant  communities;  recent  changes  to 

vegetation.) 
Kramer,  P.  (1983).  The  Galapagos:  islands  under  siege.  Ambio  12(3-4):  186-190. 
Perry,  R.  (Ed.)  (1984).  Key  Environments:  Galdpagos.  Pergamon  Press,  Oxford. 

(Physical  geography,  fauna,  flora,  conservation  problems.) 
Porter,  D.M.  (1978).  Galapagos  Islands  vascular  plants.  In  Bramwell,  D.  (Ed.),  Plants 

and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  225-256. 
Porter,  D.M.  (1984).  Relationships  of  the  Galapagos  flora.  Biol.  J.  Linn.  Soc.  21: 

243-251. 
Schofield,  E.K.  (1973).  Annotated  bibliography  of  Galapagos  botany,  1836-1971.  Ann. 

Missouri  Bot.  Gard.  60:  461-477.  (286  references.) 
Schofield,  E.K.  (1973).  A  unique  and  threatened  flora.  Gard.  J.  New  York  Bot.  Gard. 

23:  68-73. 
Schofield,  E.K.  (1973).  Galapagos  flora:  the  threat  of  introduced  plants.  Biol.  Conserv. 

5:  48-51. 
Schofield,  E.K.  (1980).  Annotated  bibliography  of  Galapagos  botany.  Supplement  1. 

Brittonia  32(4):  537-547. 
Werff,  H.H.  van  der  (1978).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Galdpagos  Islands:  Proefschrift. 

Lakenman  and  Ochtman,  Zierikzee,  Netherlands.  102  pp.  (Includes  checklist.) 
Werff,  H.H.  van  der  (1979).  Conservation  and  vegetation  of  the  Galapagos  Islands.  In 

Bramwell,  D.  (Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  391-404. 

(Describes  vegetation  types;  conservation  priorities.) 


129 


Gambia 


Area  10,689  sq.  km 

Population  630,000 

Floristics  530  species  (Jarvis,  1980),  with  c.  3  endemics. 

Flora  in  eastern  half  of  country  with  Sudanian  affinities;  western  half  with  Guinea- 
Congolian  and  Sudanian  affinities. 

Vegetation  Most  covered  by  Sudanian  woodland  without  characteristic 
dominants.  Coastal  area  with  mangrove  vegetation,  and  small  area  of  evergreen  forest 
interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cultivation.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for 
closed  broadleaved  forest  22  sq.  km/annum  out  of  650  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Gambia  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa, 
cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Jarvis,  A.C.E.  (1980).  A  checklist  of  Gambian  plants.  Cyclostyled.  30  pp.  (530  species 

listed.) 
Percival,  D.A.  (1968).  The  common  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  Gambia.  Cyclostyled. 

62  pp.  (142  species  described.) 
Williams,  F.N.  (1907).  Florula  Gambica.  Bull.  Herb.  Boissier,  Ser.  2,  7:  81-96, 

193-208,  369-386.  (Annotated  checklist  of  285  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  3  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  no 
categories  assigned. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Wildlife  Conservation  Department, 
Ministry  of  Water  Resources  and  the  Environment,  5  Marina  Parade,  Banjul. 

Additional  References 

Rosevear,  D.R.  (1937).  Forest  conditions  of  the  Gambia.  Emp.  For.  J.  16:  217-226. 


Gambler  Islands 


The  Gambler  Islands  (or  Mangareva)  are  a  group  of  volcanic  islands  and  atolls,  5600  km 
east  of  New  Caledonia  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  at  23°10'S  and  135°W.  The  highest 
point  is  441  m,  on  Mangareva  Island,  the  largest  island  in  the  Gambler  group.  The  islands 
form  part  of  the  Tuamotu-Gambier  administrative  division  of  French  Polynesia. 

Area  25  sq.  km 

Population  585  (1983) 

Floristics  About  250  vascular  plant  species,  including  introductions.  41  native 
vascular  plant  species,  of  which  11  are  endemic  (Huguenin,  1974). 


130 


Gambler  Islands 

Vegetation  Only  fragments  of  the  original  forest  remain,  most  having  been 
decimated  by  burning  and  overgrazing  by  goats.  Apart  from  small  areas  of  forest  on  the 
precipitous  southern  slopes  of  Mt  Mokoto,  Mangareva  Island  is  mainly  covered  by 
Miscanthus  grassland.  Coconuts  have  been  introduced  on  most  islands  in  the  group 
(Cooke,  1935;  Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Flora  of  Southeastern  Polynesia  (Brown  and  Brown, 
1931-1935,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  includes  only  29  indigenous  flowering  plants  for  the 
Gambler  Islands  and  Pitcairn  Island  District.  See  also: 

Copeland,  E.B.  (1932).  Pteridophytes  of  the  Society  Islands.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop 
Mus.  93.  86  pp.  (Descriptions  and  keys;  notes  on  distribution.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  All  endemics  suspected  to  be  threatened  by 
overgrazing  and  fire  (F.R.  Fosberg,  1984,  in  litt.).  Achyranthes  mangarevica  is  included  in 
The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978)  as  Extinct  or  possibly  Endangered;  Gouania 
mangarevica  is  only  known  from  Mangareva  Island  and  probably  also  Extinct  or 
Endangered. 

Additional  References 

Cooke,  CM.  (1935).  Mangarevan  expedition.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus.  133:  33-71. 

(Includes  description  of  vegetation.) 
Huguenin,  B.  (1974).  La  vegetation  des  lies  Gambler,  releve  botanique  des  especes 

introduites.  Cahiers  du  Pacifique  18(2):  459-471. 


German  Democratic  Republic 

Area  108,177  sq.  km 

Population  16,658,000 

Floristics  1842  native  vascular  species  (Rauschert  et  al.,  1978).  3  endemic  species, 
1  of  them  extinct  (lUCN  figures).  Areas  of  high  floristic  diversity:  vicinity  of  Thiiringer 
Becken  in  the  south-west,  the  Harz  mountains  of  the  west  (D.  Benkert,  1984,  in  litt.). 
Elements:  Atlantic,  Central  European,  Boreal  and  subalpine. 

Vegetation  Mostly  an  agricultural  landscape,  especially  in  the  glaciated  north- 
central  lowland  depression.  In  the  north,  oaks,  pine  and  beech  constitute  main  woodland 
cover,  but  most  now  removed  or  replaced  by  conifer  plantations.  Scattered  beechwoods 
still  survive  along  Baltic  coast.  In  the  south,  vertical  zonation  of  oak  and  hornbeam 
forests,  giving  way  to  montane  beech  forests,  and  above  500  m,  forests  of  beech,  fir  and 
spruce.  Subalpine  and  alpine  vegetation  restricted  to  small  area  in  Harz  mountains. 
Habitats  under  greatest  threat:  grasslands,  heathlands  and  wetlands  (Benkert,  in  litt.). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  German  Democratic  Republic  is  included  in  the 
completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  although  plants 
in  G.D.R.  are  not  distinguished  from  those  in  the  Federal  RepubUc.  Also  see  Oberdorfer 
(1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and: 

Rothmaler,  W.  (1970-1984).  Exkursionsflora  fur  die  Gebiete  der  DDR  und  der  BRD, 
4  vols.  Yolk  und  Wissen,  Berlin.  Covers  both  F.R.G.  and  G.D.R. ;  1  -  Niedere 
Pfianzen  (Lower  plants),  9th  Ed.  (1984)  by  R.  Schubert,  H.H.  Handke  and 

131 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

H.  Pankow;  2  -  Gefasspflanzen  (Vascular  plants),  11th  Ed.  (1982)  by  W.  Rothmaler, 
W.  Meusel  and  R.  Schubert;  3  -  Atlas  der  Gefasspflanzen  (Atlas  of  Vascular 
Plants),  5th  Ed.  (1970)  by  W.  Rothmaler;  4  -  Kritischer  Band,  5th  Ed.  (1983)  by 
R.  Schubert,  W.  Vent  and  M.  Bassler. 

Information   on   Threatened   Plants  The   national   threatened   plant  list  is: 

Rauschert,  S.,  Benkert,  D.,  Hempel,  W.  and  Jeschke,  L.  (1978).  Liste  der  in  der 
Deutschen  Demokratischen  Republik  Erloschenen  und  Gefahrdeten  Farn-  und 
Blutenpflanzen.  Kulturbund  der  D.D.R.,  BerUn.  56  pp.  (Lists  over  5(X)  threatened 
taxa  and  their  status  in  individual  Districts;  colour  photographs.) 

District  threatened  plant  Hsts  include: 

Benkert,  D.  (1978).  Liste  der  in  den  brandenburgischen  Bezirken  erloschenen  und 
gefahrdeten  Moose,  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen  (List  of  extinct  and  endangered 
mosses,  ferns  and  flowering  plants  in  the  Brandenburg  District).  Naturschutzarbeit 
in  Berlin  und  Brandenburg  14(2/3):  34-80.  (Black  and  white  photographs.) 

Benkert,  D.  (1982).  Vorlaufige  Liste  der  verschollenen  und  gefahrdeten  Grosspilzarten 
der  DDR.  Boletus  6(2):  21-32.  (A  preliminary  list  of  missing  and  endangered  fungi.) 

Benkert,  D.  (1984).  Die  verschollenen  und  vom  Aussterben  bedrohten  Bliitenpflanzen 
und  Farne  der  Bezirke  Potsdam,  Frankfurt,  Cottbus  and  BerUn.  (Extinct  and 
threatened  vascular  plants  and  ferns  in  the  Districts  of  Potsdam,  Frankfurt,  Cottbus 
and  BerHn.)  Gleditschia  11:  251-259. 

Benkert,  D.,  Succow,  M.  and  Wisniewski,  N.  (1981).  Zum  Wandel  der  floristischen 
Artenmannigfaltigkeit  in  der  DDR  (On  the  changes  in  the  floristic  composition  of 
the  flora  of  the  G.D.R.).  Gleditschia  8:  11-30.  (Results  of  a  survey  about  problems 
of  species  protection  with  regard  to  the  influence  of  man  on  the  environment; 
briefly  discusses  degree  of  threat  to  individual  species,  especially  orchids  and 
threatened  plant  communities.) 

Fukarek,  F.  (1980).  Uber  die  Gefahrdung  der  Flora  der  Nordbezirke  der  DDR. 
Phytocoenologia  7:  174-182.  (English  abstract.) 

Hempel,  W.  (1978).  Verzeichnis  der  in  den  Drei  Sachsischen  Bezirken  (Dresden, 
Leipzig,  Karl-Marx-Stadt)  vorkommenden  Wildwachsenden  Farn-  und 
Blutenpflanzen  mit  Angabe  ihrer  Gefahrdungsgrade  (Index  of  native  ferns  and 
flowering  plants  in  3  districts  and  their  conservation  status).  Bezirksnatur- 
schutzorganen,  Dresden.  65  pp. 

Jeschke,  L.  et  al.  (1978).  Liste  der  in  Mecklenburg  (Bezirke  Rostock,  Schwerin  und 
Neubrandenburg)  erloschenen  und  gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen. 
Botanischer  Rundbrieffur  den  Bezirk  Neubrandenburg  8:  1-29.  (Lists  over  600 
extinct  and  endangered  plant  taxa.) 

Rauschert,  S.  (1980).  Liste  der  in  den  thiiringischen  Bezirken  Erfurt,  Gera  und  Suhl 
erloschenen  und  gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen.  Landschaftspflege  und 
Naturschutz  in  Thuringen  17(1):  1-32. 

Rauschert,  S.  et  al.  (1978).  Liste  der  in  den  Bezirken  Halle  und  Magdeburg  erloschenen 
und  gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Bliitenpflanzen.  Naturschutz  und  naturkundliche 
Heimatforschung  in  den  Bezirken  Halle  and  Magdeburg  15(1):  1-31. 

A  list  of  endangered  plant  communities  is  in  preparation  (Benkert,  in  litt.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  hst  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l;  E:l;  nt:l; 
non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:12,  R:3,  1:2  (world  categories). 

132 


German  Democratic  Republic 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  National  legislation  was  passed  on  6  July  1970: 
Anordnung  zum  Schutze  von  Wildwachsenden  Pflanzen  und  Nichtjagdbaren 
Wildebenden  Tieren  (Order  for  the  protection  of  wild  growing  plants  and  wild  animals). 
This  provides  protection  for  26  species  of  pteridophytes  and  angiosperms  and  the  native 
species  of  13  named  genera.  For  more  details  see: 

Weinitschke,  H.  (Ed.)  (1971).  Gesetzliche  Regelungen  der  Sozialistischen  Landeskultur 
in  der  DDR.  Kulturbund  der  Deutschen  Demokratischen  Republik,  Zentrale 
Kommission  Natur  und  Heimat  des  Prasidialrates,  Zentraler  Fachausschluss 
Landeskultur  und  Naturschutz.  103  pp. 

Botanic  Gardens  Many,  as  listed  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Useful  reference: 

Ebel,  F.  and  Rauschert,  S.  (1982).  Die  Bedeutung  der  Botanischen  Garten  fiir  die 
Erhaltung  gefahrdeter  und  vom  Aussterben  bedrohter  heimischer  Pflanzenarten  (The 
importance  of  botanic  gardens  for  the  preservation  of  native  plants  which  are 
endangered  and  threatened  by  extinction).  Arch.  Naturschutz  und  Landschaftforsch. 
22(3):  187-199.  (English  summary.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Centre  for  Protection  and  Improvement  of  the  Environment,  Schnellerstrasse  140,  1190 

Berlin. 
Institute  of  Landscape  Research  and  Nature  Conservation,  4020  Halle,  Neuwerk  21. 
Ministry  of  Environmental  Protection  and  Water  Conservation,  Hans  Beimler  Street 

70/52,  1020  Berlin. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministerium  fiir  Land-Forst-  und  Nahrungs- 

guterwirtschaft  der  D.D.R.,  KOpenicker  Allee  39-57,  1157  Berlin. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Zentrales  Staatliches  Amt  fiir  Pflanzenquarantane  beim 

Ministerium,  Hermannswerder  20A,  15  Potsdam. 

Additional  References 

Hueck,  K.  (1936).  Pflanzengeographie  Deutschlands.  Berlin. 

Rauschert,  S.  (1975).  Floristic  report  on  Germany  (1961-1971).  B.  Deutsche 
Demokratische  Republik.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  559-577. 

Schlosser,  S.  (1982).  Genressourcen  fiir  Forschung  und  Nutzung.  Naturschutz.  Bezirken 
Halle  und  Magdeburg  19:  1-96.  (Contains  a  series  of  papers  about  the  potential  use 
of  plant  genetic  resources  in  the  G.D.R.;  colour  illus.;  line  drawings;  maps.) 


Germany,  Federal  Republic  of 

Area  248,744  sq.  km 

Population  61,214,000 

Floristics  2476  native  vascular  species  (Blab  et  al.,  1984);  3  endemics  (lUCN 
figures).  Elements:  Central  European,  sub-Atlantic,  sub-Mediterranean  and  alpine. 

Vegetation  Little  natural  vegetation  due  to  industry,  agriculture  and  plantation 
forestry.  Most  semi-natural  vegetation  survives  on  higher  ground  and  in  the  south.  Beech 
woods  are  the  original  natural  vegetation  of  lowland  and  montane  areas,  together  with 

133 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

semi-natural  oak  and  hornbeam  in  the  centre  and  south  (Black  Forest,  Alps  and  Bavaria); 
today,  however,  largely  replaced  by  pine  and  spruce  plantations,  especially  in  the  north. 
Riverine  woodlands  replaced  widely  by  poplar  and  maple  plantations.  Forest,  including 
plantations,  occupy  about  20%  of  land  area  (Bundesamt  Wiesbaden,  1983). 

34%  of  forests  threatened  by  acid  rain  (Agren,  1984).  Other  habitats  under  threat: 
grasslands,  heathlands,  peat-bogs,  fens  and  other  wetlands. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Included  in  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al., 
1964-1980),  although  plants  in  F.R.G.  are  not  distinguished  from  those  in  the  German 
Democratic  Republic.  Covered  by  the  Illustrierte  Flora  von  Mitteleuropa  (Hegi,  1935-  ). 
Both  are  cited  in  Appendix  1 .  Only  recent  national  and  regional  Floras  are  listed  below. 
Floras  for  individual  Lander  being  too  numerous. 

Garcke,  A.  et  al.  (1972).  Illustrierte  Flora,  Deutschland  und  Angrenzende  Gebiete,  23rd 
Ed.  by  K.  von  Weihe.  Parey,  BerHn.  1607  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 

Schmeil,  O.  and  Fitschen,  J.  (1976).  Flora  von  Deutschland  und  seinen  Angrenzenden 
Gebieten,  86th  Ed.  by  W.  Rauh  and  K.  Senghas.  Quelle  and  Meyer,  Heidelberg. 
516  pp.  (lUus.) 

For  a  floristic  bibliography,  see  Hamann  and  Wagenitz  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and: 

Jager,  E.J.  and  Muller-Uri,  C.  (1981-1982.)  Bibliographic:  Gefasspflanzen 

Zentraleuropas.  Wuchsform  und  Lebensgeschichte.  Terrestrische  Okologie  1(1), 
122  pp.  and  1(2),  122  pp. 

Merxmuller,  H.  and  Lippert,  W.  (1975).  Floristic  Report  on  Germany  (1961-1971).  A. 
Bundesrepublik  Deutschland.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  469-558.  (In  German.) 

A  floristic  mapping  scheme  for  the  whole  country  is  in  progress  (Zentralstelle  fiir  die 
Floristische  Kartierung,  address  below).  Details  are  given  in  the  following  papers: 

Haeupler,  H.  et  al.  (1976).  Grundlagen  und  Arbeitsmethoden  fiir  die  Kartierung  der 

Flora  Mitteleuropas.  Anleitung  fiir  die  Mitarbeiter  in  der  Bundesrepublik 

Deutschland,  2nd  Ed.  75  pp.  E.  Goltae,  Gottingen. 
Niklfeld,  H.  (1971).  Bericht  iiber  die  Kartierung  der  Flora  Mitteleuropas.  Taxon  20(4): 

545-571. 
Schonfelder,  P.  (1983).  Floristische  Kartierung  der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland 

(Gefasspflanzen/Pteridophyta,  Spermatophyta).  Natur  und  Landschaft  58(6): 

235-236. 

For  local  atlases  see: 

Haeupler,  H.  (1976).  Atlas  zur  Flora  von  Siidniedersachsen.  Scripta  Geobotanica  10. 

367  pp. 
Haffner,  P.,  Sauer,  E.  and  Wolf,  P.  (1979).  Atlas  der  Gefasspflanzen  des  Saarlandes. 

(Edited  by  the  Minister  fiir  Umwelt,  Raumordnung  und  Bauwesen.)  Wiss.  Schr.-R. 

Obersten  Naturschutzbehorde  1 . 
Mergenthaler,  O.  (1982).  Verbreitungsatlas  zur  Flora  von  Regensburg.-Hoppea, 

Denkschr.  Regensb.  Bot.  Ges.  40(5-12):  1-297. 
Seybold,  S.  (1977).  Die  aktuelle  Verbreitung  der  hoheren  Pflanzen  im  Raum 

Wiirttemberg.  Beih.  z.  d.  Veroff  Natursch.  und  Landschpfl.  in  Baden-WUrttemberg 

9:  1-201. 

Field-guides  1  national  and  2  regional  field-guides  are  listed  in  order  below.  See 
also  Oberdorfer  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1: 


134 


Germany,  Federal  Republic  of 

Hegi,  G.,  Merxmiiller,  H.  and  Reisigl,  H.  (1977).  Alpenflora:  Die  Wichtigeren 

Alpenpflanzen  Bayerns,  Osterreichs  und  der  Schweiz.  Parey,  Berlin.  194  pp.  (Covers 
Bavaria,  Austria  and  Switzerland;  introduction  includes  ecological  descriptions  of 
plant  communities;  lists  protected  plants;  illus.;  maps.) 

Rothmaler,  W.  (1970-1984).  Exkursionsflora  fur  die  Gebiete  der  DDR  und  der  BRD, 
4  vols.  Volk  und  Wissen,  Berlin.  Covers  both  F.R.G.  and  G.D.R.;  1  -  Niedere 
Pflanzen  (Lower  plants),  9th  Ed.  (1984)  by  R.  Schubert,  H.H.  Handke  and  H. 
Pankow;  2  -  Gefasspflanzen  (Vascular  plants),  11th  Ed.  (1982)  by  W.  Rothmaler, 
W.  Meusel  and  R.  Schubert;  3  -  Atlas  der  Gefasspflanzen  (Atlas  of  Vascular 
Plants),  5th  Ed.  (1970)  by  W.  Rothmaler;  4  -  Kritischer  Band,  5th  Ed.  (1983)  by 
R.  Schubert,  W.  Vent  and  M.  Bassler. 

Schauer,  T.  and  Caspari,  C.  (1978).  Pflanzenfuhrer.  BLV,  Munchen.  417  pp.  (Covers 
F.R.G.  only;  over  14(X)  colour  illus.) 

See  also  Miiller  and  Kast  (1969)  and  Weber  (1982). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Vast  quantity  of  literature.  Only  the  most 
recent  national  lists  and  those  for  individual  Lander  are  given  below.  National  lists: 

Blab,  J.,  Nowak,  E.,  Trautmann,  W.  and  Sukopp,  H.  (1984).  Rote  Liste  der 

Gefahrdeten  Tiere  und  Pflanzen  in  der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland,  4th  Ed.  Kilda- 
Verlag,  Greven.  270  pp.  (Lists  threatened  flowering  plants,  mosses,  lichens,  fungi 
and  algae.) 

Sukopp,  H.  (1974).  'Rote  Liste'  der  in  der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland  gefahrdeten 
Arten  von  Earn-  und  Blutenpflanzen  (1.  Fassung).  Natur  und  Landschaft  49(12): 
315-322. 

Below  are  Hsts  for  the  Lander  of  Bayern,  Niedersachsen,  Baden- Wurttemberg,  Hessen, 
Schleswig-Holstein,  Nordrhein-Westfalen,  Rheinland-Pfalz  and  Saarland,  and  for  the 
Region  of  Senne  and  West  Berlin: 

Brinkmann,  H.  (1978).  Schiitzenswerte  Pflanzen  und  Pflanzengesellschaften  der  Senne. 

Ber.  d.  Naturwiss.  Ver.  Bielefeld.  Pp.  36-38.  (Includes  a  threatened  fern  and 

vascular  plant  list  for  the  region  of  Senne.) 
Foerster,  E.,  Lohmeyer,  W.,  Schumacher,  W.  and  Wolff-Straub,  R.  (1982).  Florenliste 

von  Nordrhein-Westfalen.  Schr.-R.  der  LOLFl.  89  pp. 
Haeupler,  H.,  Montag,  A.,  Woldecke,  K.  and  Garve,  E.  (1983).  Rote  Liste 

Gefasspflanzen  Niedersachsen  und  Bremen.  Fachbehorde  fUr  Naturschutz,  Merkblatt 

Nr.  18.  34  pp.  (Edited  by  Niedersachsisches  Landesverwaltungsamt.) 
Haffner,  P.,  Sauer,  E.  and  Wolf,  P.  (1979).T\tlas  der  Gefasspflanzen  des  Saarlandes. 

Wiss.  Schr.-R.  der  Obersten  Naturschutzbehorde,  Vol.  1  with  appendix:  Rote  Liste 

der  im  Saarland  ausgestorbenen  und  gefahrdeten  hoheren  Pflanzen.  12  pp. 
Harms,  K.H.,  Philippi,  G.  and  Seybold,  S.  (1983).  Verschollene  und  gefahrdete 

Pflanzen  in  Baden-Wiirttemberg.  Rote  Liste  der  Fame  und  Blutenpflanzen 

(Pteridophyta  et  Spermatophyta),  2nd  revision.  Beih.  Veroff  Naturschutz 

Landschaftpflege  Bad.-Wurtt.  32.  160  pp. 
Kalheber,  H.  et  al.  (1980).  Rote  Liste  der  in  Hessen  ausgestorbenen,  verschollenen  und 

gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen.  2.  Hessische  Landesanstalt  fur  Umwelt. 

46  pp. 
Korneck,  D.,  Lang,  W.  and  Reichert,  H.  (1984).  Rote  Liste  der  in  Rheinland-Pfalz 

ausgestorbenen,  verschollenen  und  gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen,  2nd  Ed. 

Ministerium  fur  Soziales,  Gesundheit  und  Umwelt. 


135 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Kunne,  H.  (1974).  Rote  Liste  bedrohter  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen  in  Bayern.  Schr.-R. 

Natursch.  Landschaftspfl.  4:  1-44.  (Lists  566  species;  conservation  categories  not 

identical  with  those  of  lUCN;  a  revised  list  is  in  preparation.) 
Landesamt  fiir  Naturschutz  und  Landschaftspflege  Schleswig-Holstein  (1982).  Rote 

Liste  der  gefahrdeten  Pflanzen  und  Tiere  Schleswig-Holsteins.  Schr.-R.  Landesamt 

Natursch.  Landschaftspfl.  5.  149  pp. 
Landesanstalt  fur  Okologie,  Landschaftentwicklung  und  Forstplanung  NRW  (1979). 

Rote  Liste  der  in  Nordrhein-Westfalen  gefahrdeten  Pflanzen  und  Tiere.  Schr.-R.  der 

LOLF Nordrhein-Westfalen  4.  106  pp. 
Raabe,  E.-W.  (1975).  Rote  Liste  der  in  Schleswig-Holstein  und  Hamburg  vom 

Aussterben  bedrohten  hoheren  Pflanzen.  Heimat  82(7/8):  191-2(X).  (Lists  148 

threatened  taxa  with  distribution  maps.) 
Schonfelder,  P.  et  al.  (in  prep.).  Entwurf  zur  Neufassung  der  Roten  Liste  der 

ausgestorbenen,  verschollenen  und  gefahrdeten  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen  in  Bayern. 

38  pp. 
Sukopp,  H.  and  Elvers,  H.  (Eds)  (1982).  Rote  Liste  der  gefahrdeten  Pflanzen  und  Tiere 

in  Berlin  (West).  Landesentwicklung  u.  Umweltforschung  11.  374  pp. 

See  also: 

Raabe,  W.,  Brockmann,  C.  und  Dierssen,  K.  (1982).  Verbreitungskarten 

ausgestorbener,  verschollener  und  sehr  seltener  Gefasspflanzen  in  Schleswig- 
Holstein.  Mitt.  Arb.-gem.  Geobot.  Schleswig-Holstein  und  Hamburg  lil.  317  pp. 

Sukopp,  H.  (1972).  Grundzuge  eines  Programms  fur  den  Schutz  von  Pflanzenarten  in 
der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland.  Schr.-R.  Landschaftspfl.  und  Natursch.  7:  67-79. 

Sukopp,  H.  and  Trautmann,  W.  (Eds)  (1976).  Veranderungen  der  Flora  und  Fauna  in 
der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland.  Proceedings  of  a  symposium  7-9  October  1975. 
Schr.-R.  Vegetationskde  10.  409  pp.  (Contains  many  relevant  articles  (in  German 
with  English  summaries);  see  for  example  W.  Trautmann  on  changes  in  the  flora  of 
woods  and  in  woodland  vegetation  of  the  F.R.G.  in  recent  decades  (pp.  91-108)  and 
J.  Reichholf  on  ecological  aspects  of  the  changing  flora  and  fauna  in  the  F.R.G. 
(pp.  393-399).) 

Sukopp,  H.  and  Trautmann,  W.  (1981).  Causes  of  the  decline  of  threatened  plants  in 
the  Federal  Repubhc  of  Germany.  In  Synge,  H.  (Ed.)  (1981),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  113-116.  (Identifies  and  discusses  main  threats  to  the  flora.) 

Sukopp,  H.,  Trautmann,  W.  and  Korneck,  D.  (1978).  Auswertung  der  Roten  Liste 
gefahrdeter  Farn-  und  Blutenpflanzen  in  der  Bundesrepublik  Deutschland  fur  den 
Arten-  und  Biotopschutz.  Schr.-R.  fur  Vegetationskunde  12.  138  pp.  (Detailed 
analysis  of  2667  threatened  plant  taxa,  threats,  habitats,  recommendations.) 

Many  plant  conservation  data-bases,  some  computerized,  are  underway  in  individual 
Lander.  A  data-base  co-ordinating  these  activities  is  being  developed  at  the  Institut  fiir 
Vegetationskunde,  Bundesforschungsanstalt  fiir  Naturschutz  und  Landschaftsokologie 
(Federal  Research  Centre  for  Nature  Conservation  and  Landscape  Ecology)  in  Bonn 
(address  below).  For  summary  details  of  the  individual  projects  in  the  Lander  see: 

Kohlhammer,  W.  (1983).  Botanische  und  Zoologische  Artenerbungen  in  der  Bundes- 
republik Deutschland.  Natur  und  Landschaft  58(6).  255  pp. 

F.R.G.  is  included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983, 
cited  in  Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  E:2, 
nt:l;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  Ex:l,  E:4,  V:12,  R:5,  1:3  (world 
categories). 

136 


Germany,  Federal  Republic  of 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  UK  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished),  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  includes  data  sheets  on  10  plants  Endangered  in  F.R.G.,  3  of  them  Endangered  on  a 
world  scale. 

Two  journals  regularly  containing  plant  conservation  articles  are  Natur  und  Landschaft 
published  by  W.  Kohlhammer,  Koln,  and  Schriftenreihe  fUr  Landschaftspflege  und 
Naturschutz,  Bonn-Bad  Godesburg.  See  also:  Dokumentation  fUr  Umweltschutz  und 
Landschaftspflege,  Dokumentat.  und  Bibl.  der  Bundesforsch.  Naturschutz  und 
Landschaf tsokologie . 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Federal  Species  Protection  Order  of  30  August,  1980 
(Bundesartenschutzverordnung  -  BArtSchV),  in  accordance  with  Article  22  of  the  Federal 
Nature  Protection  Act  of  1976  (Bundesnaturschaftzgesetz  -  BNatSchO),  provides  special 
protection  for  over  160  plant  species.  These  laws  are  published  as: 

Der  Bundesminister  fiir  Ernahrung,  Landwirtschaft  und  Forsten  (1976).  Gesetz  tiber 
Naturschutz  und  Landschaftspflege  (Bundesnaturschutzgesetz  -  BNatSchG)  vom 
20.12.76.  Bundesnaturschutzgesetz.  Der  Bundesminister  fiir  Ernahrung, 
Landwirtschaft  und  Forsten.  32  pp. 

Der  Bundesminister  fiir  Ernahrung,  Landwirtschaft  und  Forsten  (1980).  Verordnung 
iiber  besonders  geschiitzte  Arten  wildebender  Tiere  und  wildwachsender  Pflanzen 
(Bundesartenschutzverordnung  -  BArtSchV).  Bundesgesetzblatt  1(54):  1565-1601. 

See  also: 

Miiller,  T.  and  Kast,  D.  (1969).  Die  Geschutzten  Pflanzen  Deutschlands  (The  Protected 
Plants  of  Germany).  Schwabischen  Albvereins,  Stuttgart.  348  pp.  (Keys;  brief 
morphological,  biological  and  ecological  descriptions;  distribution  data.) 

Weber,  H.C.  (1982).  Geschiitzte  Pflanzen,  Merkmale,  BlUtezeit  und  Standort  alter 
Geschutzten  Arten  Mitteleuropas.  Belser,  Stuttgart.  188  pp. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Bayerische  Botanische  Gesellschaft  (Bavarian  Botanical  Society),  Menzinger  Strasse  67, 

8000  Munchen  19. 
Deutsche  Botanische  Gesellschaft  (German  Botanical  Society),  Untere  Karspiile  2,  3400 

Gottingen. 
Deutscher  Natiirschutzring  e.V.(DNR),  Bundesverband  fiir  Umweltschutz 

Kalkuhlstrasse  24,  Postfach  32  02  10,  5300  Bonn  3. 
Schiitzgemeinschaft  Deutscher  Wald  e.V.,  Meckenheimer  Allee  9,  53(X)  Bonn  1. 
Stiftung  zum  Schutze  gefahrdeter  Pflanzen  (Institute  for  the  Protection  of  Endangered 

Plants),  Kalkuhlstrasse  24,  5300  Bonn  3. 
WWF-Germany  (Umweltstiftung  WWF-Deutschland),  Sophienstrasse  44,  6000 

Frankfurt/Main  90. 

Botanic  Gardens  Numerous,  as  listed  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1; 
most  gardens  are  engaged  in  species  conservation  activities  either  on  a  local  or  regional 
scale.  Only  those  subscribing  to  the  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body 
are  listed  here: 

Alter  Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Gdttingen,  Untere  Karspiile  1,  34(X) 

Gottingen. 
Botanischer  Garten  Munchen,  Menzingerstrasse  63-67,  SCKX)  Miinchen. 


137 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Botanischer  Garten  und  Museum  Berlin-Dahlem,  Kdnigin-Luise-Strasse  6-8,  1000 

Berlin  33. 
Botanischer  Garten  Ruhr-Universitat  Bochum,  Universitatstrasse  150,  Postfach  102148, 

4630  Bochum  1 . 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat,  Auf  dem  Lahnbergen,  3550  Marburg. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Diisseldorf ,  Universitatstrasse  1 ,  4000  Dusseldorf  1 . 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Heidelberg,  Im  Neuenheimer  Feld  340,  6900 

Heidelberg  1. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat-Kiel,  Olshausenstrasse  40-60,  Biologiezentrum,  2300 

Kiel. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Mainz,  Saarstrasse  21,  Postfach  3980,  6500  Mainz. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat,  Auf  dem  Lahnbergen,  3550  Marburg. 
Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Oldenburg,  Philosophenweg  41,  2900  Oldenburg. 
Neuer  Botanischer  Garten  der  Universitat  Gottingen,  Grisebachstrasse  la,  3400 

Gottingen. 
Palmengarten  der  Stadt  Frankfurt,  Siesmeyerstrasse  61,  6000  Frankfurt/Main  1. 

A  seed  bank  for  rare  and  threatened  species  has  been  established  at  the  Institut  fur 
Pflanzenbau  und  Pflanzenziichtung,  Bundesforschungsanstalt  fur  Landwirtschaft 
Braunschweig-Volkenrode,  Bundesalle  50,  3300  Braunschweig. 

Useful  Addresses 

Arbeitsgemeinschaft  Beruflicher  Pflanzen,  Kalkuhlstrasse  24,  5300  Bonn  3. 
Bundesministerium  fur  Ernahrung,  Landwirtschaft  und  Forsten  (Abt.  62  Umwelt, 

Naturschutz),  Rochusstrasse  1,  Postfach  140270,  5300  Bonn  1.  (Each  of  the  Lander 

have  additional  authorities  for  nature  conservation.) 
Institut  fur  Vegetationskunde,  Bundesforschungsanstalt  fiir  Naturschutz  und 

Landschaftsokologie  (Federal  Research  Centre  for  Nature  Conservation  and 

Landscape  Ecology),  Konstantinstrasse  110,  5330  Bonn  2. 
TRAFFIC  (Germany),  WWF-Germany,  address  above. 
Zentralstelle  fiir  die  Floristische  Kartierung.  Bereich  Nord:  Ruhr-Universitat,  Spezielle 

Botanik,  Postfach  102148,  4630  Bochum  1;  Bereich  Sud:  Universitat  Regensburg, 

Botanisches  Institut,  Postfach  397,  8400  Regensburg. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Bundesministerium  fiir  Ernahrung,  Landwirtschaft  und 

Forsten,  Referat  623,  Postfach  140270,  5300  Bonn  1. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Bundesamt  fur  Ernahrung  und  Forstwirtschaft,  Postfach 

180203,  6000  Frankfurt/Main  1. 

Additional  References 

Agren,  C.  (1984).  A  report  sounds  the  alarm:  34%  of  West  German  forest  land 

damaged.  Acid  News  1:  6-7.  (Newsletter  from  the  Swedish  and  Norwegian  NGO 

Secretariats  on  Acid  Rain,  address  under  Sweden.) 
Bundesamt  Wiesbaden  (Ed.)  (1983).  Statistisches  Jahrbuch  1983  fiir  die  Bundesrepublik 

Deutschland.  W.  Kohlhammer  GmbH.,  Stuttgart.  780  pp. 
Raabe,  E.-W.  (1978).  Uber  den  Wandel  unserer  Pflanzenwelt  in  neuerer  Zeit.  Kieler 

Notizen  zur  Pflanzenkunde  10(1/2):  1-24. 


138 


Ghana 

Area  238,305  sq.  km 

Population  13,044,000 

Floristics  3600  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  43  endemic 
species  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  diversity  greatest  in  evergreen  forests  of 
south-west. 

Flora  with  Sudanian  (northern  c.  1/2,  mainly  woodland  and  grassland  flora)  and  Guinea- 
Congolian  (south-west  corner,  mainly  forest  flora)  affinities. 

Vegetation  Small  patches  of  rain  forest  are  all  that  remain  of  the  vast  area  of 
forest  which  used  to  cover  rather  less  than  a  third  of  Ghana  in  the  south-west,  but  which 
have  been  replaced  by  cultivation  and  secondary  grassland;  various  types  of  grassland  and 
wooded  grassland/woodland  with  abundant  Isoberlinia  cover  most  of  the  remainder;  a 
coastal  band  of  strand  and  mangrove. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  220  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
17,180  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  According  to  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  the 
remaining  forest  totals  19,864  sq.  km  in  reserves,  plus  about  5(X)  sq.  km  outside  reserves; 
the  rate  of  depletion  of  forest  by  shifting  cultivation  has  been  estimated  to  be  as  high  as 
5000  sq.  km/annum. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Ciiecklists  and  Floras  Ghana  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa, 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Irvine,  F.R.  (1961).  Woody  Plants  of  Ghana:  with  Special  Reference  to  their  Uses. 
Oxford  Univ.  Press,  London.  868  pp.  (Plates,  some  in  colour;  line  drawings.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hedburg,  I.  (Ed.)  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Ghana,  pp.  88-91,  by  J.B. 
Hall,  contains  210  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  divided  between  five  categories  of 
endangerment,  not  lUCN-compatible.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  73  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic,  of  which  16 
are  known  to  be  rare  or  threatened  -  E:l,  V:5,  R:9,  1:1. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Aburi  Botanic  Garden,  Aburi.  ^ 

University  Botanic  Garden,  c/o  Department  of  Botany,  University  of  Ghana,  P.O.  Box 

55,  Legon. 
University  Botanic  Garden,  University  of  Science  and  Technology,  Kumasi. 

Useful  Addresses 

Forestry  Department,  P.O.  Box  527,  Accra. 
National  Herbarium,  University  of  Ghana  (address  above). 

CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Department  of  Game  and  Wildlife, 
P.O.  Box  M  239,  Ministries  Post  Office,  Accra. 

Additional  References 

Ahn,  P.M.  (1959).  The  principal  areas  of  remaining  original  forest  in  western  Ghana, 
and  their  potential  value  for  agricultural  purposes.  J.  West  Afr.  Sci.  Assoc.  5(2): 
91-1(X).  (With  small-scale  vegetation  map.) 

139 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Asibey,  E.O.A.  and  Owusu,  J.G.K.  (1982).  The  case  for  high-forest  national  parks  in 

Ghana.  Envir.  Conserv.  9(4):  293-304.  (With  five  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Hall,  J.B.  and  Swaine,  M.D.  (1981).  Distribution  and  Ecology  of  Vascular  Plants  in  a 

Tropical  Rain  Forest:  Forest  Vegetation  in  Ghana.  Junk,  The  Hague.  383  pp. 

(Geobot.  1.) 
Lawson,  G.W.  (1968).  Ghana.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp  81-86. 
Taylor,  C.J.  (1952).  The  vegetation  zones  of  the  Gold  Coast.  For.  Dep.  Bull.  4:  1-12. 

Govt  Printer,  Accra.  (With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:1,5(X),000.) 
Taylor,  C.J.  (1960).  Vegetation.  In  Synecology  and  Silviculture  in  Ghana.  Thomas 

Nelson,  London.  Pp.  31-73. 


Gibraltar 


Gibraltar  is  a  Dependent  Territory  of  the  United  Kingdom.  'The  Rock',  a  limestone  ridge 
3  km  long  and  426  m  high,  is  the  dominant  feature. 

Area  6.5  sq.  km 

Population  31,000 

Floristics  587  native  vascular  species  (Wolley-Dod,  1914).  1  endemic  taxon 
(lUCN  figure).  A  Mediterranean  flora. 

Vegetation  A  large  proportion  of  original  vegetation  on  'The  Rock'  cleared  for 
water  catchment  constructions  or  replaced  by  conifer  plantations;  remaining  semi-natural 
vegetation  includes:  high  maquis  with  Phillyrea,  Rhamnus  and  the  palm  Chamaerops 
humilis  (on  the  middle  slopes);  and  a  rich  chasmophytic  flora  containing  species  of 
Dianthus,  Iberis,  Scilla  and  Saxifraga  on  the  inaccessible  ledges  and  east  slope. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Plants  from  Gibraltar  are  included  in  Flora  Europaea 
(Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  but  are  not  distinguished  from  plants  in 
Spain.  There  are  no  other  recent  publications  about  the  flora,  so  see: 

Wolley-Dod,  A.H.  (1914).  A  Flora  of  Gibraltar  and  the  neighbourhood.  J.  Bot.  52. 
Supplement.  131  pp.  (Native  and  naturalized  vascular  plants  of  The  Rock  of 
Gibraltar  and  neighbouring  parts  of  Andalucia;  habitat  notes.) 

Also  relevant: 

Hamilton,  A. P.  (1970).  The  Flowers  of  Gibraltar.  Gibraltar  Tourist  Office. 

Stocken,  CM.  (1969).  Andalusian  Flowers  and  Countryside.  Privately  pubHshed  by  the 

author,  Devon,  U.K.  184  pp.  (General  desciption  of  many  aspects  of  Gibraltar, 

including  vegetation.) 

Field-guides 

Anon  (1968).  The  Wild  Flowers  of  Gibraltar  and  Neighbourhood.  Committee  of  the 
Gibraltar  Garrison  Library,  Gibraltar.  79  pp.  (Illus.  only.) 

See  also  Polunin  and  Smythies  (1973),  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None  locally.  The  section  for  Gibraltar  in  the 
European  threatened  plants  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 

140 


Gibraltar 

contains  one  endemic  (Rare)  and  3  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  on  a  regional  scale,  all 
insufficiently  known  on  a  world  scale. 

Useful  Addresses 

The  Gibraltar  Society,  John  Mackintosh  Hall,  Gibraltar. 


Glorieuses,  lies 


Two  coralline  islands  183  km  WNW  of  Madagascar  in  the  Indian  Ocean,  11°34'S, 
47°19'E.  Grande  Glorieuse  is  by  far  the  larger;  area  c.  4  sq.  km.  43  species  of  plant 
(including  introductions)  are  listed  in  Battistini  and  Cremers  (1972).  The  smaller  island.  He 
du  Lys,  has  only  8  species. 

The  vegetation  of  Grande  Glorieuse  consists  of  a  littoral  dune  belt  with  grasses,  a  tufted 
sedge  turf  behind  it,  and,  inland,  dense  woodland  2-4  m  high  with  no  understorey.  Much 
of  the  island  is  given  over  to  coconut  plantations.  He  de  Lys  has  very  little  vegetation,  and 
it  is  not  zoned. 

References 

Battistini,  R.  and  Cremers,  G.  (1972).  Geomorphology  and  vegetation  of  Hes 

Glorieuses.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  159.  10  pp.  (With  vegetation  map,  19  black  and  white 
photographs.) 

Hemsley,  W.B.  (1919).  Flora  of  Aldabra:  with  notes  on  the  flora  of  neighbouring 
islands.  Bull.  Misc.  Inf.  Kew  1919:  108-153.  (CheckUst,  with  descriptions  of  new 
species.) 

Renvoize,  S.A.  (1979).  The  origins  of  Indian  Ocean  island  floras.  In  Bramwell,  D. 
(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  107-129. 

Stoddart,  D.R.  (Ed.)  (1967).  Ecology  of  Aldabra  Atoll,  Indian  Ocean.  Atoll  Res.  Bull. 
118.  141  pp.  (Includes  41  black  and  white  photographs,  list  of  endemic  plant 
species,  bibliography  of  Aldabra;  see  especially  paper  by  Stoddart,  pp.  53-61,  on  the 
ecology  of  coral  islands  north  of  Madagascar,  but  excluding  Aldabra.) 


Great  Barrier  Reef  Islands 


The  Great  Barrier  Reef,  the  largest  coral  reef  in  the  world,  extends  for  more  than  2000  km 
along  the  north-east  coast  of  Australia,  between  24°30'-10°41'S  and  145°-154°E.  At  its 
northern  end  it  is  c.  160  km  from  the  mainland.  The  reef  consists  of  c.  2500  individual 
coral  reefs,  some  with  coral  sand  islands  (or  cays).  The  total  area  is  c.  207,200  sq.  km.  The 
Great  Barrier  Reef  is  part  of  Australia. 

The  highest  point  is  40  m,  but  most  of  the  reef  is  less  than  5  m  above  sea-level  and  has  no 
vegetation.  Heron  Island  (23°25'S  15r55'E)  has  Casuarina,  Cordia  and  Pisonia  forest; 
mangrove  swamps  are  found  in  the  Low  Islands  (16°18'S  145°35'E);  several  sand  cays 
support  scrub  vegetation  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Parts  of  the  Great  Barrier  Reef  have  been  gazetted  as  a  national  park  (e.g.  parts  of  Green 
Island  (16°43'S  146°E)  and  Heron  Island  in  1937  and  1943,  respectively).  The  first  part  of 

141 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

the  Great  Barrier  Reef  Marine  Park  was  proclaimed  in  1979,  and  the  whole  of  the  reef  was 
accepted  as  a  World  Heritage  Site  in  1981. 

References 

Bennett,  I.  (1973).  The  Great  Barrier  Reef .  Frederick  Warne,  London. 
Frankel,  E.  (1978).  Bibliography  of  the  Great  Barrier  Reef  Province.  Great  Barrier 
Reef  Marine  Park  Authority,  Canberra.  (Lists  4444  publications.) 


Greece 

Area  131,986  sq.  km 

Population  9,884,(XX) 

Floristics  One  of  the  richest  floras  in  Europe;  c.  5500  species  and  subspecies,  of 
which  20%  are  endemic  (Rechinger,  1965);  excluding  Crete  and  the  East  Aegean, 
3950-4100  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 
from  Flora  Europaea.  763  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures),  including  Crete  which,  because 
of  its  size  and  separate  treatment  in  Flora  Europaea,  is  treated  separately  below. 
Elements:  Mediterranean,  alpine. 

Most  species  occur  in  the  lowlands,  many  as  part  of  the  widespread  pan-  and  especially 
east-Mediterranean  element,  but  endemism  concentrated  on  the  mountains  and  on  many 
islands  of  the  Aegean  and  Ionian  Seas.  Mt  Olimbos  (Olympus)  alone  supports  c.  1700 
vascular  plant  species  from  sea-level  to  its  summit,  almost  20  endemic  to  the  mountain 
(Strid  and  Papanicolaou,  in  press).  Other  centres  of  endemism  include  Crete  (see  below), 
the  Peloponnese  and  central  Greece  (which  includes  Mt  Parnassos). 

Vegetation  Although  formerly  well  wooded,  forest  clearance,  fire  and  centuries 
of  overgrazing  by  sheep  and  goats  have  created  large  areas  of  maquis,  phrygana  and 
secondary  steppe.  3  main  vegetation  zones:  coastal  plains  and  hills,  mostly  now  with 
evergreen  scrub  and  in  the  south  degraded  phrygana  or  garigue  but  formerly  with  dry 
evergreen  forest;  the  middle  slopes  of  mountains,  now  cultivated  but  still  supporting  large 
areas  of  forest  dominated  by  conifers  (Pinus,  Abies,  Juniperus),  chestnut,  oak  and  beech; 
above  the  tree-line  a  variety  of  alpine  habitats,  mainly  of  rock  and  scree,  with  grassland  in 
the  north.  Today,  forests  occupy  c.  250,000  sq.  km  (c.  19%  of  Greece),  of  which  c.  6%  is 
broadleaved  and  the  remainder  coniferous. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Greece,  excluding  the  East  Aegean  Islands,  is  included  in 
the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  East 
Aegean  Islands  are  included  in  Davis  (1965- ).  All  of  Greece  will  be  covered  in  the  Med- 
Checklist  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  No  recent  national  Flora  is  available  but  the  most 
important  reference  work,  although  rather  old  and  relating  to  Greece's  pre-1913 
frontiers,  is: 

Halacsy,  E.  von  (1901-1908).  Conspectus  Florae  Graecae,  3  vols,  2  supplements  in 
Magyar  Bot.  Lapok  (1912)  11:  114-202.  Engelmann,  Lipsiae.  (Parts  of  northern  and 
eastern  Greece  not  covered;  reprinted  1968  by  Cramer,  Lehre,  F.R.G.) 

Two  new  Floras: 

Runemark,  H.  and  Greuter,  W.  (in  prep.).  Flora  of  the  South  Aegean. 

142 


Greece 

Strid,  A.  (1986-  ).  A  Mountain  Flora  of  Greece.  Vol.  1 .  Cambridge  Univ.  Press. 
(Includes  all  higher  plants  above  18(X)  m,  and  in  open  habitats  above  1500  m.) 

See  also: 

Cavadas,  D.S.  (1957-1964).  Illustrated  Botanical  Phytological  Dictionary,  9  vols. 

Athens.  (Species  descriptions  arranged  alphabetically  by  genus;  illus;  in  Greek.) 
Davis,  P.H.  (1965-1985).  Flora  of  Turkey  and  the  East  Aegean  Islands,  9  vols. 

Edinburgh  Univ.  Press,  Edinburgh.  Includes  ferns,  gymnosperms,  dicotyledons;  a 

supplement  is  in  prep.  —  East  Aegean  islands  covered  include  Rhodes,  Samos, 

Ikaria,  Chios  and  Lesbos. 
Greuter,  W.  and  Rechinger,  K.H.  (1967).  Flora  der  Insel  Kythera.  Boisierra  13.  206  pp. 
Phitos,  D.  (1967).  Florula  Sporadum.  Phyton  12(1-4):  102-149.  (Covers  the  Sporades.) 
Rechinger,  K.H.  (1943).  Flora  Aegaea.  Vienna.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien  Math.-Naturwiss. 

Denkschr.  105(1).  924  pp.  Supplement  (1949)  in  Phyton  1:  194-228.  (Includes 

vascular  plants  of  the  foreshores  of  the  Aegean  Sea  and  of  the  Aegean  islands, 

including  Crete;  German  text;  Latin  keys;  illus.;  maps;  reprinted  1973  by  Koeltz, 

Koenigstein-Taunus .) 
Rechinger,  K.H.  (1961).  Die  Flora  von  Euboea.  Bot.  Jahrb.  Syst.  80(3):  294-465. 

(Maps;  illus.) 
Strid,  A.  (1980).  Wild  Flowers  of  Mount  Olympus.  Goulandris  Natural  History 

Museum,  Kifissia.  362  pp.  (Keys;  descriptions;  illus.) 

Two  Greek  journals,  recently  founded,  include  many  papers  on  the  taxonomy  and 
floristics  of  Greek  plants:  Annales  Musei  Goulandris,  pubUshed  by  the  Goulandris  Natural 
History  Museum,  and  Botanika  Chronika,  published  by  the  Botanical  Institute,  University 
of  Patras.  For  details  on  the  state  of  floristic  research,  see: 

Greuter,  W.  (1975).  Floristic  studies  in  Greece.  In  Walters,  S.M.  (Ed.),  European 
Floristic  and  Taxonomic  Studies,  a  Conference  at  Cambridge,  29  June  to  2  July 
1974.  BSBI  Conference  Report  No.  15.  E.W.  Classey,  U.K.  Pp.  18-37. 

Greuter,  W.,  Phitos,  D.  and  Runemark,  H.  (1975).  Greece  and  the  Greek  Islands.  A 
report  on  the  available  floristic  information  and  floristic  and  phyto-taxonomic 
research.  In  CNRS,  1975,  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  67-89.  (Describes  floristic 
exploration  and  main  floristic  works;  lists  botanical  institutes,  herbaria  and  current 
research  projects.) 

Phitos,  D.  (1975).  Taxonomic  and  floristic  research  in  Greece  during  the  last  decade, 
1961-1971.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  579-597. 

Rechinger,  K.H.  (1968).  Bericht  iiber  die  botanische  Erforschung  von  Griechenland. 
Webbia  18:  234-259.  — ^ 

Steam,  W.T.  (1982).  The  "Flora  Europaea"  and  the  Greek  flora.  Ann.  Mus. 
Goulandris  5:  123-129. 

Field-guides 

Goulimis,  C.N.  (1968).  Wild  Flowers  of  Greece.  Goulandris  Botanical  Museum, 
Kifissia.  206  pp.  (Colour  paintings  by  N.A.  Goulandris  of  about  120  Greek  plants 
with  botanical  notes  by  C.N.  Goulimis,  edited  by  W.T.  Stearn.) 

Huxley,  A.  and  Taylor,  W.  (1977).  Flowers  of  Greece  and  the  Aegean.  Chatto  and 
Windus,  London.  185  pp.  (Colour  photographs.) 

Phitos,  D.  (1965).  Wild  Flowers  of  Greece.  Athens  Society  of  the  Friends  of  the  Trees, 
Athens.  64  pp.  (Translated  from  the  Greek  by  P.  Haritonidou;  describes  46  species 
with  colour  illus.) 

See  also  Polunin  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

143 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  Botanical  Institute  and  Botanical 
Museum  of  the  University  of  Patras,  with  support  from  the  Hellenic  Society  for  the 
Protection  of  Nature,  intend  to  prepare  a  national  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN  recently 
prepared  a  national  threatened  plant  list: 

lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1982).  The  rare,  threatened  and  endemic 
plants  of  Greece.  Ann.  Mas.  Goulandris  5:  69-105.  (Lists  over  900  taxa  of 
international  conservation  concern;  introduction  discusses  history  of  data  and 
threats  to  the  species  listed.) 

See  also: 

Broussalis,  P.  (1977).  The  protection  of  the  flora  in  Greece  and  its  problems.  Ann. 
Mus.  Goulandris  3:  23-30. 

Diapoulis,  C.  (1959).  Conservation  measures  for  the  plants  of  the  Greek  flora.  In 
Animaux  et  V^gitaux  Rares  de  la  Region  M^diterran^enne.  Proceedings  of  the 
lUCN  7th  Technical  Meeting,  11-19  September  1958,  Athens,  vol.  5.  lUCN, 
Brussels.  Pp.  189-191.  (Lists  72  species  "in  danger  of  disappearing".) 

Goulimis,  C.  (1959).  Report  on  species  of  plants  requiring  protection  in  Greece  and 
measures  for  securing  their  protection,  loc.  cit.  Pp.  168-188.  (Includes  threatened 
plant  list  and  suggested  remedies,  including  proposed  reserve  sites.) 

Sflkas,  G.  (1979).  Threatened  plants  of  our  mountains,  I.  Fusis  (Nature  -  Bull. 
Hellenic  Soc.  Protection  Nature)  18:  42-44. 

Snogerup,  S.  (1979).  The  Aegean  endemics,  distribution  and  present  situation.  I. 
Preliminary  list  of  some  of  the  most  suitable  sites  for  conservation.  Unpublished 
manuscript  presented  to  lUCN.  22  pp.  (Maps  showing  floristically  diverse  areas  in 
the  Aegean.) 

Some  individual  case  studies  on  endangered  plants  have  been  published  in  Fusis  (Nature  - 
the  Bulletin  of  the  Hellenic  Society  for  the  Conservation  of  Nature),  e.g.  Linaria  hellenica 
in  12:  13-16,  34-35  (1977)  and  Tulipa  goulimyi  in  14:  5-9,  36-37  (1978),  both  by  A. 
Yannitsaros,  and  Cephalanthera  cucullata  (from  Crete,  see  below)  by  J.  Kalopissis  in  18: 
26-30,  46  (1979). 

Greece  is  included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983, 
cited  in  Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work,  for  all  of  Greece: 
endemic  taxa  -  Ex:5,  E:26,  V:36,  R:359,  1:40,  K:72,  nt:225;  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  V:10,  R:54,  1:5  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  included  data  sheets  on  33  plants  Endangered  in  Greece. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Presidential  Decree  No.  67,  No.  23A  (1980),  on  the 
"Protection  of  natural  vegetation  and  wildlife  and  the  establishment  of  the  procedure,  co- 
ordination and  control  of  the  research  on  them",  gives  protection  to  over  700  endemic  and 
non-endemic  taxa,  from  "collecting,  transplanting,  uprooting,  cutting,  transporting, 
selling  or  exporting".  These  restrictions  refer  to  all  parts  of  the  plant. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

EUenikos  Oreibatikos  Syndesmos  (Hellenic  Alpine  Club),  Pheidiou  18  (Athens  branch), 

Athens. 
Friends  of  the  Trees,  22  Anagnostopoulou  Str.,  106  73  Athens. 
Hellenic  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature,  24  Nikis  Street,  105  58  Athens. 

144 


Greece 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanical  Garden  of  Julia  and  Alexander  Diomides,  405  lera  Street,  Dafni,  Athens. 
University  of  Athens  Botanical  Garden,  Panepistimiopolis,  Athens  621. 

Useful  Addresses 

Goulandris  Botanical  Museum,  Levidou  13,  Kifissia,  Athens. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Wildlife  Management  Department, 
Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Hippokratous  3/5,  Athens. 

Additional  References 

Antipas,  B.  and  Miiller,  G.  (1974).  Conservation  in  Greece.  Problems  and 

achievements.  Nature  in  Focus  19:  15,  18-21. 
Dafis,  S.  and  Landolt,  E.  (Eds)  (1971,  1976).  Zur  Vegetation  und  Flora  von 

Griechenland,  Ergebnisse  der  15.  Internationalen  Pflanzengeographischen  Exkursion 

(IPE)  durch  Griechenland,  2  vols.  Veroff.  Geobot.  Inst.  ETH  Stiftung  Riibel, 

Zurich.  (Includes  a  bibliography  on  Greek  floristic  work.) 
Hellenic  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature  (1979).  Proceedings  of  a  Conference  on 

the  Protection  of  the  Flora,  Fauna  and  Biotopes  in  Greece,  11-13  October.  Hellenic 

Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature,  Athens.  262  pp. 
Rechinger,  K.H.  (1965).  Der  Endemismus  in  der  griechischen  Flora.  Rev.  Roum.  Biol. 

(Sir.  Bot.)  10(1-2):  135-138. 
Strid,  A.  and  Papanicolaou,  K.  (1985).  The  Greek  Mountains.  In  Gomez-Campo,  C. 

(Ed.),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 


Greece:  Crete 


Area  8,331  sq.  km 

Population  456,642  (1971  census,  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  1600-1800  native  vascular  plant  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978) 
from  Flora  Europaea;  150  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures),  including  1  endemic  genus 
{Petromarula);  c.  137  endemics  according  to  C.  Barclay  (1984,  in  litt.).  Represents  highest 
level  of  endemism  in  the  Aegean  and  probably  for  any  comparable  area  in  Europe 
(Critopoulos,  1975).  Areas  of  high  endemism  are  the  Levka  Ori  (White  Mts),  including  the 
Samaria  Gorge,  the  Lassithi  plateau  and  the  coastal  area  of  Akrotiri  north  of  Khania. 
Floristic  elements:  Mediterranean,  alpine.     — 

Vegetation  In  the  lowlands,  mostly  agricultural  land,  with  extensive  maquis  and 
garigue;  on  steep  slopes  and  cHffs  in  the  lowlands  and  more  widely  in  the  mountains,  a 
chasmophyte  flora  rich  in  endemics.  In  places,  small  scattered  stands  of  near  natural  forest 
survive,  dominated  by  oaks  (Quercus  pubescens,  Q.  macrolepis)  and  conifers  {Pinus 
brutia,  Cupressus  sempervirens).  Crete  also  supports  one  of  best  examples  of  Kermes  Oak 
(Q.  coccifera)  woodland,  between  350-l(X)0  m.  Elsewhere  in  the  Mediterranean  this  habitat 
almost  completely  grazed  out  of  existence  or  converted  to  garigue. 

Checklists  and  Floras  See  under  Greece.  C.  Barclay  (1984,  in  litt.)  is  compiling  a 
checklist  of  the  Cretan  flora  in  collaboration  with  W.  Greuter  and  D.  Meikle.  For  other 
floristic  accounts  see: 


145 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Greuter,  W.  (1973).  Additions  to  the  flora  of  Crete,  1938-1972.  Ann.  Mus.  Goulandris 
1:  15-83.  (Annotated  list  of  250  taxa  new  to  Crete  or  rediscovered  between  1938  and 
1972.) 

Greuter,  W.  (1974).  Floristic  report  on  the  Cretan  area.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(1): 
131-171.  (Describes  the  taxonomic,  biosystematic,  phytosociological,  floristic  and 
phytogeographical  literature  and  provides  corrections  to  Flora  Europaea,  vols.  1  and 
2;  extensive  bibliography.) 

Greuter,  W.,  Matthas,  U.  and  Risse,  H.  (1984).  Additions  to  the  flora  of  Crete, 
1973-1983  -  I.  Willdenowia  14(1):  27-36.  (Pteridophytes,  dicotyledons.) 

Field-guides  See  under  Greece. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  See  under  Greece  and: 

Greuter,  W.  (1979).  The  endemic  flora  of  Crete  and  the  significance  of  its  protection. 
In  Hellenic  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature,  Proceedings  of  a  Conference  on 
the  Protection  of  the  Flora,  Fauna  and  Biotopes  in  Greece,  11-13  October.  Hellenic 
Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature,  Athens.  Pp.  91-97. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  See  under  Greece. 

Additional  References 

Critopoulos,  P.  (1975).  The  endemic  taxa  of  Crete.  In  Jordanov,  D.  et  al.  (Eds), 

Problems  of  Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation.  Proceedings  of  the  1st  International 

Symposium  on  Balkan  Flora  and  Vegetation,  Varna,  June  7-14  1973.  Bulgarian 

Academy  of  Sciences,  Sofia.  Pp.  169-177. 
Gradstein,  S.R.  and  Smittenberg,  J.H.  (1977).  The  hydrophilous  vegetation  of  western 

Crete.  Vegetatio  34(2):  65-86. 
Greuter,  W.  (1971a).  L'apport  de  I'homme  a  la  flore  spontanee  de  la  Crete.  Boissiera 

19:  329-337. 
Greuter,  W.  (1971b).  Betrachtungen  zur  Pflanzengeographie  der  Sudagais 

(Considerations  on  the  plant  geography  of  the  south  Aegean).  Opera  Bot.  30:  49-64. 

(English  abstract.) 
Greuter,  W.  (1975).  Die  Insel  Kreta  -  eine  geobotanische  Skizze.  In  Dafis,  S.  and 

Landolt,  E.  (Eds),  Zur  Vegetation  und  Flora  von  Griechenland,  Ergebnisse  der  15 

Internationalen  Pflanzengeographischen  Exkursion  (IPE)  durch  Griechenland, 

2  vols.  (Describes  plant  geography  and  phytosociology.) 
Rechinger,  K.H.  (1943).  Neue  Beitrage  zur  Flora  von  Kreta.  Akad.  Wiss.  Wien 

Math.-Naturwiss.,  Denkschr.  105,  No. 2  (1).  184  pp.  (Botanical  report  of  a  field 

excursion  by  the  author.) 
Zaffran,  J.  (1976).  Contributions  a  la  Flore  et  a  la  Vigitation  de  la  Crete.  1. 

Floristique.  Marseilles. 
Zohary,  M  and  Orshan,  G.  (1965).  An  outline  of  the  geobotany  of  Crete.  Israel  J.  Bot. 

14  (supplement).  49  pp.  (Summary  of  vegetation;  map;  illus.) 


146 


Greenland 

(Part  of  Denmark) 

Area  2,175,600  sq.  km 

Population  54,000 

Floristics  497  species  of  vascular  plants;  15  endemic  species  (Bocher  etal.,  1978). 
Elements:  Arctic/alpine,  Boreal. 

Vegetation  Much  of  Greenland  is  covered  in  permanent  ice.  In  the  southern 
coastal  areas,  sub-Arctic  dwarf-shrub  heaths  dominated  by  Empetrum  hermaphroditum; 
in  the  interior  of  the  ice-free  coastal  strip,  similar  heaths  are  dominated  by  Betula  nana.  In 
the  north,  high  Arctic  Cassiope  heaths  in  the  coastal  part,  with  very  open  Dryas 
communities  further  inland. 

More  than  700,000  sq.  km  protected  by  the  North  East  Greenland  National  Park,  the 
world's  largest  protected  area. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Bocher,  T.W.,  Fredskild,  B.,  Holmen,  K.  and  Jakobsen,  K.  (1978).  Grenlands  Flora, 

3rd  Ed.  Haase,  Kebenhavn.  326  pp.  (Translated  by  T.T.  Elkington  and  M.C.  Lewis 

from  Danish  2nd  Ed.;  illus.) 
Danish  Arctic  Station  (1968).  Check-list  of  the  Vascular  Plants  of  Greenland. 

Godhavn,  Disko.  39  pp.  (Compiled  from  'The  Flora  of  Greenland'.) 
Jorgensen,  C.A.,  Sorensen,  T.  and  Westergaard,  M.  (1958).  The  Flowering  Plants  of 

Greenland:  a  Taxonomical  and  Cytological  Survey.  Munksgaard.  172  pp. 

For  a  plant  atlas  see  Hulten  (1971),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Field-guides 

Feilberg,  J.,  Fredskild,  B.  and  Hoh,  S.  (1984).  Grenlands  Blomster  (Flov/ers  of 

Greenland).  Regnbuen,  Denmark.  96  pp.  (Illus.) 
Foersom,  T.,  Kapel,  F.O.  and  Svarre,  O.  (1982).  Nunatta  Naasui,  Grenlands  Flora, 

3rd  Ed.  Haasa,  Kobenhavn.  326  pp.  (Illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  publications  known.  lUCN  statistics: 
endemic  taxa  -  R:3,  1:1,  nt:3,  no  data  for  remainder. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Although  there  is  no  legislation  for  the  protection  of 
plant  species  in  Greenland,  a  list  of  species  for  protection  has  been  proposed  for  inclusion 
in  the  1980  Act  on  the  Protection  of  Nature  in  Greenland. 

Additional  References 

Bocher,  T.W.,  Holmen,  K.  and  Jakobsen,  K.  (1959).  A  synoptical  study  of  the 
Greenland  flora.  Med.  Grenland  163(1).  32  pp. 


Grenada 


Grenada,  in  the  Windward  chain  of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  1 3 1  km  north  of  Trinidad,  is  about 
33.8  km  long  and  19.3  km  broad.  Mountains  reach  839  m.  There  is  no  coastal  plain.  The 
state  of  Grenada  also  includes  some  of  the  600  small  islands  of  the  Grenadines  to  the 

147 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

north,  in  particular  Carriacou  (the  largest),  St  Andrew,  St  David,  St  John,  St  Mark  and 
St  Patrick. 

Area  345  sq.  km  (including  the  Grenadan  Grenadines) 

Population  112,000 

Floristics  None. 

Vegetation  Palm  break  on  steep  slopes  of  Mt  St  Catherine  in  the  central  massif; 
elfin  woodland  on  summits;  remnants  of  high  forest  on  SW  ridge  of  Mt  Sinai;  secondary 
cut-over  rain  forest  on  the  lower  hills;  dry  scrub  woodland  along  the  extreme  south  coast; 
rough  grazing  land  with  thorn  bush  over  most  of  the  Point  Saline  peninsula.  The  forests 
have  been  profoundly  modified  by  timber  felling  in  the  19th  Century  (Beard,  1949,  cited 
in  Appendix  1.)  11.8%  forested  according  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

On  the  Grenadines  predominantly  deciduous  and  semi-deciduous  forests;  dry  evergreen 
littoral  stunted  vegetation  on  windward  slopes  (Howard,  1952). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  Leeward  and 
Windward  Islands  (only  monocotyledons  and  ferns  published  so  far,  Howard,  1974-  , 
cited  in  Appendix  1)  and  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  oi  Flora  Neotropica  (cited 
in  Appendix  1).  See  also: 

Beard,  J.S.  (1944).  Provisional  list  of  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  Lesser  Antilles. 

Caribbean  Forester  5(2):  48-67.  (428  species  assigned  in  a  table  to  individual  islands 

separating  Grenada  from  the  Grenadines.) 
Stehle,  H.  and  Stehle,  M.  (1947).  Liste  complementaire  des  arbres  et  arbustes  des 

petites  Antilles.  Caribbean  Forester  8:  91-123.  (A  further  328  species  to  Beard,  1944, 

in  similar  format.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Gardens,  Department  of  Agriculture,  St  George's. 

Additional  References 

Groome,  J.R.  (1970).  A  Natural  History  of  the  Island  of  Grenada.  West  Indies. 
Caribbean  Printers  Limited,  O'Meara  Rd.,  Arima,  Trinidad.  115  pp.  (About  40 
pages  deal  with  plants  to  which  there  is  an  index  of  common  names  annotated  with 
cross-references  and  uses.  The  catalogue  of  plants  is  alphabetical  by  families.) 

Howard,  R.A.  (1952).  The  vegetation  of  the  Grenadines,  Windward  Islands,  British 
West  Indies.  Contr.  Gray  Herb.  Harv.  Univ.  174:  1-129,  29  plates. 


Guadeloupe  and  Martinique 


Guadeloupe  in  the  Leeward  islands  of  the  West  Indies  consists  of  two  islands 
joined  by  a  mangrove  swamp:  Grande  Terre,  limestone,  flat  and  intensively  cultivated; 
and  Basse  Terre,  volcanic  and  mountainous  -  the  Soufriere  volcano  at  1464  m  is  the 
highest  peak  in  the  Lesser  Antilles.  Just  south  and  east  of  Guadeloupe  are  the  Hmestone 
islets  of  La  Desirade  and  Marie  Galante  (the  largest  at  c.  160  sq.  km)  and  the  volcanic  lies 
des  Saintes. 


148 


Guadeloupe  and  Martinique 

Martinique  in  the  Windward  islands  is  200  km  south  of  Guadeloupe;  Dominica  is 
between  them.  It  is  much  cultivated  with  three  regions:  low  hills  in  the  south,  a  central 
massif,  and  the  active  volcano  of  Mt  Pelee  in  the  north. 

Guadeloupe  and  Martinique  are  French  overseas  d^partements.  The  small  island  of  St 
Barthelemy,  and  part  of  neighbouring  St  Martin,  at  the  north  end  of  the  Leeward  Islands, 
are  dependencies  of  Guadeloupe.  (For  the  other  part  of  St  Martin  see  Netherlands 
Antilles.)  Their  flora  is  small;  see  Questel  (1941)  and  the  account  for  Antigua  and 
Barbuda. 

Area  Guadeloupe:  1779  sq.  km;  Martinique:  1079  sq.  km 

Population  Guadeloupe:  319,000;  Martinique:  312,000 

Floristics  c.  2800  species  of  gymnosperms  and  flowering  plants  (c.  1700 
indigenous  and  1 100  introduced)  (Foumet,  1978).  Early  figures  for  endemism  (e.g.  5%  for 
Guadeloupe  and  4*^0  for  Martinique  in  Stehle  and  Quentin,  1937)  are  now  known  to  be  too 
high,  as  many  of  the  species  have  been  found  on  neighbouring  islands.  Up-to-date  figures 
not  available. 

Vegetation 

Guadeloupe  On  Grand  Terre  little  forest  remains,  the  only  natural  growth  being 
man-induced  scrub  woodland.  Basse  Terre  has  untouched  rain  forest  and  lower  montane 
rain  forest.  At  the  junction  of  the  islands  are  large  expanses  of  mangrove  and  Pterocarpus 
swamp.  34.8%  forest  cover  according  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Martinique  No  natural  rain  forest  remains.  In  the  centre  and  at  low  elevations 
there  is  secondary  forest,  at  higher  elevations  montane  thicket,  palm  brake  and  elfin 
woodland.  25.5%  forest  cover  according  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  Flora  of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  Leeward  and 
Windward  Islands  (only  monocotyledons  and  ferns  published  so  far,  Howard,  1974-  , 
cited  in  Appendix  1)  and  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica  (cited 
in  Appendix  1).  Island  floras  are: 

Fournet,  J.  (1978).  Flore  Illustr4e  des  Phanirogames  de  Guadeloupe  et  de  Martinique. 

Institut  National  de  la  Recherche  Agronomique,  Paris.  1654  pp. 
Questel,  A.  (1951).  1  -  La  Flore  de  la  Guadeloupe  et  Dipendances  (Antilles 

Frangaises).  Geographic  G^nirale  de  la  Guadeloupe  et  D^pendances  (Antilles 

Frangaises).  L.  le  Charles,  Paris.  327  pp.  (With  description  of  the  vegetation,  illus. 

and  maps.) 
Stehle,  H.  and  M.  and  Quentin,  L.  (1935-1949).  Flore  de  la  Guadeloupe  et 

D^pendances  et  de  la  Martinique.  Several  vols.  Catholic  Press,  Basse-Terre. 

See  also: 

Beard,  J.S.  (1944).  Provisional  list  of  trees  and  shrubs  of  the  Lesser  Antilles. 

Caribbean  Forester  5(2):  48-67.  (428  species  assigned  in  a  table  to  individual 

islands.) 
Stehle,  H.  and  Stehle,  M.  (1947).  Liste  complementaire  des  arbres  et  arbustes  des 

petites  Antilles.  Caribbean  Forester  8:  91-123.  (A  further  328  species  to  Beard,  1944, 

in  similar  format.) 

For  St  Barthelemy,  see: 


149 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Monachino,  J.  (1940-41).  A  check-list  of  the  spermatophytes  of  St.  Bartholomew:  part 

i-ii.  Caribbean  Forester  2:  24-66. 
Questel,  A.  (1941).  La  Flore  de  Saint-Barth^lemy  (Antilles  Frangaises)  et  son  Origine. 

Imprimerie  Catholique,  Basse-Terre.  224  pp.  (In  French,  also  an  English  version.) 

Field-guides 

Chauvin,  G.  (1977,  1978).  Etude  illustree  des  families  de  plantes  k  fleurs  de  la 
Martinique.  Les  cahiers  documentaires  Education  et  enseignement,  no.  16:  les 
Gamopetales  and  no.  18:  les  Dialypetales.  C.D.D.P.  Fort-de-France. 

Fournet,  J.  (1976).  Fleurs  et  plantes  des  Antilles.  Cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Sastre,  C.  (1978).  Plantes  menacees  de  Guadeloupe  et  de  Martinique.  1.  Especes 
altitudinales.  Bull.  Mus.  natn.  Hist,  nat.,  Paris,  3e  sir.  no.  519,  Ecologie  ginirale 
A2:  65-93.  (Description  of  vegetation,  sheets  on  13  rare  and  threatened  species  with 
illustrations  and  habitat  photographs.) 

Sastre,  C.  and  Mestoret,  L.  (1978).  Plantes  rares  ou  menacees  de  Martinique.  Le 
courrier  du  pare  naturel  regional  de  la  Martinique  no.  2:  20-22. 

C.  Sastre  has  also  written  popular  papers  on  threatened  plants  of  Guadeloupe  and 
Martinique,  e.g.  in  L'Orchidophile  13(52):  83-90  (1982)  and  in  an  unnumbered  issue  of 
Panda,  the  magazine  of  WWF-France  (pp.  6-7). 

The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  has  three  data  sheets  for  Guadeloupe  and  Martinique. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Association  des  Amis  du  Pare  Naturel  de  la  Guadeloupe  et  de  I'environnement, 
Prefecture  de  la  Guadeloupe,  Basse-Terre. 

Useful  Addresses 

Delegation  Regionale  a  I'Architecture  et  a  I'environnement  (Guadeloupe,  Guyane, 

Martinique),  B.P.  1002,  97178  Pointe-a-Pitre  Cedex. 
Office  National  des  Forets,  Jardin  des  plantes,  97100  Basse-Terre. 

Additional  References 

Fiard,  J.P.,  Association  des  Amis  du  Pare  Naturel  Regional  (1979).  Laforet 

martiniquaise:  presentation  et  propositions  de  mesures  de  protection.  Fort  de 

France,  Pare  Naturel  Regional  Ex-Caserne  Bouille.  65  pp.  (Illus.,  maps.) 
Portecop,  J.  (1979).  Phytogeographie,  cartographic  ecologique  et  amenagement  dans 

une  Tie  tropicale:  le  cas  de  la  Martinique.  Doc.  Cart.  Ecol.  Univ.  Grenoble  21:  1-78. 

(With  map,  1:75,000.) 
Sastre,  C.  (1979).  Considerations  phytogeographiques  sur  les  sommets  volcaniques 

Antillais.  C.R.  Soc.  Biogiogr.  484:  127-135. 
Stehle,  H.  (1980).  Modifications  ecologiques  recentes  dans  la  vegetation  des  Antilles 

fran?aises  et  leurs  causes  essentielles  (42e  contribution).  Bull.  Soc.  Bot.  Fr.,  127. 

Lettres  Bot.  3:  275-287. 


150 


Guam 


Guam  (13°20'N,  144°45'E)  is  the  largest  and  southernmost  of  the  Mariana  Islands,  and  is 
located  in  the  west  Pacific  Ocean,  c.  2030  km  east  of  the  Philippines.  It  is  an 
unincorporated  territory  of  the  United  States.  Most  of  the  northern  part  is  a  raised 
limestone  plateau  152  m  high,  separated  from  the  volcanic  south,  which  reaches  407  m,  by 
a  narrow  neck  of  land  8  km  wide. 

Area  450  sq.  km 

Population  119,000 

Floristics  931  vascular  plant  species  of  which  c.  330  are  native  and  20  doubtfully 
native  (Stone,  1970).  69  vascular  species  occurring  on  Guam  are  endemic  to  the  Marianas 
Group.  Indomalaysian-Pacific  elements  account  for  over  a  third  of  the  total  vascular 
flora. 

Vegetation  Rain  forest  with  Artocarpus,  Elaeocarpus,  Pandanus,  Ficus  and 
Guamia  originally  covered  most  of  the  island;  much  has  been  logged  and  cleared  for 
coconut  plantations;  mixed  forests  on  old  volcanic  soils  completely  destroyed  (Fosberg, 
1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Ravine  forests  occur  along  river  valleys  and  on  some  volcanic 
and  limestone  hill  slopes;  small  areas  of  poorly  developed  mangroves. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Stone,  B.C.  (1970).  The  Flora  of  Guam.  Micronesica  6.  659  pp.  (Keys,  descriptions; 

notes  on  distributions;  introductory  chapters  on  floristics,  vegetation,  forests  and 

other  plant  resources.) 
Wagner,  W.H.  and  Grether,  D.F.  (1948).  Pteridophytes  of  Guam.  Occ.  Papers  Bernice 

P.  Bishop  Mus.  19(2):  25-99. 

Guam  is  included  in  Flora  Micronesica  (Kanehira,  1933),  the  regional  checklists  of 
Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver  (1979,  1982),  and  will  also  be  covered  by  the  Flora  of 
Micronesia  (1975-  ),  all  of  which  are  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  There  are  about  20  vascular  plant  taxa, 
endemic  to  Guam  and  the  Marianas  which  are  'endangered';  a  further  30  taxa,  not 
confined  to  Guam  or  the  Marianas  are  'endangered'  on  Guam  (Moore,  1980).  Heritiera 
longipetiolata  and  Serianthes  nelsonii  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book 
(1978).  See  also: 

Moore,  P.H.  (1980).  Notes  on  the  endangered^  species  of  Guam.  Notes  from  Waimea 

Arboretum  7(1):  14-17.  (Notes  on  3  'endangered'  endemic  taxa;  checklist  by  C. 

Daguio  of  58  mostly  non-endemic  taxa,  in  cultivation  at  Waimea.) 
Moore,  P.,  Raulerson,  L.,  Chernin,  M.  and  McMakin,  P.  (1977).  Inventory  and 

mapping  of  wetland  vegetation  in  Guam,  Tinian  and  Saipan,  Mariana  Islands. 

Mimeo.  Univ.  of  Guam.  (Lists  5  non-endemics  threatened  on  Guam.) 

Additional  References 

Lee,  M.A.B.  (1974).  Distribution  of  native  and  invader  plant  species  of  the  island  of 
Guam.  Biotropica  6(3):  158-164. 


151 


Guatemala 

Area  108,888  sq.  km 

Population  8,165,000 

Floristics  An  estimated  8000  species  of  vascular  plants  (Gentry,  1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  1171  endemic  species  (lUCN  figures);  over  550  orchids  (Lizama,  1981); 
according  to  D'Arcy  (1977),  10%  of  the  high  mountain  vascular  flora  is  endemic. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  tropical  broadleaved  moist  forests  (83%  of  forest 
cover),  mostly  in  the  Department  of  Peten  in  the  northeast;  mangroves  on  tidal  flow  areas 
on  the  Pacific  coast;  coniferous  montane  forests  in  the  west,  restricted  to  the  highlands, 
extending  c.  10,(X)0  sq.  km  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  9(X)  sq.  km/year  out  of  a  total  area  of  49,020  sq.  km;  figures  for  broadleaved 
closed  forest  are  720  and  37,850  sq.  km  respectively  (Nations  and  Komer,  1984,  from 
FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Guatemala  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericana  Project, 
described  in  Appendix  1,  as  well  as  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica,  also  in  Appendix  1 .  The  country  Flora  is: 

Standley,  P.C.,  Steyermark,  J.A.  and  Williams,  L.O.  (1946-1977).  Flora  of  Guatemala. 
Fieldiana,  Bat.  24  (1-13).  (Complete  except  for  orchids  and  ferns,  covered 
separately,  see  below.) 

Also  relevant: 

Ames,  O.  and  Correll,  D.S.  (1952-53).  Orchids  of  Guatemala.  Fieldiana,  Bot.  26(1-2). 
Correll,  D.S.  (1965).  Supplement  to  the  orchids  of  Guatemala  and  British  Honduras. 

Fieldiana,  Bot.  31(7):  177-221. 
Record,  S.J.  and  Kuylen,  H.  (1926).  Trees  of  the  Lower  Rio  Motagua  Valley, 

Guatemala.  Trop.  Woods  1:  10-29. 
Stolze,  R.S.  (1976,  1981,  1983).  Ferns  and  fern  allies  of  Guatemala.  Fieldiana,  Bot.  39: 

1-130;  Fieldiana,  Bot.,  New  Series  6:  1-522  (Part  II:  Polypodiaceae);  12:  1-91  (Part 

III:  Marsileaceae,  Salviniaceae  and  the  fern  allies). 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  24  species  are  listed  as  threatened  in 
Organizacion  de  los  Estados  Americanos  (1967),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  24  species,  mostly 
different  ones,  are  listed  in  the  Annex  to  the  Convention  on  Nature  Protection  and 
Wildlife  Preservation  in  the  Western  Hemisphere  (1940).  5  species  are  listed  as  threatened 
in  Nations  and  Komer  (1984).  93  threatened  species,  most  not  threatened  on  a  world  scale, 
are  covered  in  a  list  by  the  Instituto  Nacional  Forestal  (INAFOR)  -  this  is: 

Rodas  Zamora,  J.  and  Aguilar  Cumes,  J.  (1980).  Lista  de  algunas  especies  vegetales  en 
via  en  extinci6n.  INAFOR,  Guatemala  City.  (Unpublished.) 

lUCN  is  preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  list  of 
rare,  threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based 
upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  E:14,  V:37,  R:90, 1:35,  K:974,  nt:21;  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  E:4,  V:25,  R:38,  1:11  (world  categories). 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  W.G. 
D'Arcy  on  endangered  landscapes  in  the  region  (pp.  89-104),  J.T.  Mickel  on  rare 

152 


Guatemala 

and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328),  H.E.  Moore  on  endangerment  in  palms  (pp. 
267-282),  P.  Ravenna  on  rare  and  threatened  bulbs  (pp.  257-266). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Government  Decree  13-79,  Emergency  Law,  National 
Rainforest  Campaign,  includes  provisions  for  re-afforestation  and  for  the  prevention  of 
felling  of  trees  to  collect  seeds,  especially  of  Pimento  diaica.  Governmental  law  of  9 
August  1946  prohibits  the  collection  and  export  of  the  orchid  and  national  flower,  Lycaste 
virginalis  var.  alba;  collection  may  only  be  authorized  by  the  Ministerio  de  Agricultura. 
Governmental  Resolution  of  29  August  1950  prohibits  the  use  of  the  bark  of  Pinus 
ayacahuite  for  tanning,  and  Resolution  of  18  August  1958  prohibits  the  export  of  fresh 
roots  and  seeds  of  6  Dioscorea  species  and  one  Agave  species  (J.M.  Aguilar  Cumes,  in  litt., 
1984).  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined  Abies  guatemalensis  (El  Salvador, 
Honduras,  Guatemala,  Mexico)  as  'Threatened'  under  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Asociaci6n  Guatemalteca  de  Historia  Natural  (AGHN),  c/o  Jardi'n  Botanico,  Avenida 
de  la  Reforma  0-43,  Zona  10,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardi'n  Botanico,  Avenida  de  la  Reforma  0-43,  Zona  10,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 

Useful  Addresses 

Centro  de  Estudios  Conservacionistas  (CECON),  Avenida  de  la  Reforma  0-43,  Zona 

10,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 
Empresa  Nacional  de  Fomento  y  Desarrollo  Economico  del  Peten  (FYDEP),  Santa 

Elena,  Peten. 
Escuela  de  Biologia,  Universidad  de  San  Carlos  de  Guatemala,  Calle  Mariscal  Cruz 

1-56,  Zona  10,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 
Instituto  de  Antropologia  e  Historia  y  Historia  Natural  (IDAEH),  6a  Calle  7-30,  Zona 

13,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 
Instituto  Nacional  Forestal  (INAFOR),  5a  Avenida  12-31,  Zona  9,  Edificio  "El 

Cortez",  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 
Museo  Nacional  de  Historia  Natural,  Apdo  Postal  987,  Ciudad  de  Guatemala. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Instituto  Nacional  Forestal  (INAFOR), 

Edificio    Galerias    Espana,    6°    Nivel,    7a   Avenida    11-63,    Zona   9,    Ciudad   de 

Guatemala. 

Additional  References 
D'Arcy,  W.G.  (1977).  Endangered  landscapes  in  Panama  and  Central  America:  the 

threat  to  plant  species.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  89-104. 
Holdridge,  L.R.,  Lamb,  F.B.  and  Mason,  B.  (1950).  Los  Basques  de  Guatemala. 

Turrialba,  Costa  Rica.  Instituto  Interamericana  de  Ciencias  Agricolas.  174  pp. 
INAFOR  (1981).  Estudio  sobre  Exportacidnes  de  Fauna  y  Flora  Silvestre  de  Guatemala 

de  Enero/78  a  Diciembre/80.  Departamento  de  Parques  Nacionales  y  Vida  Silvestre, 

Instituto  Nacional  Forestal.  24  pp. 
Lizama,  C.  (1981).  Orchids  of  Guatemala.  In  Stewart,  J.  and  van  der  Merwe,  C.N. 

(Eds),  Proceedings  of  the  lOth  World  Orchid  Conference.  Durban,  South  Africa. 

Pp.  109-110. 
Lundell,  C.L.  (1937).  The  vegetation  of  Pet^n.  Carnegie  Institute,  Washington,  D.C. 

244  pp.  (Publication  No.  478.) 
Nations,  J.D.  and  Komer,  D.I.  (1984).  Conservation  in  Guatemala:  Final  report, 

presented  to  WWF-US.  Center  for  Human  Ecology,  Box  5210,  Austin,  Texas  78763, 

153 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

U.S.A.  Mimeo.  170  pp.  (From  WWF  Project  US-269,  Development  of  a 
conservation  program  for  Guatemala;  extensive  report  listing  conservation 
organizations,  individuals  and  other  useful  contacts  in  Guatemala.) 
Veblen,  T.T.  (1976).  The  urgent  need  for  forest  conservation  in  highland  Guatemala. 
Biol.  Conserv.  9:  141-154. 


Guinea 

Area  245,855  sq.  km 

Population  5,301,000 

Floristics  Size  of  flora  unknown;  88  endemics  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix 
1),  but  see  below.  Mt  Nimba,  shared  with  Liberia  and  Ivory  Coast,  has  over  2000  species. 

Floristic  affinities  range  from  Sudanian  in  the  extreme  north-east  to  Guinea-Congolian  in 
the  south  and  south-west.  Afromontane  elements  occur  on  the  Fouta  Djallon  and  Mt 
Nimba  which  are  important  centres  of  endemism.  The  forests  also  have  numerous 
endemics. 

Vegetation  Over  most  of  the  country  a  mosaic  of  patches  of  lowland  rain  forest 
interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cultivated  land;  extensive  areas  of  forest  still 
survive  near  the  borders  with  Liberia  and  Ivory  Coast.  Considerable  areas  of  mangrove 
along  coast.  Sudanian  woodland  occurs  in  north-eastern  sector.  Also,  transitional  rain 
forest  (between  lowland  and  montane)  on  Mt  Nimba  and  the  Fouta  Djallon.  Estimated 
rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  360  sq.  km/annum  out  of  20,500  sq. 
km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Guinea  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa. 
The  Guinean  portion  of  Mt  Nimba  is  included  in  Flore  Descriptive  desMonts  Nimba.  Both 
are  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  99  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  beheved  to  be  endemic, 
including  V:10,  R:27,  nt:10. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  Generale  des  Eaux,  Forets  et  Chasses, 
Secretariat  d'Etat  aux  Eaux  et  Forets,  B.P.  624,  Conakry. 

Additional  References 

Adam,  J.G.  (1958).  Elements  pour  I'Etude  de  la  V^gHation  des  Hants  Plateaux  du 
Fouta  Djalon  (Secteur  des  Timbis),  Guinde  Frangaise.  1.  La  Flore  et  ses 
Groupements.  Gouvernement  General  de  I'AOF,  Bureau  des  Sols,  Dakar.  80  pp. 
(With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:50,000.) 

Adam,  J.-G.  (1970).  Etat  actuel  de  la  vegetation  des  monts  Nimba  au  Liberia  et  en 
Guinee.  Adansonia,  S&.  2,  10:  193-211.  (With  10  black  and  white  photographs.) 

Lamotte,  M.  (1983).  The  undermining  of  Mount  Nimba.  Ambio  12(3-4):  174-179. 
(Photographs,  maps.) 


154 


Guinea 


Pobeguin,  H.  (1906).  Essai  sur  la  Flore  de  la  Guinie  Frangaise.  Challamel,  Paris. 

392  pp.  (Numerous  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Schnell,  R.  (1968).  Guinee.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  69-72. 


Guinea-Bissau 


Area  36,125  sq.  km 

Population  875,000 

Floristics  c.  1000  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  No 
endemics  given  in  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  but  lUCN  has  records  of  12  species 
and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  five  of  these  are  undescribed  species. 

Flora  with  Guinea-Congolian  and  Sudanian  affinities. 

Vegetation  Large  areas  of  mangrove  around  coast  and  offshore  islands.  Inland, 
original  vegetation  lowland  rain  forest,  but  much  now  destroyed  and  replaced  by 
cultivation  and  secondary  grassland.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed 
broadleaved  forest  170  sq.  km/annum  out  of  6600  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Guinea-Bissau  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical 
Africa,  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

D'Orey,  J.  and  Liberato,  M.C.  (1972- ).  Flora  da  Guine  Portuguesa.  Ministerio  do 
Ultramar,  Lisboa.  (5  fascicles  so  far,  covering  most  of  Leguminosae  plus  two  other 
smaller  families.  Descriptive  keys,  distributions,  etc.) 

Pereira  de  Sousa,  E.  (1946-1963).  Contribuigoes  para  a  Conhecimento  da  Flora  da 
Guini  Portuguesa.  Vols  1-8  published  by  Ministerio  das  Colonias,  Lisboa  in  Anais 
Junta  Invest.  Colon.,  and  Anais  Junta  Invest.  Ultram.;  vols  9-10  by  Junta  de 
Investiga^Ses  do  Ultramar,  Lisboa.  (Annotated  checklist.  Frodin  gives  more 
publication  details.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants.  No  categories  assigned  to  the  12  taxaJielieved  to  be  endemic. 

Additional  References 

Espirito  Santo,  J.  do  (1949).  Contribigao  para  o  conhecimento  fitogeografico  da  Guine 

portuguesa.  Bol.  Cult.  Guine  Portug.  4(13):  95-129. 
Malato-Beliz,  J.  (1963).  Aspectos  da  investiga^ao  geobotanica  na  Guine  Portuguesa. 

Estud.  Agron.  4(1):  1-20. 
Malato-BeUz,  J.  and  Alves  Pereira,  J.  (1965).  Constituigao  e  ecologia  das  pastagens 

naturals  da  Guine  Portuguesa.  Garcia  de  Orta  13:  1-7.  (With  6  black  and  white 

photographs.) 


155 


Guyana 

Area  214,970  sq.  km 

Population  936,000 

Floristics  No  figures  available  for  number  of  species;  likely  to  be  higher  than 
French  Guiana  (estimated  at  6000-8000  species),  because  of  wider  range  of  vegetation. 
J.C.  Lindeman  (1984,  pers.  comm.),  however,  estimates  8000  species  of  vascular  plants  for 
all  3  Guianas,  implying  the  total  for  Guyana  is  rather  lower.  Floristic  affinities  with 
neighbouring  countries,  in  particular  the  dry  savanna  with  that  of  Brazil  and  the  rain 
forests  with  Amazonia  and  Venezuela  through  the  Guayana  Highland  sandstone 
mountains. 

Vegetation  On  the  coast  mangrove  and  swamp  forests,  with  pockets  of  seasonal 
evergreen  forests,  now  largely  destroyed.  Most  of  the  population  and  cultivated  land  are 
on  the  coast.  In  the  interior,  equatorial  rain  forests,  lowland  and  submontane,  covering 
85%  of  the  country  and  forming  2.9%  of  the  Amazon  forest.  From  the  Demerara  River 
along  the  coast  to  the  Surinam  border  wet  savanna;  in  the  south  on  and  around  the 
Kanuku  Mts  dry  (Rupununi)  savanna.  In  the  west  are  the  spectacular  Pakaraima  Mts, 
reaching  2810  m  on  Mt  Roraima  and  forming  part  of  the  Guayana  Highland  which  covers 
much  of  southern  Venezuela;  sandstone  capped  by  granite,  with  elfin  forest,  bog  and 
swamp  on  the  top,  mainly  forest  but  some  grassland  lower  down;  very  rich  in  endemics. 

According  to  FAO/UNEP  (1981),  estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved 
forest  25  sq.  km/annum  out  of  184,750  sq.  km;  according  to  Myers  (1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1),  montane  rain  forest  covers  47,500  sq.  km,  lowland  evergreen  rain  forest 
134,000  sq.  km,  swamp  and  marsh  forest  5300  sq.  km:  "there  seems  little  prospect  that 
Guyana's  primary  forests  will  be  much  modified  within  the  foreseeable  future". 

Checklists  and  Floras  Guyana  is  covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs 
of  Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  Country  accounts  are: 

Fanshawe,  D.B.  (1949).  Check-list  of  the  indigenous  woody  plants  of  British  Guiana. 

Forestry  Bulletin  No.  3  (New  Series),  Forest  Dept,  British  Guiana.  244  pp. 

Unpublished  typescript,  copy  at  Kew. 
Graham,  E.H.  (1934).  Flora  of  the  Kartabo  Region,  British  Guiana.  Ann.  Carnegie 

Mus.  22:  17-292. 
Maguire,  B.  et  al.  (1953- ).  The  botany  of  the  Guayana  Highland.  Mem.  New  York 

Bot.  Card.  12  parts,  between  vols.  8  and  38.  Various  family  treatments  resulting 

from  field  activities  begun  in  1944.  Parts  13  and  14  (in  prep.)  will  conclude  the 

# 

systematic  treatment  of  the  flora  of  the  Roraima  Formation  in  Guyana;  other 
reports  will  be  issued  as  separate  papers. 

A  30-year  project  to  prepare  the  Flora  of  the  Guianas  is  being  coordinated  by  the  Institute 
of  Systematic  Botany,  University  of  Utrecht,  The  Netherlands,  and  the  Smithsonian 
Institution,  Washington,  D.C.,  in  collaboration  with  Office  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique 
et  Technique  Outre-Mer,  Cayenne,  French  Guiana,  and  other  leading  botanical 
institutions.  Part  1  (Cannaceae,  Musaceae  and  Zingiberaceae  by  P.J.M.  Maas)  is  in  press. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book. 
Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in: 


156 


Guyana 


Mickel,  J.T.  (1977).  Rare  and  endangered  pteridophytes  in  the  New  World  and  their 
prospects  for  the  future.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in 
Appendix  1.  Pp.  323-330. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanical  Gardens,  Guyana  Forestry  Commission,  Water  Street,  Georgetown. 
Botanical  Gardens,  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Turkeyen,  Greater  Georgetown. 

Useful  Addresses 

Institute  of  Sytematic  Botany,  University  of  Utrecht,  Heidelberglaan  1,  P.O.  Box 

80102,  3508  TC  Utrecht,  Netherlands. 
National  Science  Research  Council,  University  Campus,  Turkeyen,  Greater 

Georgetown. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Permanent  Secretary,  Ministry  of  Agriculture, 

P.O.  Box  1001,  Georgetown. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  The  National  Science  Research  Council,  44  Pere  Street, 

Kitty. 

Additional  References 

Dalfelt,  A.  (1978).  Nature  Conservation  Survey  of  the  Republic  of  Guyana.  lUCN, 

Switzerland.  55  pp. 
Fanshawe,  D.B.  (1952).  The  Vegetation  of  British  Guiana:  A  Preliminary  Review. 

Institute  Paper  No.  29,  Imperial  Forestry  Institute,  Oxford.  95  pp. 
Maguire,  B.  (1970).  On  the  flora  of  the  Guayana  Highland.  Biotropica  lil):  85-100. 


Haiti 


The  western  third  of  the  island  of  Hispaniola,  bordered  by  the  Dominican  Republic;  three 
quarters  mountainous. 

Area  27,749  sq.  km 

Population  6,419,000 

Floristics  No  figures  for  Haiti;  Hispaniola  has  an  estimated  5000  species:  7 
gymnosperms,  1087  monocotyledons  and  3900  dicotyledons;  with  1800  endemic  species 
(Liogier,  1984). 

Vegetation  Vegetation  greatly  modified;  what  remains  is  similar  to  that  of  the 
neighbouring  Dominican  Republic;  only  a  few  pine  forests  survive  at  the  higher  ahitudes 
and  also  small  areas  of  mahogany,  rosewood  and  cedar;  alpine  vegetation  above  1463  m; 
coastal  mangrove;  estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  12  sq. 
km/annum,  out  of  a  total  of  360  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981);  earlier  FAO  figures  estimate 
only  1.8%  forested  (FAO,  1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  For  Haiti  see: 

Barker,  H.D.  and  Dardeau,  W.S.  (1930).  Flore  d'Haiti.  Service  technique  de  la 
Departement  de  L'Agriculture  et  L'Enseignment  professionel.  Port-au-Prince. 
456  pp.  (Angiosperms  only;  keys  to  genera;  species  mostly  listed.) 

The  following  works  refer  to  Hispaniola: 

157 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Liogier,  A.H.  (1982,  1983).  La  Flora  de  la  Espanola.  2  vols  published,  the  third  in 

press.  San  Pedro  de  Macon's.  317  pp.,  420  pp.,  illus. 
Moscoso,  R.M.  (1943).  Catalogus  Florae  Domingensis.  New  York.  732  pp.  (In  Spanish; 

checklist  of  gymnosperms  and  flowering  plants.  Includes  reports  from  Haiti  as  well 

as  Dominican  Republic.) 

Also  relevant: 

Jimenez,  J.  de  J.  (1963-1967).  Suplemento  no.  1  al  Catalogus  Florae  Domingensis  del 

Prof.  Rafael  M.  Moscoso.  Archiv.  Bot.  Biogeogr.  Ital.  39:  81-132;  40:  54-149;  41: 

47-87;  42:  46-97  and  107-129;  43:  1-18. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1976).  Novitates  Antillanae.  VII.  Plantas  nuevas  de  la  Espanola. 

Moscosoa  1(1):  16-49. 
Urban,  I.  (1922-1932).  Plantae  Haitienses  novae  vel  rariores  a  cl  Er.  L.  Ekman  1917 

lectae.  Arkiv  for  Botanik  17(7)-24A(4),  series  of  ten  papers.  Uppsala.  (In  German.) 
Urban,   I.   (1920,    1921).   Flora  domingensis.  Symbolae  Antillanae  8(1):    1-480;  8(2): 

481-860. 

The  botanical  journal  Moscosoa  includes  reports  of  new  taxa,  of  new  records  and  other 
papers  on  the  flora  and  vegetation  of  the  Dominican  Republic  and  Haiti.  It  is  published  by 
the  Jardin  Botanico  Nacional  'Dr  Rafael  M.  Moscoso',  Apdo  21-9,  Santo  Domingo. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  list  or  report.  Threatened  plant 
conservation  is  discussed  in: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Conservation  and  the  endangered  species  of  plants  in  the 
Caribbean  islands.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  105-114. 

Additional  References 

Ekman,  E.L.  (1926).  Botanizing  in  Haiti.  U.S.  Naval  Med.  Bull.  24:  483-497.  Ekman 

also  wrote  accounts  (in  English)  of  the  Hispaniola  islands,  Tortue,  Navassa  and 

Gonave.  See  Arkiv  for  Botanik  22A(9):  1-61;  22A(16):  1-12  (both  in  1929)  and  Ark. 

Bot.  23A(6):  1-73  (1930). 
Holdridge,  D.R.  (1945).  A  brief  sketch  of  the  Flora  of  Hispaniola.  In  Verdoorn  F. 

(Ed.),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  76-78. 
Liogier,  A.H.  (1974).  Diccionario  botanico  de  nombres  vulgares  de  la  Espanola.  Jardin 

Botanico  Dr  R.  Moscoso,  Santo  Domingo.  813  pp. 
Liogier,  A.  (1984).  La  Flora  de  la  Espanola:  sus  principales  carat eristicas.  2da  Joranda 

Cientifica  Academia  de  Ciencias  de  la  Republica  Dominicana.  Santo  Domingo. 
Zanoni,  T.A.,  Long,  C.R.  and  Mckiernan,  G.  (1984).  Bibliografia  de  la  flora  y  de  la 

vegetacion  de  la  Isla  Espaiiola.  Moscosoa  3:  1-61.  (An  extensive  annotated 

bibliography  of  the  flora  and  the  vegetation  of  Hispaniola.) 


Hawaii 


A  group  of  volcanic  islands  in  the  central  Pacific  Ocean.  Hawaii  became  the  50th  State  of 
the  United  States  in  1959. 

Area  16,641  sq.  km 


158 


Hawaii 
Population  965,000  (1980  census,  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  About  950  vascular  plant  species  (P.H.  Raven,  1986,  pers.  comm., 
quoting  Wagner,  Herbst  and  Sohmer,  in  prep.),  most  endemic. 

Vegetation  Coastal  forest  of  Scaevola  and  Pandanus,  with  Santalum  between 
600-800  m;  lowland  dry  forest  with  Myoporum,  almost  entirely  cleared  for  cultivation, 
grazing  and  settlements;  upper  dry  forest,  mainly  open  Koa  {Acacia  koa)  woodland,  on 
lower  mountain  slopes  and  occasionally  on  mountain  ridges;  Ohia  {Metrosideros)  rain 
forest  -  the  richest  community  -  in  highland  areas  with  more  than  1750  mm  annual  rainfall 
(Carlquist,  1980).  All  the  larger  volcanic  islands,  except  Kahoolawe  and  Niihau,  retain 
some  natural  forests  in  uplands;  Hawaii  and  Maui  islands,  in  particular,  have  large  areas 
of  intact  rain  forest.  Small  patches  of  forest  ('kipukas')  have  been  isolated  by  lava  flows 
and  contain  many  endemics.  2  National  Parks  and  several  other  protected  areas  have  been 
established,  mostly  in  uplands. 

Checklists  and  Floras  A  new  Flora,  entitled  Manual  of  the  Flowering  Plants  of 
Hawai'i,  is  being  prepared  by  W.L.  Wagner,  D.R.  Herbst  and  S.H.  Sohmer  at  the  Bishop 
Museum,  Honolulu.  It  will  include  all  known  native  and  naturalized  alien  species,  with 
keys  and  descriptions  of  families,  genera  and  species;  introductory  chapters  to  cover 
vegetation.  Expected  publication  date  -  1988.  Published  works  are: 

Degener,  O.  and  I.  (1932- ).  Flora  Hawaiiensis  or  The  New  Illustrated  Flora  of  the 

Hawaiian  Islands.  J.  Pan-Pacific  Research  Institute,  Honolulu.  (7  loose-leaf 

fascicles,  each  dealing  with  c.  100  taxa.) 
Hillebrand,  W.F.  (1888).  Flora  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  Heidelberg.  673  pp. 

(According  to  Frodin,  treats  999  species.  Reprinted  1965,  by  Hafner,  New  York.) 
Rock,  J.F.  (1913).  The  Indigenous  Trees  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  Honolulu.  518  pp. 

(Revised  by  D.R.  Herbst,  1974;  Tuttle,  Rutland.) 
St  John,  H.  (1973).  List  and  Summary  of  the  Flowering  Plants  in  the  Hawaiian 

Islands.  Pacific  Tropical  Botanical  Garden,  Hawaii.  519  pp.  (Comprehensive 

checklist  with  distributions.) 

Field-guides  The  following  guides  contain  short  descriptive  accounts  and  colour 
photographs  of  c.  70  taxa,  including  introductions: 

Lamoureux,  C.H.  (1976).  Trailside  Plants  of  Hawaii's  National  Parks.  Hawaii  Natural 
History  Assoc,  and  U.S.  National  Parks  Service,  Hawaii.  78  pp. 

Merlin,  M.D.  (1976).  Hawaiian  Forest  Plants:  A  Hiker's  Guide.  Oriental  Publ.  Co., 
Honolulu.  68  pp. 

Merlin,  M.D.  (1977).  Hawaiian  Coastal  Plants  and  Scenic  Shorelines.  Oriental  Publ. 
Co.,  Honolulu.  68  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Hawaii  is  covered  in  the  Federal  U.S.  lists 
(U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  1980,  1983,  cited  under  United  States);  Ayensu  and 
DeFiUpps  (1978)  list  270  'Extinct',  646  'Endangered'  and  197  'Threatened'  taxa,  most  of 
which  are  endemic.  According  to  Wagner,  Herbst  and  Sohmer  (in  prep.),  about  10%  of 
the  native  flora  is  presumed  extinct  and  about  40%  threatened  (P.H.  Raven,  1986,  in 
litt.).  Publications  specifically  on  Hawaiian  threatened  plants  are: 

Fosberg,  F.R.  and  Herbst,  D.  (1975).  Rare  and  endangered  species  of  Hawaiian 
vascular  plants.  Allertonia  1(1).  72  pp.  (Estimates  70%  of  flora  is  threatened;  lists 
1186  taxa,  of  which  273  'extinct',  800  'endangered'.) 


159 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Kimura,  B.Y.  and  Nagata,  K.M.  (1980).  Hawaii's  Vanishing  Flora.  Oriental  Publ.  Co., 

Honolulu.  88  pp. 
St  John,  H.  and  Corn,  C.A.  (1981).  Rare  Endemic  Plants  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands, 

Book  1 .  Dept  of  Land  and  Natural  Resources,  Div.  of  Forestry  and  Wildlife, 

Honolulu.  (68  threatened  taxa  giving  status  and  threats.) 

5  species  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics: 
endemic  taxa  -  Ex:62,  E:830,  V:45,  R:66;  1:784,  K:28.  This  is  the  highest  recorded  number 
of  Extinct  and  Endangered  taxa  for  any  country  in  the  world,  let  alone  an  island  group  the 
size  of  Hawaii,  but  has  not  yet  been  brought  into  line  with  the  new  Flora. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  See  under  United  States. 

Voluntary  Organizations  See  under  United  States.  The  Nature  Conservancy 
(TNC)  has  a  particularly  active  programme  in  Hawaii.  Local  address: 

The  Nature  Conservancy  of  Hawaii,  1026  Nuuanu  Avenue,  Suite  201,  Honolulu, 
Hawaii  96817. 

Botanic  Gardens  The  principal  gardens  are: 

Foster  Botanic  Garden,  50  N.  Vineyard  Boulevard,  Honolulu,  Hawaii  96817. 
Harold  L.  Lyon  Arboretum,  University  of  Hawaii,  3860  Manoa  Road,  Honolulu, 

Hawaii  96822. 
Pacific  Tropical  Botanic  Garden,  P.O.  Box  340,  Lawai,  Kauai,  Hawaii  96765. 
Waimea  Arboretum  and  Botanical  Garden,  Park  Office,  59-864  Kamehameha 

Highway,  Haleiwa,  Oahu,  Hawaii  96712. 

A  Checklist  of  Hawaiian  Endemic.  Indigenous,  Food  Plants  and  Polynesian  Introductions 
in  Cultivation  in  Hawaii  was  compiled  in  1983  at  the  Waimea  Arboretum  and  Botanical 
Garden  for  the  Council  of  Botanical  Gardens  and  Arboreta,  and  published  by  the  Waimea 
Arboretum  Foundation.  It  lists  Hawaiian  plants  in  cultivation  in  Hawaiian  collections.  It 
adds  the  following  gardens  to  those  listed  above: 

Amy  Green  well  Ethnobotanical  Garden,  Hawaii. 

Kapalua  Botanic  Garden,  Maui. 

Keanae  Arboretum,  Maui,  Hawaii. 

Koko  Crater  Botanic  Garden,  Oahu. 

Lo'i  Botanic  Garden,  Oahu. 

Maui  Zoo  and  Botanical  Garden,  Maui,  Hawaii. 

Wahiawa  Botanic  Garden,  Oahu. 

Waikamoi  Arboretum,  Maui,  Hawaii. 

Index  of  threatened  plants  in  cuhivation: 

Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1985).  The  Botanic 
Gardens  List  of  Rare  and  Threatened  Plants  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  Botanic 
Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body,  Report  No.  14.  lUCN,  Kew.  21  pp. 
(Lists  274  rare  and  threatened  endemic  taxa,  reported  in  cultivation,  with  gardens 
listed  for  each.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Endangered  Species  Office,  U.S.  Fish  and  Wildlife  Service,  300  Ala  Moana  Boulevard, 

P.O.  Box  50167,  Honolulu,  Hawaii  96850. 
Hawaii  State  Department  of  Forestry  and  Wildlife,  1179  Punchbowl  Street,  Honolulu 

96813. 

160 


i 


Hawaii 

Additional  References 

Carlquist,  S.  (1965),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (Origin,  evolution  and  adaptations  of  plants 

and  animals.) 
Carlquist,  S.  (1974),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (Dispersal  and  evolution  of  plants  and 

animals;  separate  chapter  on  flora.) 
Carlquist,  S.  (1980).  Hawaii:  A  Natural  History,  2nd  Ed.  Pacific  Tropical  Botanical 

Garden,  Honolulu.  468  pp.  (Geology,  fauna,  vegetation  types.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.  (1975).  The  deflowering  of  Hawaii.  National  Parks  and  Conservation 

Mag.  49(10):  4-10. 
Kay,  E.A.  (1972).  A  Natural  History  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands:  Selected  Readings.  Univ. 

of  Hawaii,  Honolulu.  653  pp.  (Covers  physical  geography,  flora,  fauna.  See  in 

particular  F.R.  Fosberg  on  the  derivation  of  the  flora,  pp.  396-408;  H.  St  John  on 

endemism,  pp.  517-519.) 


Honduras 

Area  112,087  sq.  km 

Population  4,232,000 

Floristics  An  estimated  5000  species  of  vascular  plants  (Gentry,  1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  148  endemic  species  (lUCN  figures). 

Vegetation  Tropical  moist  forest,  covering  slightly  less  than  half  the  country's 
forested  area;  the  remainder  mainly  coniferous  forest;  other  vegetation  types  include 
montane  wet  forests,  moist  subtropical  forests,  wet  tropical  forests  and  cloud  forests. 
According  to  FAO/UNEP  (1981),  estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved 
forest  480  sq.  km/annum  out  of  18,550  sq.  km;  Myers  (1980),  presumably  including  the 
coniferous  forests,  records  70,500  sq.  km  as  forested  according  to  "recent  government 
documentation",  of  which  "rather  more  than  40,000  sq.  km"  are  moist  forests,  mostly  in 
the  eastern  part  of  the  country  and  including  the  relict  Mosquitia  forest. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Honduras  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericanc  Project, 
described  in  Appendix  1,  as  well  as  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  Also  "most  plants"  of  Honduras  are  included  in  the 
completed  Flora  of  Guatemala  and  related  articles  in  Fieldiana,  outlined  under 
Guatemala.  Floras  and  papers  specifically  on  Honduras  include: 

Gilmartin,  A.J.  (1965).  Las  Bromeliacias  de  Honduras.  Ceiba  11(2):  1-81.  (97  species 

listed.) 
Molina,  A.  (1975).  Enumeracion  de  las  plantas  de  Honduras.  Ceiba  19(1):  1-118.  (List 

of  species  names;  no  information  on  each.) 
Nelson,  C.  (1976-1979).  Plantas  nuevas  para  la  flora  de  Honduras,  I-lll.  Ceiba  20: 

58-68;  21:  51-55;  23:  85-92. 
Nelson,  C.  (1978).  Contribuciones  a  la  Flora  de  la  Mosquitia,  Honduras.  Ceiba  22(1): 

41-64.  (338  species  listed.) 
Record,  S.J.  (1927).  Trees  of  Honduras.  Trop.  Woods  10:  10-47.  (Description  of  trees 

and  their  uses.) 
Standley,  P.C.  (1930).  A  second  list  of  the  Trees  of  Honduras.  Trop.  Woods  21:  9-41. 

(c.  480  species  listed.) 

161 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Standley,  P.C.  (1931).  Flora  of  the  Lancetilla  Valley,  Honduras.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.. 

Bot.  Ser.  10:  1-418.  (Description  of  habitats  and  annotated  list  of  species  for  the 

Tela  area.) 
Standley,  P.C.  (1934).  Additions  to  the  Trees  of  Honduras.  Trop  Woods  37:  27-39.  (55 

species  listed.) 
Yuncker,  T.G.  (1938).  A  contribution  to  the  Flora  of  Honduras.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist., 

Bot.  Ser.  17(4):  287-407.  (List  of  species  for  the  Tela  area  and  also  Siguatepeque.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN  is 
preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  list  of  rare, 
threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this 
work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:2,  V:5,  R:5,  1:8,  K:124,  nt:3;  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  V:7,  R:5,  1:2  (world  categories). 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in: 

D'Arcy,  W.G.  (1977).  Endangered  landscapes  in  Panama  and  Central  America:  the 
threat  to  plant  species.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  89-104. 

Stolze,  R.G.  (1979).  Ferns  new  and  rare  in  Honduras.  Brenesia  16:  139-141.  (5  new 
records  to  the  flora;  3  species  found  to  be  rare.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  information.  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined 
Abies  guatemalensis  (El  Salvador,  Guatemala,  Honduras  and  Mexico)  as  'Threatened' 
under  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Escuela  Agricola  Panamericana,  El  Zamorano,  Francisco  Morazan. 
Jardi'n  Botanico,  Lancetilla,  Tela. 

Useful  Addresses 

Asociacion  Hondurena  de  Ecologia  para  la  Conservacion  de  la  Naturaleza,  Apto  T-250, 

Tegucigalpa  D.C. 
Departamento  de  Biologfa,  Universidad  Nacional  Autonoma  de  Honduras,  Ciudad 

Universitaria,  Tegucigalpa. 
Departamento  de  Vida  Silvestre,  Direccion  General  de  Recursos  Naturales  Renovables 

(DIGERENARE),  Secretaria  de  Recursos  Naturales,  Tegucigalpa,  D.C. 
Herbario  Paul  C.  Standley,  Escuela  Agricola  Panamericana,  Apto  93,  Tegucigalpa. 

Additional  References 

Campanella,  P.  et  al.  (1982).  Honduras.  Perfil  Ambiental  del  Pais.  Un  estudio  de 

Campo.  Resumen  Ejecutivo.  AID  Contract  No.  AID/SOD/PDC-C-0247.  JRB 

Associates.  McLean,  U.S.A.  201  pp. 
Holdridge,  L.R.  (1962).  Mapa  Ecologico  de  Honduras.  Organizacion  de  los  Estados 

Americanos.  Lith.  A.  Hoen  &  Co.,  Baltimore,  Md,  U.S.A. 
Molina,  A.  (1974).  Vegetacion  del  Valle  de  Comayagua.  Ceiba  18:  47-80. 
Yuncker,  T.G.  (1945).  The  vegetation  of  Honduras.  In  Verdoorn,  F.  (Ed.),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  55-56.  (Short  descriptive  account.) 


162 


Hong  Kong 


Hong  Kong  consists  of  the  New  Territories  to  the  south  of  the  Chinese  province  of 
Guangdong,  and  more  than  200  islands,  one  of  which  is  Hong  Kong  Island.  Rugged  hills 
comprise  much  of  the  territory;  the  highest  peaks  include  Tai  Mo  Shan  (957  m),  Lantau 
Peak  (934  m)  and  Kowloon  Peak  (602  m).  More  than  80%  of  the  population  live  in  urban 
areas  covering  only  20%  of  the  land  area. 

Area  1062  sq.  km 

Population  5,498,000 

Floristics  About  2500  vascular  plant  species  of  which  about  1800  taxa  are  native 
(Hong  Kong  Herbarium,  1978);  species  endemism  perhaps  as  low  as  1%  (C.C.  Lay,  1984, 
in  litt.).  Many  species  are  also  found  in  south  China,  India,  Japan,  Taiwan  and  Vietnam. 

Vegetation  Semi-deciduous  broadleaved  forest  throughout  Hong  Kong  has  been 
greatly  modified  by  man;  remnants  on  steep  ravines,  hillsides  and  around  some  villages 
and  temples,  particularly  in  the  New  Territories;  scrubland  and  exotic  plantations  also 
found  on  hill  slopes;  grassland  on  hilltops  especially  on  many  offshore  islands  (Hong  Kong 
Herbarium,  1978). 

Ciiecklists  and  Floras 

Bentham,  G.  (1861).  Flora  Hongkongensis:  A  Description  of  the  Flowering  Plants  and 
Ferns  of  the  Island  of  Hongkong.  Reeve,  London.  482  pp.  (The  only  comprehensive 
Flora,  but  rather  dated;  for  additions  see  the  Supplement  by  H.F.  Hance,  1872, 
London,  59  pp.) 

Edie,  H.H.  (1978).  Ferns  of  Hong  Kong.  Hong  Kong  Univ.  Press.  285  pp. 

Hong  Kong  Herbarium  (1978).  Check  List  of  Hong  Kong  Plants.  Dept  of  Agriculture 
and  Fisheries  Bulletin  no.  1  (revised).  Govt  Printer,  Hong  Kong.  (Checklist  of  2502 
vascular  species,  including  introductions.) 

Field-guides 

Thrower,  S.L.  (1971).  Plants  of  Hong  Kong.  Longman,  Hong  Kong.  192  pp. 
Urban  Services  Department  (1975,  1977).  Hong  Kong  Trees,  2  vols.  Govt  Printer, 

Hong  Kong. 
Urban  Services  Department  (1976).  Hong  Kong  Herbs  and  Vines.  (Revised  Edition.) 

Govt  Printer,  Hong  Kong.  114  pp. 
Urban  Services  Department  (1976).  Hong  Kong  Shrubs,  2nd  Ed.  Govt  Printer,  Hong 

Kong.  112  pp. 
Urban  Services  Department  (1978).  Hong  Kong  Freshwater  Plants.  Govt  Printer,  Hong 

Kong.  89  pp. 
Urban  Services  Department  (1980).  Hong  Kong  Orchids.  Govt  Printer,  Hong  Kong. 

108  pp. 
Walden,  B.M.  and  Hu,  S.Y.  (1977).  Wild  Flowers  of  Hong  Kong  Around  the  Year. 

Sino-American  Publ.  Co.,  Hong  Kong.  83  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  list  of  threatened  plants. 
Ailanthus  fordii.  Camellia  crapnelliana  and  C.  granthamiana  are  included  in  The  lUCN 
Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  All  wild  plants  are  protected  by  law.  Written  permission 
from  the  Director  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries  is  needed  for  the  collection  of  any  wild 
plants  from  unleased  Crown  land.  Special  protection  is  given  to  "threatened"  plants 

163 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

which  include  Camellia  spp.,  Rhododendron  spp.,  Magnolia  spp.,  and  all  orchids  (C.C. 
Lay,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Voluntary  Organizations 

WWF-Hong  Kong,  10th  Floor,  Wing  on  Life  Building,  22  Des  Voeux  Road,  Central, 
Hong  Kong. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Hong  Kong  Zoological  and  Botanic  Gardens,  Urban  Services  Department,  Hong  Kong. 

(Offices  at  12th  Floor,  Central  Government  Offices,  West  Wing,  11  Ice  House 

Street,  Hong  Kong.) 
Kadoorie  Experimental  and  Extension  Farms  and  Botanic  Gardens  (Kadoorie 

Agricultural  Aid  Association),  Lam  Kam  Road,  Tai  Po,  New  Territories,  Hong 

Kong. 
Ocean  Park  Botanic  Garden,  Aberdeen,  Hong  Kong. 

Useful  Addresses 

Agriculture  and  Fisheries  Department,  12th  Floor,  Government  Offices,  393  Canton 

Road,  Kowloon,  Hong  Kong. 
Department  of  Biology,  CUHK,  Shatin,  New  Territories,  Hong  Kong. 
Department  of  Botany,  Hong  Kong  University,  Pokfulam,  Hong  Kong. 


Hungary 

Area  93,032  sq.  km 

Population  10,786,000 

Floristics  c.  2300-2500  vascular  species,  of  which  40-45  are  endemic  (F.  Nemeth, 
1984,  pers.  comm.);  11  endemics  according  to  lUCN  figures.  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1)  estimates  2250-2450  native  vascular  species  from  Flora  Europaea.  Rich  in 
Tertiary  and  Pleistocene  relicts.  Areas  of  high  endemism:  the  Central  Hungarian  Mts  and 
the  Carpathian  range.  Elements:  Mediterranean  c.  35%,  Eurasian  c.  23%,  Central 
European  c.  16%  (including  North  Carpathian,  Pannonian  and  Balkan),  Atlantic,  sub- 
Mediterranean  and  alpine  (Nemeth,  1979;  Nemeth  and  Seregelyes,  n.d.). 

Vegetation  Much  of  natural  vegetation  replaced  by  agriculture,  especially  on  the 
central  Great  Hungarian  Plain;  semi-natural  vegetation  restricted  to  c.  10%.  4  main 
vegetation  types  still  apparent:  (a)  mountain  bog  on  peat  with  sedges  and  rushes  (Carex, 
Eriophorum);  (b)  mountain  meadows  rich  in  grass  species  (especially  Festuca,  Poa,  and 
Bromus);  (c)  steppe  or  'puszta',  an  alkaline  and  very  saline  grassland  rich  in  annuals;  (d) 
broadleaved  and  coniferous  woodland.  Scots  Pine  {Pinus  sylvestris)  forms  extensive  stands 
in  western  Hungary,  together  with  beech  and  hornbeam/oak  forests  on  dry  grasslands  and 
rocky  steppes  in  the  lowlands  (e.g.  Szatmar-Bereg  Plain  in  the  Bodrog  and  Kiskun  areas) 
(Vajda,  1956;  Nemeth  and  Seregelyes,  n.d.). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Hungary  is  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea 
(Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  National  Floras  are: 

Jivorka,  S.  and  Csapody,  V.  (1929-1934).  A  Magyar  Fldra  Kipekben:  Iconographia 
Florae  Hungaricae,  19  vols.  Studium,  Budapest. 

164 


Hungary 

So6,  R.  and  K^rpati,  Z.  (1968).  Magyar  F16ra:  Harasztok  (Pteridophytes)  Viragos 
Novenyek  (Anthophytes).  In  Ndv^nyhatdrozd,  4th  Ed.  Tank6nyvkiad6,  Budapest. 
846  pp.  (Illustrated  key  to  native,  naturalized  and  commonly  cultivated  vascular 
plants;  phytosociology  and  habitat  details.) 

See  also: 

Jivorka,  S.  and  Csapody,  V.  (1979).  Iconographia  Florae  Partis  Austro-orientalis 

Europae  Centralis,  revised  edition.  Fischer,  Stuttgart.  704  pp.  (Atlas  of  vascular 

plants  of  Hungary  and  neighbouring  areas;  illus.) 
So6,  R.  de  (1975).  Hauptergebnisse  der  Floristischen-Geobotanischen  und 

Systematischen    Forschungen   in    Hungarn,    1961-1972.   Mem.    Soc.    Brot.    24(2): 

599-613. 

Field-guides 

J^vorka,  S.  and  Csapody,  V.  (1972).  ErdO  MezO  Virdgai,  A  Magyar  Flora  Szines 
Kisatlasza.  Mezogazdasagi  Kiad6,  Budapest.  246  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Recently  published  national  plant  Red  Data 
Book: 

Nemeth,  F.  and  Seregelyes,  T.  (n.d.).  HUte  die  Blumen.  Hungarian  State  Office  for 
Environment  and  Nature  Conservation,  with  MTI  Publishing,  Budapest.  127  pp. 
(Includes  distribution  and  conservation  data  for  52  rare  and  threatened  taxa;  lists 
over  300  protected  taxa;  maps;  English  edition  {Save  the  Wild  Flowers:  Some 
Rarities  Growing  in  Hungary);  also  in  German;  colour  photographs;  line  drawings.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -E:1,V:8,R:1, 
1:1;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:l,  V:13,  R:5, 1:4  (world  categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Decree  on  Nature  Conservation  (1982)  and  Ordinance 
No.l  (1982)  provides  protection  for  172  plant  taxa,  24  genera  and  2  families.  The  1982  Act 
is  published  in: 

Anon  (1983).  Nature  Conservation  Legislation  in  Hungary.  National  Authority  for 
Environment  Protection  and  Nature  Conservation,  Budapest.  55  pp.,  5  annexes. 
(Annexes  1  and  3  list  protected  and  specially  protected  plant  species.) 

See  also: 

Borhidi,  A.  and  J^nossy,  D.  (1984).  Protected  Plants  and  Animals  in  Hungary.  Ambio 

13(2):  106.  ^^ 

Csapody,  I.  (1982).  VMett  N6v4nyeink  (Our  protected  plants).  Gondolat,  Budapest. 

346  pp.  (In  Hungarian;  black  and  white  photographs  and  colour  drawings.) 

Botanic  Gardens 

Agrobotanic  Garden,  University  of  Agricultural  Sciences,  2103  GddOlld. 
Botanic  Garden  of  the  Hungarian  Academy  of  Sciences,  2163  Vacratot. 
Budapest  Fdvaros  Allat-es  NOvenykertje,  Varosliget,  1371  Budapest  XIV. 
Erdeszeti  es  Faipari  Egyetem  Botanikus  Kertjke,  9401  Sopron. 
Hortus  Botanicus,  Instituti  Plantarum  Medicinalium,  2011  Budakalasz,  Pf  11. 
Institutum  Botanicum  et  Hortus  Botanicus,  1502  Budapest  pf53,  1118  Budapest  XI, 

Menesi  UT44. 
Kamoni  Arboretum,  Institutum  Scientiarum  Silviculturae  Hungariae,  VOrOszaszlo  u 

102,  9707  Szombathely. 

165 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Research  Centre  for  Agrobotany,  NIAVT,  2766  Tapioszele. 

Soroks^r  Botanical  Garden,  Budapest. 

Szarvas  Arboretum,  5540  Szarvas. 

University  of  Budapest  Botanical  Garden,  Illes  Utca  25,  1083  Budapest. 

Useful  Addresses 

Department  of  Nature  Conservation,  Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Food,  Kossathajostev 

11,  1860  Budapest  5. 
Hungarian  State  Office  for  Environmental  and  Nature  Conservation,  Orszcigos 

Termeszetvedelmi  Hivatal,  Kolto  utca  21,  1121  Budapest. 
National  Office  for  Nature  Conservation,  Tulipan  Koz  10,  9400  Sopron. 

Additional  References 

Nemeth,  F.  (1979).  The  vascular  flora  and  vegetation  on  the  SzabadszAll^s-FiilopszdlMs 
territory  of  the  Kiskunsig  National  Park  (KNP),  I.  Stud.  Bot.  Hungarica  13: 
79-105.  (In  English;  checklist  of  vascular  plants  in  the  National  Park;  includes 
valuable  table  showing  phytogeograhical  composition  of  entire  Hungarian  flora.) 

So6,  R.  (1964-1980).  A  Magyar  Fldra  4s  Vegetdcid  Rendszertani-Nov^nyfOldrajzi 
K^zikdnyve,  6  vols.  Akademiai  Kiad6,  Budapest.  (A  systematic  geobotanical  work; 
detailed  phytosociological  classification;  includes  bryophytes.) 

Vajda,  E.  (1956).  A  Magyar  Nov^nyvildg  K4pesk6nyve.  English  translation  by  E.  Racz 
{Wild  Flowers  in  Hungary:  The  Origin  and  Development  of  Plant  Communities). 
Corvina,  Budapest.  49  pp.  (Illus.) 


Iceland 

Area  102,819  sq.  km 

Population  239,000 

Floristies  c.  470  species  of  indigenous  and  naturalized  vascular  plants,  of  which 
nearly  20%  believed  introduced  by  man  during  the  past  1100  years  (Einarsson,  1984,  in 
litt.).  1  endemic  species  (lUCN  figure).  Elements:  circumpolar;  amphi-atlantic  (plants 
distributed  almost  equally  on  both  sides  of  the  Atlantic);  eastern  element;  and  western  or 
American  element  (Einarsson,  in  litt.). 

Vegetation  Original  spruce  and  birch  forests  once  occupied  coastal  areas  up  to 
400  m;  now  completely  cleared  due  to  extensive  sheep  grazing.  Today  forest  occupies  only 
c.  1250  sq.  km  in  the  more  sheltered  lowland  valleys  where  willow,  birch  and  rowan 
(Sorbus  aucuparia)  survive.  Arctic/alpine  tundra  in  centre  and  north  of  country,  with 
dwarf  shrubs  {Juniperus,  Betula  nana  and  Arctostaphylos).  Elsewhere,  large  areas  of 
almost  bare  rock,  gravel  and  sand,  sparsely  colonized  by  mosses,  lichens  and  vascular 
plants.  Extensive  wetlands,  but  many  in  the  lowlands  now  drained. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Iceland  is  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin 
et  al.  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  There  is  no  up-to-date  national  Flora.  The  most 
recent  account  is: 

Grontved,  J.  (1942).  The  Pteridophyta  and  Spermatophyta  of  Iceland.  In  Rosenvinge, 
L.K.  et  al.  (Eds),  The  Botany  of  Iceland  (cited  under  'Additional  References'). 


166 


Iceland 

(Detailed  introduction  about  vegetation,  phytogeography,  botanical  exploration  and 
research;  in  English.) 

Also  relevant: 

Kristinsson,  H.  (1973-1978).  Recent  literature  on  the  botany  of  Iceland.  Acta  Bot. 

Islandica  2:  67-76;  3:  102-104;  4:  67-74;  5:  63-70. 
Love,  A.  (1963).  Taxonomic  botany  in  Iceland  since  1945.  Webbia  18:  277-301. 
Love,  A.  (1970).  Emendations  in  the  Icelandic  flora.  Taxon  19(2):  298-302. 

Field-guides 

Love,  A.  (1981).  Islenzk  Ferdaflora,  2nd  Ed.  Almenna  Bokafelagid,  Reykavik.  429  pp. 

(In  Icelandic;  lists  protected  species;  colour  plates;  English  edition,  1983.) 
Ostenfeld,  C.H.  and  Grontved,  J.  (1934).  The  Flora  of  Iceland  and  the  Faeroes.  Levin 

and  Munksgaard,  Copenhagen.  195  pp.  (Standard  English  Flora  of  Iceland.) 
Stefansson,  S.  (1948).  Flora  Islands,  3rd  Ed.  by  S.  Steindorsson.  Islenzka 

Nattiirufraedifelag,  Akureyri.  407  pp.  (In  Icelandic.) 
Wolseley,  P.  (1979).  A  Field  Key  to  the  Flowering  Plants  of  Iceland.  Thule  Press, 

Sandwick,  Shetland.  64  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  plant  Red  Data  Book.  An  unpublished 
threatened  plant  list  has  been  prepared  for  the  Council  of  Europe  by  the  Nature 
Conservation  Council  and  the  Department  of  Botany  in  the  Icelandic  Museum  of  Natural 
History  (addresses  below).  44  taxa  are  listed. 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  R:l;  non- 
endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  none. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Nature  Conservation  Act  1956,  amended  1971, 
provides  protection  for  plant  species  in  Article  23,  which  states,  "The  Nature 
Conservation  Council  can  declare  the  protection  of  scientifically  or  culturally  important 
plants  or  animals  in  order  to  prevent  their  disturbance,  decrease  or  extinction.  Protection 
can  be  applied  locally  or  to  the  whole  country."  At  present  31  taxa  of  vascular  plants  are 
protected  in  the  whole  country.  It  is  absolutely  forbidden  to  pick  the  leaves  or  flowers, 
uproot  or  damage  any  of  these  plants.  For  the  list  of  protected  plants  see  Love  (1981). 

Voluntary  Organizations  None  relate  specifically  to  plants  but  the  main  nature 
conservation  organizations  are: 

Icelandic  Association  of  Nature  Conservation  Societies,  Sundstraeti  24,  400  Isafjordur. 
Icelandic  Environment  Union,  Sk61av6rdustig^25,  101  Reykjavik. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Grasagardur  Reyjavikur  (Botanic  Gardens  of  Reykjavik),  Skulatun  2,  105  Reykjavik. 
Lystigardur  Akureyrar  (Botanic  Section,  Public  Gardens  of  Akureyri),  Hafnarstraeti 
81,  P.O.  Box  95,  600  Akureyri. 

Useful  Addresses 

Icelandic  Museum  of  Natural  History,  P.O.  Box  5320,  125  Reykjavik. 

Institute  of  Biology,  University  of  Iceland,  Grensasvegur  12. 

Landvernd  (Icelandic  Environment  Union),  Skolavordustigur  25,  101  Reykjavik. 

Museum  of  Natural  History,  P.O.  Box  580,  602  Akureyri. 

Nature  Conservation  Council,  Hverfisgata  26,  101  Reykjavik. 


167 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Additional  References 

Love,  A.  and  D.  (1956).  Cytotaxonomical  conspectus  of  the  Icelandic  Flora.  Acta 
Horti  Gotoburgensis  20(4):  65-291. 

Rosenvinge,  L.K.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1912-1949).  The  Botany  of  Iceland,  5  vols,  9  parts. 
J.  Frimodt  and  E.  Munksgaard,  Copenhagen.  (1  and  2  -  physical  geography, 
diatoms,  bryophytes;  3  -  vegetation  studies,  fungi,  genus  Taraxacum,  by  J. 
Grontved;  4  -  pteridophytes,  spermatophytes,  habitat  accounts;  5  -  flora  of 
Reykjanes  Peninsula,  south-west  Iceland,  by  J.  Grontved  and  E.  Hadac.) 


India 


Area  3,166,828  sq.  km 

Population  746,742,(X)0 

Floristics  An  estimated  15,000  vascular  plant  species  (Botanical  Survey  of  India, 
1983b)  including  c.  600  pteridophytes.  About  5000  endemic  vascular  plant  species;  c.  140 
endemic  genera,  but  no  endemic  families.  Areas  rich  in  endemism  are  north-east  India,  the 
southern  parts  of  peninsular  India,  the  Western  Ghats  and  the  north-western  and  eastern 
Himalayas.  Tropical  S.E.  Asian  and  Malayan  elements  comprise  c.  35%  of  the  flora;  also 
temperate  Asian  elements  (8%),  Mediterranean-Iranian  elements  (5%)  (Nayar,  1977). 

Vegetation  Tropical  moist  deciduous  or  monsoon  forests  are  the  natural 
vegetation  cover  over  much  of  India  between  the  Himalayas,  Thar  and  Western  Ghats. 
Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest  up  to  1200  m,  in  north-east,  and  along  seaward  side  of  the 
Western  Ghats  in  the  States  of  Maharashtra,  Karnataka,  Tamil  Nadu  and  Kerala,  mostly 
cleared  below  500  m;  mangrove  forests  most  extensive  along  the  south  coast  of  West 
Bengal,  particularly  the  Sunderban  region;  tropical  semi-evergreen  forests  and  subtropical 
broadleaved  hill  forest  below  1500  m  on  the  Himalayan  foothills  of  Assam,  and  in  the 
Western  Ghats.  Tropical  dry  deciduous  forest  with  Teak  (Tectona  grandis)  and  tropical 
moist  deciduous  forest  with  Sal  (Shorea  robusta)  in  central  and  northern  India  at 
450-600  m,  but  depleted;  extensive  areas  of  bamboo  forests,  especially  in  south.  Montane 
and  temperate  forests  grade  into  coniferous  forests  and  alpine  scrub  in  Himalayas  over 
3000  m.  Desert  or  near-desert  conditions  in  western  Rajasthan  and  Gujarat;  extensive 
thorn  scrub  in  Maharashtra,  Andra  Pradesh,  Karnataka  and  Tamil  Nadu. 

Much  of  India's  natural  vegetation  has  been  greatly  modified  by  various  forms  of 
agriculture,  forestry  and  urbanization.  Over  50%  of  the  land  area  is  cultivated,  with  rice 
the  most  important  crop.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  tropical 
forests  1320  sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  460,440  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 
However,  according  to  sources  quoted  in  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  only  as  little 
as  c.  260,000  sq.  km  can  be  considered  to  be  "adequately  stocked  forestlands", 
comprising  21,040  sq.  km  of  tropical  evergreen  rain  forest,  8340  sq.  km  of  semi-evergreen 
rain  forest,  102,000  sq.  km  of  tropical  moist  deciduous  forest  and  138,750  sq.  km  of 
tropical  dry  deciduous  forest.  All  forests,  particularly  moist  forest  types,  are  rapidly  being 
degraded  as  a  result  of  population  pressure  and  shifting  cultivation. 

See  Champion  and  Seth  (1968)  for  a  comprehensive  account  of  vegetation,  and  the 
summary  accounts  for  each  State  in  Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  (1977),  19(1-4).  336  pp. 


168 


India 

A  series  of  vegetation  maps  has  been  prepared  for  Peninsular  India  at  1:1,000,000, 
showing  degradation  status,  available  from  the  Scientific  Section,  French  Institute, 
Pondicherry,  India.  See  also: 

Anon  (1976).  Atlas  of  Forest  Resources  of  India.  National  Atlas  Organization, 

Calcutta.  (Major  forest  types  based  on  classification  of  Champion  and  Seth,  1968.) 

Checklists  and  Floras  India  is  covered  by  the  Flora  of  British  India  (Hooker, 
1872-1897),  and  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  Eastern  Himalaya  (1966,  1971,  1975),  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  The  Sikkim  Himalaya  is  included  in  Grierson  and  Long  (1980)  and 
(1983- ),  cited  under  Bhutan.  For  ferns  see  Beddome  (1892)  and  the  companion  volume  by 
Nayar  and  Kaur  (1972),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

A  national  Flora  is  being  published: 

Botanical  Survey  of  India  (1978- ).  Flora  of  India.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah. 
(18  fascicles  so  far,  most  covering  a  small  family  or  single  genus.) 

The  Flora  of  India  project  was  re-organized  in  1984  with  a  target  of  15-20  volumes  to  be 
published  over  a  period  of  15  years,  with  collaboration  between  the  Botanical  Survey  of 
India  and  the  Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew.  Each  volume  will  treat  c.  1000  species.  The 
Himalayas  will  be  covered  as  a  single  geographical  unit,  with  records  of  plants  found  in 
Bhutan,  Nepal  and  the  Sikkim  Himalayas.  A  checklist  of  c.  18,000  flowering  plant  taxa 
will  be  prepared  in  1986. 

There  are  many  Floras  at  State  and  regional  level.  Only  a  selection  are  cited  here.  For  a 
comprehensive  bibhography  see  the  proceedings  of  the  Symposium  on  Status  of  Floristic 
Studies  in  India  in  Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  (1977),  vol.  19.  336  pp.  The  Flora  Malesiana 
Bulletin,  cited  in  Appendix  1,  also  includes  a  bibliographic  section  covering  India.  Among 
the  more  recent  Floras  are  the  following: 

Bhandari,  M.M.  (1978).  Flora  of  the  Indian  Desert.  Scientific  Publishers,  Jodhpur. 

471  pp.  (Introduction  covers  physical  geography,  floristics  and  vegetation  of  the 

desert  areas  of  north-west  India;  592  species  treated.) 
Chowdhery,  H.J.  and  Wadhwa,  B.M.  (1984).  Flora  of  Himachal  Pradesh:  Analysis,  1. 

Flora  of  India,  Ser.  2.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  340  pp.  (Enumeration  of 

1202  flowering  plant  species,  including  Ranunculaceae  to  Capri foliaceae  (85 

families).  Covers  north-western  and  western  Himalayas;  notes  on  distributions.) 
Cooke,  T.  (1901-1903).  The  Flora  of  the  Presidency  of  Bombay,  3  vols.  London.  (1  - 

Ranunculaceae  to  Rubiaceae;  2  -  Elaeagnaceae  to  Gramineae;  3  -  Compositae  to 

Thymelaeaceae.  Reprinted  in  1958  by  the  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Calcutta.) 
Dhar,  U.  and  Kachroo,  P.  (1983).  Alpine  Flora  of  Kashmir  Him.alay a.  Scientific  Publ., 

Jodhpur.  280  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklists,  distribution  maps,  floristic 

analyses.) 
Haines,  H.H.  (1921-1925).  The  Botany  of  Bihar  and  Orissa,  6  parts.  Govt  of  Bihar  and 

Orissa.  (Reprinted  1961  by  the  Botanical  Survey  of  India.) 
Kanjilal,  U.N.  et  al.  (1934-1940).  Flora  of  Assam,  5  vols.  Shillong.  (Covers  mainly 

woody  species.) 
Maheshwari,  J.K.  (1963).  The  Flora  of  Delhi.  Council  of  Scientific  and  Industrial 

Research,  New  Dehli.  447  pp.  (Covers  478  out  of  a  total  of  531  indigenous  and 

naturalized  species  of  angiosperms.) 
Matthew,  K.M.  (1981-1983).  The  Flora  of  Tamilnadu  Carnatic,  3  vols.  Rapinat 

Herbarium,  Tiruchirapalli.  (1  -  Materials  for  the  Flora,  documentation  of  32,000 


169 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

vascular  plant  specimens;  notes  on  forest  types,  ethnobotany;  2  -  detailed  accounts 

of  2260  species;  3  -  illustrations.) 
Nair,  N.C.  (1977).  Flora  of  Bashahr  Himalayas.  International  Bioscience  Publications, 

Hissar.  360  pp.  (Enumeration  of  1629  species  of  angiosperms  and  gymnosperms 

found  between  650-6930  m  in  Kinaur  and  Mahasu  districts  of  Himachel  Pradesh.) 
Nair,  N.C.  and  Henry,  A.N.  (1983-  ).  Flora  of  Tamil  Nadu,  India.  Series  1:  Analysis, 

1.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Coimbatore.  (3  vols  planned  in  Series  1,  the  first 

includes  enumeration  of  c.  20(X)  angiosperms  covering  Ranunculaceae  to 

Sambucaceae;  economic  plants,  endemics,  rare  and  endangered  plants  indicated.) 
Puri,  G.S.,  Jain,  S.K.,  Mukherjee,  S.K.,  Sarup,  S.,  and  Kotwal,  N.N.  (1964).  Flora  of 

Rajasthan  -  West  of  the  Aravallis.  Rec.  Bot.  Survey  India  19(1).  159  pp.  (Covers 

750  species  in  90  families.) 
Raizada,  M.B.  (1976).  Supplement  to  Duthie's  'Flora  of  the  Upper  Gangetic  Plain  and 

the  Adjacent  Siwalik  and  Sub-Himalayan  Tracts'.  Bishen  Singh  Mahendra  Pal 

Singh,  Dehra  Dun.  355  pp. 
Rao,  R.R.  and  Razi,  B.A.  (1981).  A  Synoptic  Flora  of  Mysore  District.  International 

Bioscience  Series  7.  Today  and  Tomorrow's  Printers,  New  Delhi.  674  pp. 
Santapau,  H.  (1953).  The  flora  of  Khandala  on  the  Western  Ghats  of  India.  Rec.  Bot. 

Survey  India  16(1).  396  pp. 
Sharma,  B.M.  and  Kachroo,  P.  (1981).  Flora  of  Jammu  and  Plants  of  Neighbourhood, 

2  vols.  Bishen  Singh  Mahendra  Pal  Singh,  Dehra  Dun. 
Sharma,  S.  and  Tiagi,  B.  (1979).  Flora  of  North-East  Rajasthan.  Kalyani  Publishers, 

New  Dehli.  540  pp.  (Treats  612  species  of  flowering  plants  in  95  families.) 
Varma,  S.K.  (1981).  Flora  of  Bhagalpur:  Dicotyledons.  Today  and  Tomorrow's 

Printers.  414  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  In  1980,  a  5-year  Project  on  Study,  Survey 
and  Conservation  of  Endangered  Flora  (POSSCEF)  with  financial  support  from  the  U.S. 
Fish  and  Wildhfe  Service,  Washington,  D.C.,  was  initiated  in  the  Botanical  Survey  of 
India  (address  below).  Illustrated  accounts  and  lists  of  rare,  threatened  and  endemic 
species  are  in  preparation.  The  most  comprehensive  list  so  far  is: 

Botanical  Survey  of  India  (1983a).  Materials  For  a  Catalogue  of  Threatened  Plants  of 
India.  Dept  of  Environment,  Government  of  India,  Calcutta.  69  pp.  (Lists  c.  900 
rare  and  threatened  taxa  together  with  their  distributions.  Prepared  by  the 
POSSCEF  team  under  S.K.  Jain  for  the  lUCN  Plants  Programme.  Reviewed  in 
Threatened  Plants  Newsletter  12:  18  (1983),  where  H.  Synge  predicts  as  many  as 
3000-4000  Indian  plants  might  be  threatened  (see  also  ibid.  9:  1-3  (1982)). 

The  first  volume  of  a  Plant  Red  Data  Book  has  recently  been  published: 

Jain,  S.K.  and  Sastry,  A.R.K.  (Eds)  (1984).  Indian  Plant  Red  Data  Book,  I.  Calcutta. 
(Data  sheets  on  125  species,  with  illustrations.) 

POSSCEF  also  issues  a  Plant  Conservation  Bulletin,  edited  by  S.K.  Jain  and  A.FL.K 
Sastry,  containing  numerous  papers  on  threatened  plants;  in  particular  see: 

Hajra,  P.K.  (1983).  Rare,  threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  the  western  Himalayas  - 
monocotyledons.  Ibid.  4:  I-I3.  (Annotated  list  of  c.  1(X)  species.) 

Raghavan,  R.S.  and  Singh,  N.P.  (1983).  Endemic  and  threatened  plants  of  western 
India.  Ibid.  3:  1-16.  (Annotated  list  of  207  species.) 

Vajravelu,  E.  (1983).  Rare,  threatened  and  endemic  flowering  plants  of  South  India 
(Part  1).  Ibid.  4:  14-30.  (Annotated  list  of  212  species.) 


170 


India 

A  seminar  on  threatened  plants  of  India  was  organized  at  Dehra  Dun  in  September  1981. 
The  proceedings  have  been  published  in: 

Jain,  S.K.  and  Rao,  R.R.  (Eds)  (1983).  An  Assessment  of  Threatened  Plants  of  India. 
Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  334  pp.  (Includes  60  papers  presented  at  the 
seminar;  many  include  lists  of  threatened  plants  with  lUCN  categories  for  various 
regions.  See  for  example  N.C.  Shah  on  threatened  medicinal  plants  of  Uttar  Pradesh 
Himalaya,  pp.  40-49;  R.P.  Pandley  et  al.  on  threatened  plants  of  Rajasthan,  pp. 
55-62;  S.D.  Sabnis  and  K.S.S.  Rao  on  threatened  plants  in  south-east  Kutch,  pp. 
71-77;  R.R.  Rao  and  K.  Haridasan  on  threatened  plants  of  Meghalaya,  pp.  94-103; 
Sandhyajyoti  Das  and  N.C.  Deori  on  endemic  orchids  of  north-east  India,  pp. 
104-109;  S.K.  Kataki  on  rare  plants  in  the  Khasi  and  Jaintia  Hills,  pp.  146-150; 
A.R.K.  Sastry  and  P.K.  Hajra  on  rare  and  endemic  rhododendrons,  pp.  222-231; 
K.N.  Bahadur  and  S.S.  Jain  on  rare  bamboos,  pp.  263-271;  R.K.  Arora  and  E. 
Roshini  Nayar  on  the  distibution  of  wild  relatives  and  related  species  of  economic 
plants  in  India,  pp.  285-291.) 

Other  papers  and  publications  including  lists  are: 

Abraham,  Z.  and  Mehrotra,  B.N.  (1982).  Some  observations  on  endemic  species  and 

rare  plants  of  the  montane  flora  of  the  Nilgiris,  South  India.  J.  Econ.  Taxonomic 

Botany  3(3):  863-867.  (Lists  26  rare  endemics  and  2  rare  non-endemics.) 
Bahadur,  K.N.  and  Jain,  S.S.  (1981).  Rare  bamboos  of  India.  Indian  J.  Forestry  4(4): 

280-286.  (Preliminary  review  of  26  rare  bamboos.) 
Chandra,  P.  (1983).  Observations  on  the  rare  and  endangered  ferns  of  India.  New 

Botanist  10:  41-47.  (Lists  49  taxa;  notes  on  distribution  and  conservation  status.) 
Cook,  C.D.K.  (1980).  The  status  of  some  Indian  endemic  plants.  Threatened  Plants 

Committee  -  Newsletter  6:  17-18.  (Mentions  5  threatened  wetland  species.) 
Henry,  A.N.,  Vivekananthan,  K.  and  Nair,  N.C.  (1978).  Rare  and  threatened  flowering 

plants  of  south  India.  J.  Bombay  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  75(3):  684-697.  (Lists  224 

angiosperms.) 
Jain,  S.K.  and  Sastry,  A.R.K.  (1980).  Threatened  Plants  of  India:  A  State-of-t he-Art 

Report.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  48  pp.  (Short  accounts  of  134  species, 

many  with  colour  photographs;  reviewed  at  some  length  in  Threatened  Plants 

Committee  -  Newsletter  6:  15-16  (1980).) 
Kataki,  S.K.  (1976).  Indian  orchids  -  a  note  on  conservation.  American  Orchid  Soc. 

Bull.  46(2):  117-121.  (Lists  threatened  orchids.) 
Kataki,  S.K.,  Jain,  S.K.  and  Sastry,  A.R.K.  (1984).  Threatened  and  Endemic  Orchids 

of  Sikkim  and  North-eastern  India.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  95  pp. 

(Descriptions,  distributions,  illustrations  of  over  1(X)  species.) 
Sahni,  K.C.  (1979).  Endemic,  relict,  primitive  and  spectacular  taxa  in  eastern 

Himalayan  flora  and  strategies  for  their  conservation.  Indian  J.  Forestry  2(2): 

181-190.  (Mentions  30  taxa  rare  or  threatened  in  the  Himalayan  region;  notes  on 

vegetation.) 
Santapau,  H.  (1970).  Endangered  plant  species  and  their  habitats.  In  lUCN,  Uth 

Technical  Meeting  Papers  and  Proceedings,  2.  Problems  of  Threatened  Species. 

lUCN  New  Series  18,  Switzerland.  Pp.  83-88.  (Includes  list  of  threatened  medicinal 

plants  and  orchids  in  need  of  protection.) 

A  number  of  papers  on  plant  conservation  in  India  are  included  in: 

Jain,  S.K.  and  Mehra,  K.L.  (Eds)  (1983).  Conservation  of  Tropical  Plant  Resources. 
Proceedings  of  the  Regional  Workshop  on  Conservation  of  Tropical  Plant 

171 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Resources  in  South  East  Asia,  New  Delhi,  March  8-12,  1982.  Botanical  Survey  of 
India,  Howrah.  (Workshop  reviewed  in  Threatened  Plants  Newsletter  9:  1-3  (1982) 
and  book  in  ibid.  13:  19-20  (1984).) 

In  particular  see: 

Gupta,  R.  and  Sethi,  K.L.  Conservation  of  medicinal  plants  resources  in  the 

Himalayan  region.  Ibid.,  pp.  101-109.  (Lists  8  Endangered,  12  Vulnerable  and  8 
Rare  medicinal  plants.) 

Husain,  A.  Conservation  of  genetic  resources  of  medicinal  plants  in  India.  Ibid.,  pp. 
110-117.  (Notes  on  15  taxa  threatened  by  overcoUecting.) 

5  species  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics, 
principally  derived  from  Botanical  Survey  of  India  (1983a):  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:4,  E:18, 
V:2,  R:3,  1:541. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants 

The  Wildlife  (Protection)  Act,  1972.  Govt  of  India,  Ministry  of  Law,  Justice  and 
Company  Affairs.  (Appendices  have  lists  of  'endangered'  species  to  which  plants  are 
being  added;  S.K.  Jain,  1984,  in  litt.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Bombay  Natural  History  Society,  Hornbill  House,  Shahid  Bhagat  Singh  Road,  Bombay 

400023. 
Friends  of  Trees,  Tata  Building,  Choringhee  Road,  Calcutta  17. 
Indian  Society  of  Naturalists  (INSONA),  c/o  Maharaja  Fatehsingh  Zoo  Trust, 

Indumati  Mahul,  Jawaharlal  Nehru  Marg,  Baroda  390001. 
WWF-India,  c/o  Godrej  &  Boyce  Mfg.  Co.  Private  Ltd.,  Lalbaug,  Parel,  Bombay 

400012. 

Botanic  Gardens  The  Botanical  Survey  of  India  have  prepared  2  reports  on 
Indian  botanic  gardens  (1983): 

A  Directory  of  Botanic  Gardens  in  India  (A  Preliminary  Account  of  History, 

Organisation  and  Holdings  of  Some  Government  University  and  Public  Gardens  of 
India).  131  pp.  (Entries  for  55  Indian  botanic  gardens  and  botanical  institutions. 
The  largest  garden  is  the  Indian  Botanic  Garden,  Sibpur,  Howrah  71103,  West 
Bengal.) 

Materials  for  a  Green  Book  of  Botanic  Gardens  in  India.  88  pp.  (Lists  100  rare, 

endangered  and  endemic  plants  known  to  be  cultivated  in  the  8  botanic  gardens  run 
by  the  Botanical  Survey.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Botanical  Survey  of  India,  P.O.  Botanic  Garden,  Howrah  71103.  (Includes  POSSCEF 

programme.) 
Department  of  the  Environment,  Bikaner  House,  Shahjahan  Road,  New  Delhi  110011. 
National  Bureau  of  Plant  Genetic  Resources,  New  Dehli  110012. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Director  of  Wildlife  Preservation,  Government  of 

India,  Ministry  of  Environment,  Room  240,  Krishi  Bharan,  New  Delhi  110001. 
CITES  (for  Orchidaceae):  The  Deputy  Director  of  Wildlife  Preservation,  Government 

of  India,  97/18  Hazra  Road,  Calcutta,  West  Bengal. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  P.O.  Botanic  Garden,  Howrah 

71103. 


172 


India 

Additional  References 

Botanical  Survey  of  India  (1983b).  Flora  and  Vegetation  of  India  -  An  Outline. 

Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  24  pp.  (Introduction  to  the  flora  and  vegetation 

of  India  and  its  phytogeographical  affinities;  review  of  the  District  Flora 

Programme  and  threats  to  plant  life.  Prepared  for  the  lUCN  Plants  Programme.) 
Champion,  H.G.  and  Seth,  S.K.  (1968).  A  Revised  Survey  of  the  Forest  Types  of 

India.  Govt  of  India  Press,  Delhi.  404  pp. 
Chatterjee,  D.  (1939).  Studies  on  the  endemic  flora  of  India  and  Burma.  J.  Royal 

Asiatic  Soc.  Bengal  Sci.  5:  19-67. 
Mani,  M.S.  (Ed.)  (1974).  Ecology  and  Biogeography  in  India.  Junk,  The  Hague. 

773  pp.  (Chapters  on  vegetation,  flora,  biogeography.) 
Nayar,  M.P.  (1977).  Changing  patterns  of  the  Indian  flora.  Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  19: 

145-155.  (Origin  and  distribution  of  the  flora;  floristic  relationships.) 
Singh,  J.S.,  Singh,  S.P,  Saxena,  A.K.  and  Rawat,  Y.S.  (1984).  India's  Silent  Valley 

and  its  threatened  rain-forest  ecosystems.  Envir.  Conserv.  11(3):  223-233. 

For  useful  background  information  on  the  Himalayan  region  see  Lall  and  Moddie  (1981), 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  For  an  account  of  the  alpine  flora  of  the  Sikkim  Himalaya  see 
Bulletin  of  the  Alpine  Garden  Society  52(3),  September  1984  (No.  217). 


Indonesia 


An  archipelago  of  13,667  islands  of  which  about  600  are  inhabited.  A  chain  of  high 
mountains  stretch  in  an  arc  from  western  Sumatra,  through  southern  Java  and  parts  of  the 
Lesser  Sunda  Islands. 

Area  1,919,443  sq.  km 

Irian  Jaya:  412,981  sq.  km;  Java:  134,044  sq.  km;  Kalimantan:  550,203  sq.  km;  Maluku: 
74,504  sq.  km;  Nusa  Tenggara:  c.  80,000  sq.  km;  Sulawesi:  227,654  sq.  km;  Sumatra: 
524,097  sq.  km. 

Population  147,673,800 

Irian  Jaya:  1,173,800  (1980);  Java:  94,000,000  (1981);  Kalimantan:  6,700,000  (1980); 
Maluku:  1,400,000  (1980);  Nusa  Tenggara:  6,000,000  (1980);  Sulawesi:  10,400,000  (1980); 
Sumatra:  28,000,000  (1980).  __ 

Floristics  One  of  the  richest  floras  in  the  world,  with  about  10,000  trees  alone 
(FAO,  1982).  The  archipelago  forms  the  greater  part  of  the  botanical  region  of  Malesia. 
Floristic  affinities  are  with  Asia,  and  to  a  lesser  extent  AustraHa;  about  40%  of  genera  are 
either  endemic  or  have  their  centre  of  development  in  Malesia.  There  are  floristic 
subdivisions  between  Sumatra  and  Java  and  between  Sulawesi  and  the  island  of  Borneo  (of 
which  Kalimantan  forms  the  greater  part).  The  richest  areas  are  the  primary  lowland  rain 
forests  of  Borneo  and  Irian  Jaya  (Jacobs,  1974). 

Irian  Jaya  Good  (1960)  estimates  that  the  island  of  New  Guinea,  of  which  Irian 
Jaya  is  the  western  portion,  has  c.  9000  angiosperm  species,  of  which  90%  endemic,  and 
Parris  (1985),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  estimates  that  it  has  c.  2000  fern  species.  There  are  1465 
genera  in  New  Guinea,  of  which  124  are  endemic  (van  Balgooy,  in  Paijmans,  1976).  The 


173 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Tamrau-Arfak  mountains  of  the  Volgelkop  are  important  centres  of  endemism.  The  flora 
is  related  to  both  Asia  and  Australia. 

Java  5011  vascular  plant  species  of  which  4598  indigenous;  includes  497  ferns 
(Backer  and  Bakhuizen  van  den  Brink,  1963-1968).  Only  10  genera  endemic.  Dipterocarps 
less  abundant  in  the  seasonally  dry  monsoon  forests  with  only  10  species  on  the  island 
(Jacobs,  1981;  P.  Ashton  in  Flora  Malesiana  9(2),  1982,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Kalimantan  No  figure  for  Kalimantan  but  Borneo,  floristically  the  richest  of  the 
Sunda  islands,  has  c.  10,000-11,000  vascular  species  (based  on  Merrill,  1921);  Borneo 
(whole  island)  has  c.  1(X)0  fern  species  (Parris,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Endemism  is 
high  with  c.  34%  of  vascular  species  and  59  genera  restricted  to  the  island.  Especially 
diverse  are  the  primary  lowland  rain  forests  below  3(X)  m,  particularly  on  sandy  yellow 
soils  (FAO,  1981).  Borneo,  with  267  species,  is  the  centre  of  diversity  of  Dipterocarpaceae, 
the  most  important  family  of  commercial  trees  in  the  region;  158  dipterocarps  are  endemic 
to  the  island  (Jacobs,  1981 ;  P.  Ashton  in  Flora  Malesiana  9(2),  1982,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Maluku  (The  Moluccas)  A  relatively  impoverished  flora  with  low  endemism,  with 
western  (Sundaland)  and  eastern  (Sahul)  elements. 

Nusa  Tenggara  (The  Lesser  Sunda  Islands)  Less  rich  than  other  parts  of 
Indonesia;  12%  species  endemism.  Most  endemics  found  on  Lombok  and  Timor 
(Kalkman,  1955).  Floristic  affinities  mainly  Asian,  although  in  the  drier  monsoon  forests 
of  the  east  there  are  Australian  elements  (van  Steenis,  1979). 

Sulawesi  Floristically  poor  compared  with  neighbouring  Borneo.  Australasian 
elements  in  high  mountains;  otherwise  Malesian. 

Sumatra  Comparable  in  richness  to  Kalimantan  and  Irian  Jaya;  richer  than  Java, 
Sulawesi  and  smaller  islands  (FAO,  1982).  Species  endemism  about  12"7o;  17  endemic 
genera.  Dipterocarps  dominate  lowland  rain  forests;  96  species  in  all,  of  which  11  endemic 
(Jacobs,  1981;  P.  Ashton  in  Flora  Malesiana  9(2),  1982,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  Bukit 
Barisan  Range  contains  Himalayan  elements  (van  Steenis,  1934). 

Vegetation  Tropical  moist  forests  are  the  dominant  climax  vegetation.  Tropical 
evergreen  rain  forest  is  the  most  extensive  formation,  of  which  Indonesia  has  an  estimated 
1,018,000  sq.  km,  nearly  10%  of  world  total.  Deciduous  monsoon  forests  and  fire- 
maintained  savanna  grasslands  in  seasonally  dry  areas,  particularly  in  southern  and 
eastern  islands.  Clearance  for  agriculture,  shifting  cultivation,  logging  and  transmigration 
programmes  are  the  main  causes  of  deforestation.  Mangroves  occupy  c.  25,(KX)  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forests  in  Indonesia  6000  sq. 
km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  1 ,135,750  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981);  however,  Myers  (1980, 
cited  in  Appendix  1),  estimates  the  amount  of  primary  forest  remaining  is  probably  well 
below  1,000,000  sq.  km  and  possibly  as  low  as  800,000  sq.  km. 

Indonesia  is  included  on  the  Vegetation  Map  of  Malaysia  (van  Steenis,  1958)  and  on  the 
vegetation  map  of  Malesia  (Whitmore,  1984),  both  covering  the  Flora  Malesiana  region  at 
scale  1:5,000,000  and  cited  in  Appendix  1.  For  a  general  description  of  the  forests  of 
Indonesia  see  Whitmore  (1975b),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Direktorat  Bina  Program  (1980).  Peta  Tegakan  Hutan  Indonesia,  1:2,750,000.  Bogor. 

(Map  of  forest  stands  of  Indonesia.) 
Laumonier,  Y.,  Gadrinab,  A.  and  Purnajaya  (1983).  Southern  Sumatra:  International 

Map  of  the  Vegetation  and  of  Environmental  Conditions.  Institute  de  la  Carte 

174 


Indonesia . 

International  du  Tapis  Vegetal  and  SEAMEO/BIOTROP,  Toulouse.  (Scale 
1:1,000,000;  maps  of  north  and  central  Sumatra  in  preparation.) 

Irian  Jay  a  Large  tracts  of  primary  tropical  evergreen  rain  forest,  rich  in  tree 
ferns,  palms,  bamboos,  lianas;  dry  evergreen  forests,  with  Tristania,  Syzygium  and 
Acacia,  in  the  monsoonal  south-east;  lower  montane  forests  between  1000-3000  m,  with 
Araucaria,  Podocarpus,  Agathis  and  Nothofagus;  upper  montane  forests  up  to  4000  m, 
with  tree  ferns,  conifers,  and  rhododendrons;  above  4000  m,  alpine  heathland  with  low 
shrubs,  bryophytes  and  lichens.  The  Fakfak  Mountains  have  limestone  forest  and  large 
areas  of  anthropogenic  grassland.  Swamp  forests,  with  sago  palm  {Metroxylon  sagu),  and 
extensive  mangrove  forests  mainly  along  the  southern  coast,  and  in  the  north  between  the 
Mamberamo  delta  westwards  to  Teluk  Cenderawasih;  beach  forests  share  most  of  the 
species  of  similar  habitats  in  Malesia,  but  are  better  developed  than  anywhere  else  (FAO, 
1981).  Closed  broadleaved  forests  of  all  kinds  were  estimated  to  cover  380,050  sq.  km  at 
the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  This  represents  92%  of  the  total  land  area. 

Java  All  lowland  forests  have  been  cleared,  with  the  exception  of  patches  near  the 
south  coast  of  East  Java;  in  West  and  East  Java,  evergreen  rain  forests  are  restricted  to 
isolated  patches  on  south-facing  mountain  sides;  monsoon  forests  (tropical  moist 
deciduous  forests)  with  Teak  {Tectona  grandis),  Bombax  and  Tetrameles  in  centre  and 
east;  plantations  of  teak  have  been  established  in  cleared  areas  where  soils  are  unsuitable 
for  cultivation;  Tjemera  {Casuarina  junghuhniana)  forests  mainly  on  the  northern  slopes 
of  mountains  in  East  Java  above  1400  m.  Where  fire  is  excluded  a  succession  to  mixed  oak- 
laurel  forest  begins.  Subalpine  vegetation  above  2400  m,  dominated  by  Ericaceae  with 
temperate  herbaceous  species  (Backer  and  Bakhuizen  van  den  Brink,  1963-1968);  extensive 
montane  grasslands  following  forest  destruction  by  fire  (van  Steenis,  1972).  Limestone 
karst  with  a  distinctive  flora  occurs  along  Java's  southern  and  north-eastern  coasts,  most 
of  which  is  now  planted  with  teak.  Freshwater  swamp  forests  and  mangroves  occur  in  a 
few  isolated  patches.  Closed  broadleaved  forests  were  estimated  to  cover  11,800  sq.  km  at 
the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  This  represents  only  9%  of  the  land  area.  Most  of 
Java  is  intensively  cultivated  (FAO,  1982),  and  on  the  island  of  Madura  there  is  no  extant 
forest  at  all. 

Kalimantan  Tropical  lowland  evergreen  rain  forest  up  to  1300  m;  extensive  hill 
dipterocarp  forests  and  various  montane  forest  formations  with  Fagaceae,  Lauraceae  and 
Myrtaceae  up  to  2300  m.  Large  areas  of  mangroves,  peat  swamps  and  freshwater  non- 
peaty  swamps,  and  the  most  extensive  heath  forests  (kerangas)  in  S.E.  Asia.  Extensive 
secondary  forests  (blukar)  and  Alangalang  {Imperata  cylindrica)  grassland  as  a  result  of 
past  forest  clearance.  Closed  broadleaved  forests  were  estimated  to  cover  353,950  sq.  km 
at  the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  This  represents  c.  65%  of  the  total  land  area.  A 
huge  area  (c.  30,(X)0  sq.  km)  of  Kahmantan,  including  8000  sq.  km  of  primary  forest,  was 
destroyed  by  fire  in  1983. 

Maluku  Transition  from  evergreen  rain  forest  in  the  north-west  of  Halmahera 
and  Seram  to  seasonal  monsoon  forests  in  south  Halmahera,  in  Obi  and  the  north-east  of 
Buru  and  Banda  Sea  islands.  Small  areas  of  mangroves;  freshwater  swamps  with 
important  stands  of  Sago  {Metroxylon  sagu);  lowland  forest  formations  with  Melaleuca  on 
drier  soils.  Rich  montane  forests  occur  on  Seram  and  Halmahera.  Closed  broadleaved 
forests  were  estimated  to  cover  47,150  sq.  km  at  the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  The 
northern  islands  are  being  logged  and  most  forest  is  already  parcelled  out  in  timber 
concessions  (FAO,  1981). 


175 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Nusa  Tenggara  Savanna  woodland  with  Eucalyptus  and  Casuarina  now  covers 
most  of  the  island  (K.  Kartawinata,  1984,  in  litt.);  evergreen  rain  forest  only  surviving  in 
isolated  patches  in  steep  valleys  on  south-facing  sides  of  mountain  ranges;  elsewhere,  there 
are  monsoon  forests  and  extensive  grasslands.  Timor  has  some  of  the  finest  natural 
Sandalwood  {Santalum  album)  forests  in  the  world  (FAO,  1981).  Closed  broadleaved 
forests  of  all  kinds  were  estimated  to  cover  25,150  sq.  km  at  the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP, 
1981).  This  represents  c.  30%  of  the  total  land  area. 

Sulawesi  Extensive  tracts  of  primary  hill  and  montane  variants  of  tropical 
evergreen  rain  forest,  with  few  dipterocarps;  Syzygium  (Myrtaceae)  sometimes  dominates 
forests  at  all  altitudes  (FAO,  1982).  Forests  on  limestone  and  ultrabasic  rocks  also  present. 
Small  areas  of  inland  heath  forest  occur  in  central  Sulawesi;  mangroves  occur  in  isolated 
patches  in  the  south.  Large  areas  in  the  south  and  some  parts  of  the  north  have  been 
cleared  for  shifting  cultivation  (FAO,  1982).  Closed  broadleaved  forests  were  estimated  to 
cover  95,250  sq.  km  at  the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  This  represents  c.  40%  of  the 
total  land  area. 

Sumatra  Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest  dominated  by  dipterocarps,  and  with 
Ironwood  (Eusideroxylon  zwageri)  abundant  in  some  forests  in  the  south;  heath  forests  in 
east;  lowland  peat  swamp  forest  and  mangroves  along  eastern  coasts.  Drier  mountain 
areas  in  north  support  the  only  natural  pine  (Pinus  merkusii)  forests  in  Indonesia  (FAO, 
1982).  According  to  the  1978  Bina  Programme,  forests  cover  57%  of  the  land  area  (figures 
quoted  in  FAO,  1982);  however,  estimates  from  satellite  imagery  indicate  only  42%  still 
covered  by  primary  forest  (FAO,  1982).  The  total  area  of  closed  broadleaved  forests  was 
estimated  to  be  222,400  sq.  km  at  the  end  of  1980  (FAO/UNEP,  1980). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Indonesia  is  included  in  the  incomplete  but  very  detailed 
Flora  Malesiana  (1948- ),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See,  in  particular,  the  extensive 
bibliography  and  history  of  plant  collecting  in  Series  1,  vol.  4,  pp.  71-161,  and  the 
annotated  selected  bibliography  in  Series  1,  vol.  5,  pp.  i-cxliv.  Other  floristic  accounts 
include: 

Backer,  C.A.  and  Bakhuizen  van  den  Brink,  R.C.  (1963-1968).  Flora  of  Java 
(Spermatophytes  Only),  3  vols.  Noordhoff  (Vols  1,  2)  and  Wolters-Noordhoff, 
Groningen.  (Keys  and  descriptions  for  all  taxa;  vegetation  types  described  in  vol.  2.) 

Handbooks  of  the  Flora  of  Papua  New  Guinea  (1978- ),  2  vols  so  far.  Melbourne 
Univ.  Press.  (Includes  Irian  Jaya.  1  -  vegetation,  keys,  treatments  of  Combretaceae, 
Magnoliaceae,  Meliaceae  and  many  smaller  families;  edited  by  J.S.  Womersley;  2  - 
Elaeocarpaceae,  Juglandaceae,  Loranthaceae  and  others;  edited  by  E.E.  Henty.) 

Kalkman,  C.  (1955).  A  plant  geographical  analysis  of  the  Lesser  Sunda  Islands.  Acta 
Bot.  Neerl.  4:  200-225.  (Lists  480  species  in  51  families  with  occurrence  by  island.) 

Merrill,  E.D.  (1921).  A  Bibliographic  Enumeration  of  Bornean  Plants.  Eraser  and 
Neave,  Singapore.  637  pp.  (Systematic  enumeration  with  notes  on  distribution; 
introduction  covers  vegetation,  history  of  botanical  investigation.) 

Steenis,  C. G.G.J,  van  (1972).  The  Mountain  Flora  of  Java.  Brill,  Leiden.  90  pp. 
(Contains  57  plates  with  pictures  of  456  native  plants;  lists  68  species,  including  29 
endemics,  known  only  from  one  mountain  in  Java;  chapters  on  plant  geography, 
vegetation  types,  dispersal  and  distribution.) 

There  is  extensive  information  on  Indonesian  botany  in  the  Flora  Malesiana  Bulletin,  cited 
in  Appendix  1,  which  includes  a  bibliography  section. 


176 


Indonesia 

Contributions  to  the  flora  and  vegetation  of  New  Guinea  (including  Irian  Jaya)  have  been 
published  in  the  journal  Nova  Guinea  (Contributions  to  the  anthropology,  botany, 
geology  and  zoology  of  the  Papuan  region). 

Field-guides 

Kartawinata,  K.  (1983).  Jenis-jenis  Kerning.  LBN-LIPI,  Bogor.  (Illustrated  popular 

account  of  Dipterocarpaceae.) 
Meijer,  W.  (1974).  Field  Guide  to  Trees  of  West  Malesia.  Univ.  of  Kentucky.  328  pp. 
Steenis,  C. G.G.J,  van.  Den  Hoed,  G.  and  Eyma,  P.J.  (1951).  Flora  voor  de  Scholen  in 

Indonesie.  Noordhoff-Kolff  NV,  Djakarta.  407  pp.  (Indonesian  translation,  1978, 

by  M.  Soerjowinoto  et  al.) 

For  Irian  Jaya,  see  also  the  publications  listed  under  Papua  New  Guinea. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Little  data.  6  species  are  included  in  The 
lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  lUCN  has  an  unpublished  list  of  22  orchids  endemic 
to  Java,  most  of  which  are  Rare,  as  well  as  a  full  list  of  palms,  some  of  which  have 
conservation  categories.  Also  relevant: 

Anon  (1978).  Endangered  species  of  trees.  Conservation  Indonesia  2:  4.  (Newsletter  of 
WWF  Indonesia  Programme;  lists  9  Indonesian  trees.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Institute  for  Nature  Conservation,  Lembaga  Pengawetan  Alam,  Djl.  Pledang  30, 

Bogor,  Java. 
Yayasan  Indonesia  Hijau  (Green  Indonesia  Foundation),  P.O.  Box  208,  Bogor,  Java. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Arboreta  and  Experimental  Gardens  of  Silviculture  Division,  Forest  Research  Institute, 

Bogor,  Java. 
Botanical  Gardens  of  Indonesia,  Kebun  Raya  Bogor,  Jalan  Ir.  H.  Juanda  11,  Bogor, 

Java. 

Branches  of  Kebun  Raya  Bogor  are: 

Botanic  Garden,  Cibodas,  Sindanglaya,  West  Java. 
Botanic  Garden,  Purwodadi,  Lawang,  East  Java. 
'Eka  Karya'  Botanic  Garden,  Bedugul,  Bali. 

Useful  Addresses 

Directorate  General  of  Forest  Protection  and  Nature  Conservation  (PHP A),  Jalan  Ir. 

H.  Juanda  9,  P.O.  Box  133,  Bogor,  Java. 
Lembaga  Biologi  Nasional  (LBN),  LIPI,  Jalan  Juanda  18,  Bogor,  Java. 
WWF/IUCN  Conservation  for  Development  Programme,  Jalan  Ir.  H.  Juanda  9,  P.O. 

Box  133,  Bogor,  Java. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Director  General  of  Forest  Protection  and  Nature 

Conservation  (Perlindungan  Hutan  dan  Pelestarian  Alam),  Departemen  Kehutanan, 

Jalan  Ir.  H.  Juanda  No.  9,  Bogor,  Java. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Indonesian  Institute  of  Science  (LIPI),  Jalan  Tenku  Chik 

Ditiro  43,  P.O.  Box  250  JKT,  Jakarta,  Java. 

Additional  References 

FAO  (1981,  1982).  National  Conservation  Plan  for  Indonesia .  Field  Report  of 
UNDP/FAO  National  Parks  Development  Project  Ins/78/061,  8  vols.  Bogor, 
Indonesia.  (1  -  Introduction;  2  -  Sumatra;  3  -  Java  and  Bali;  4  -  Lesser  Sundas;  5  - 
Kalimantan;  6  -  Sulawesi,  7  -  Maluku  and  Irian;  8  -  General  topics.) 

177 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Gibbs,  L.S.  (1917).  A  Contribution  to  the  Phytogeography  and  Flora  of  the  Arfak 

Mountains  etc.  Taylor  and  Francis,  London.  226  pp.  (Covers  vegetation  types  and 

systematic  account  of  330  plants  collected  in  Arfak  Mts.) 
Good,  R.  (1960).  On  the  geographical  relationships  of  the  angiosperm  flora  of  New 

Guinea.  Bull.  British  Museum  Nat.  Hist.  Bat.  2:  205-226. 
Gressitt,  J.L.  (Ed.)  (1982).  Biogeography  and  Ecology  of  New  Guinea,  2  vols.  Junk, 

Hague.  (1  -  Physical  background,  man's  impact,  vegetation  and  flora;  2  -  fauna, 

conservation.) 
Jacobs,  M.  (1958).  Contribution  to  the  botany  of  Mount  Kerintji  and  adjacent  area  in 

west  central  Sumatra,  1.  Ann.  Bogor.  3:  45-104.  (Plant  collections  now  total  3977; 

many  species  collected  and  named  by  author.) 
Jacobs,  M.  (1974).  Botanical  panorama  of  the  Malesian  archipelago  (vascular  plants). 

In  Unesco,  Natural  Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources  Research 

12.  Unesco,  Paris.  Pp.  263-294. 
Jacobs,  M.  (1981).  Dipterocarpaceae:  the  taxonomic  and  distributional  framework. 

Malaysian  Forester  44:  168-189. 
Jacobs,  M.  (1982).  Assessment  of  the  deforestation  problem  in  Malesia. 

Rijksherbarium,  Leiden.  7  pp.  (Typescript.) 
Jacobs,  M.  and  de  Boo,  T.J.J.  (1982).  Conservation  Literature  on  Indonesia:  Selected 

Annotated  Bibliography.  Rijksherbarium,  Leiden.  274  pp.  (850  entries  covering 

Dutch,  English,  French,  German  and  Indonesian  literature  from  c.  1900  to  1979.) 
Meijer,  W.  (1981).  Sumatra  as  seen  by  a  botanist.  Indonesian  Circle  25:  17-27. 
Ochse,  J.J.  and  Bakhuizen  van  den  Brink,  R.C.  (1931).  Vegetables  of  the  Dutch  East 

Indies  (edible  tubers,  bulbs,  rhizomes  and  species  included).  Buitenzorg.  1006  pp. 

(Reprinted  1977.  389  species  in  241  genera;  notes  on  uses,  habitat  requirements, 

distribution,  propagation.) 
Paijmans,  K.  (Ed.)  (1976).  New  Guinea  Vegetation.  Elsevier,  Amsterdam.  213  pp. 

(Includes  lists  of  medicinal  and  other  useful  species.) 
Petocz,  R.G.  (1984).  Conservation  and  development  in  Irian  Jaya:  a  strategy  for 

rational  resource  utilization.  WWF/IUCN  Conservation  for  Development 

Programme  in  Indonesia  (address  above).  279  pp.  Mimeo. 
Steenis,  C. G.G.J,  van  (1934).  On  the  origin  of  the  Malaysian  mountain  flora,  1.  Bull. 

Jard.  Bot.  Buitenzorg,  Ser.  3,  13:  135-262. 
Steenis,  C. G.G.J,  van  (1979).  Plant-geography  of  east  Malesia.  Bot.  J.  Linn.  Soc.  79: 

97-178.  (Floristic  analysis  of  the  Lesser  Sunda  Islands.) 
Whitten,  A. J.,  Damanik,  S.J.,  Anwar,  J.  and  Hisyam,  N.  (1984).  The  Ecology  of 

Sumatra.  Gadjah  Mada  Univ.  Press.  583  pp.  (Vegetation  types;  flora  and  fauna; 

effects  of  disturbance  on  plant  and  animal  communities.) 

WWF/IUCN  are  supporting  field  surveys  in  existing  and  potential  reserve  sites  identified 
in  the  FAO/UNDP  report  A  National  Conservation  Plan  for  Indonesia  (FO:INS/78/061, 
Field  Report  17)  with  the  aim  of  developing  management  plans. 


Iran 


Area  1,648,000  sq.  km 
Population  43,799,000 


178 


Iran 

Floristics  c.  7000  species  (Parsa,  1943-1952)  of  which  c.  20%  endemic  (Zohary, 
1963).  Most  of  the  endemics  are  found  in  the  mountains;  centres  of  endemism  include  the 
peaks  of  the  Elburz  and  Zagros  Mountains,  solitary  peaks  in  the  Central  Plain,  mountain 
ridges  south  of  Kashan  and  Yazd,  and  to  the  north  and  south  of  Kerman  (Zohary,  1973, 
cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  central  plateau  is  species-poor.  The  Irano-Turanian  element 
comprises  about  69%  of  the  flora.  Euro-Siberian  and  Sudanian  elements  each  make  up 
5"7o  of  the  flora.  There  are  also  Mediterranean  and  Saharo-Arabian  elements  (Zohary, 
1963). 

Vegetation  Deserts  cover  about  60%  of  Iran.  Hot  desert  in  south-east  with  sparse 
open  scrub,  including  Ziziphus,  Acacia  and  Prosopis  on  rocky  slopes;  herbaceous 
communities  with  A  triplex  and  Heliotropium  in  sandy  depressions;  steppes  and  deserts 
with  Artemisia  and  Astragalus  over  most  of  centre  and  east;  dry  deciduous  forest  in  west 
and  Pistacia  -  Amygdalus  steppe  forest  in  south  and  west;  Juniperus  steppe  forests  in 
north;  broadleaved  temperate  forest  (with  Alnus,  Quercus,  Fagus  and  Carpinus)  in  north 
up  to  2500  m  (Zohary,  1963).  Small  areas  of  mangroves  on  northern  Qeshm  Island 
(Kunkel,  1977). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Iran  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  Iranica  (1963-  ), 
cited  in  Appendix  1 .  Floras  covering  Iran  and  offshore  islands  include: 

Leonard,  J.  (1981).  Contribution  a  I'Etude  de  la  Flore  de  la  Vegetation  des  Deserts 

d'Iran.  Jardin  Botanique  National  Belgique,  Meise.  (4  fascicles  so  far.  1  - 

Introduction,  ferns,  gymnosperms,  monocotyledons;  2-4  -  Compositae,  Cruciferae, 

Labiatae  and  many  smaller  families.) 
Parsa,  A.  (1943-1952).  Flore  de  L'Iran,  12  vols.  Tehran.  (1  -  Physical  geography, 

ecology,  ferns,  gymnosperms.  Ministry  of  Science  and  Higher  Education,  Tehran; 

2-4  -  dicotyledons;  5  -  monocotyledons,  ferns;  6  -  Supplement;  7-12  -  dicotyledons. 

See  also  the  revised,  English  translation.  Flora  of  Iran  (1978- )  by  the  same  author 

and  publishers.) 
Sabeti,  H.  (1976).  Forests,  Trees  and  Shrubs  of  Iran.  Min.  Agriculture  and  Natural 

Resources,  Tehran.  810  pp.  in  Persian;  64  pp.  in  English.  (Includes  nearly  1000 

species,  distribution  maps.) 
Termeh,  F.  and  Moussavi,  M.  (1980).  Plants  of  Kish  Island.  Dept  of  Botany  Publ.  no. 

15.  Tehran.  (104  species  collected  on  Kish;  includes  checklist,  short  descriptions  and 

line  drawings.) 
Wendelbo,  P.  (1976).  Annotated  checklist  of  the  ferns  of  Iran.  Iran  J.  Bot.  1:  11-17. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None,  except  for  7  threatened  plants 
mentioned  in: 

Wendelbo,  P.  (1978).  Endangered  flora  and  vegetation,  with  notes  on  some  results  of 
protection.  In  lUCN,  Ecological  Guidelines  for  the  Use  of  Natural  Resources  in  the 
Middle  East  and  South-West  Asia.  lUCN,  Switzerland.  Pp.  189-195. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanical  Garden  of  the  Botanical  Institute  of  Iran,  Karaj  Road,  P.O.  Box  8-6096, 

Tehran. 
Karadj  College  Botanical  Gardens,  Faculty  of  Agriculture,  University  of  Tehran, 

Karadj,  Tehran. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Department  of  Environment,  P.O.  Box  1430,  Tehran. 


179 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Additional  References 

Kunkel,  G.  (1977).  The  Vegetation  of  Hormoz,  Qeshm  and  Neighbouring  Islands 

(Southern  Persian  Gulf  Area).  Cramer,  FL-9490,  Vaduz,  Liechtenstein.  186  pp. 

(Includes  annotated  checklist  giving  local  distributions;  notes  on  339  plants  collected 

on  islands.) 
Wendelbo,  P.  (1972).  Some  distributional  patterns  within  the  Flora  Iranica  area.  In 

Davis,  P.H.,  Harper,  P.C.  and  Hedge,  I.C.  (Eds),  Plant  Life  of  South- West  Asia. 

Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh.  Pp.  29-41. 
Zohary,  M.  (1963).  On  the  Geobotanical  Structure  of  Iran.  Bull.  Research  Council 

Israel  Vol.  IID,  Suppl.  113  pp.  (Includes  a  'Geobotanical  OutUne  Map  of  Iran', 

scale  1:4,000,0(X).) 


Iraq 


Area  438,446  sq.  km 

Population  15,158,000  ^ 

Floristics  2937  vascular  plant  species  (A.H.  Al-Khayat,  1984,  in  litt.).  190 
endemic  species  (according  to  Zohary,  1950).  Of  the  endemics,  95%  belong  to  the  Irano- 
Turanian  floral  element  and  5%  to  the  Saharo-Sindian  element.  There  are  also  small 
numbers  of  Mediterranean  and  Eurosiberian-Boreoamerican  species  (Zohary,  1950). 
Centres  of  endemism  include  the  montane  and  subalpine  zones  of  the  Kurdish  Mountains, 
particularly  the  western  slopes  (Zohary,  1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Vegetation  About  400,000  sq.  km  is  desert  or  semi-desert,  mainly  in  south,  with 
dry  Poa,  Carex  and  Artemisia  steppe;  moist  steppe  zone  to  north  with  open  savanna 
mainly  with  Pistacia;  extensive  marshlands  with  alluvial  vegetation  in  the  Mesopotamian 
Plain,  NW  of  Basra,  between  the  Tigris  and  Euphrates;  temporarily  inundated  'ahrash' 
forest,  with  Tamarix  and  Populus,  on  more  stable  soils  and  islands;  Quercus  aegilops  and 
Pinus  brutia  forests  on  northern  mountains  between  5(X)-2750  m,  much  disturbed  or 
completely  destroyed;  thorn  cushion  open  shrub  formation  between  1750-3000  m;  alpine 
vegetation  above  1750  m  (Townsend  and  Guest  et  al.,  1966).  Natural  forest  covers  only  4% 
of  the  country,  almost  entirely  restricted  to  north  (Kurdistan),  mostly  overexploited  and 
overgrazed  (Nasser,  1984). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  main  Floras  are: 

Rechinger,  K.H.  (1964).  Flora  of  Lowland  Irak.  Cramer,  Weinheim.  746  pp.  (Selected 

bibliography.) 
Townsend,  C.C.  and  Guest,  E.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1966-  ).  Flora  of  Iraq,  9  vols  planned, 

5  pubHshed  so  far.  Min.  of  Agricuhure,  Baghdad.  (1  -  Geology,  vegetation, 

ecology,  selected  bibliography;  2  -  ferns,  gymnosperms,  Rosaceae;  3-9  - 

angiosperms  continued.) 

See  also: 

Al-Rawi,  A.  (1964).  Wild  Plants  of  Iraq  with  their  Distribution.  Technical  Bulletin  no. 
14.  Min.  of  Agriculture,  Baghdad.  248  pp.  (Introductory  notes  on  vegetation; 
checklist  of  ferns,  gymnosperms  and  angiosperms  with  distributions.) 


180 


Iraq 

Gillett,  J.B.  (1948).  Provisional  list  of  trees  and  shrubs  found  in  Iraq.  (Unpublished 

report.) 
Zohary,  M.  (1950).  The  Flora  of  Iraq  and  its  Phytogeographical  Subdivision.  Bulletin 

no.  31.  Ministry  of  Economics,  Iraq.  201  pp.  (Annotated  checklist,  distribution  and 

phytogeographical  relationships  indicated.) 

The  highlands  of  northern  Iraq  are  included  in  Flora  Iranica  (1963- ),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Field-guides 

Agnew,  A.D.Q.  (Ed.)  (1962).  Flora  of  the  Baghdad  District.  Part  1,  Monocotyledons. 

College  Science  Bulletin  Suppl.  6,  Baghdad.  170  pp.  (Line  drawings;  introductory 

notes  on  vegetation.) 
Al-Saad,  H.A.  and  Al-Mayah,  A.-R.A.  (1983).  Aquatic  Plants  of  Iraq.  Univ.  of  Basra. 
Karim,  P.M.  (1978).  Flowering  Parasitic  Plants  of  Iraq.  Min.  of  Agriculture  and 

Agrarian  Reform,  Abu-Ghraib.  90  pp.  (Describes  about  30  parasitic  plants;  keys  and 

line  drawings. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Za'faraniyah  Botanical  Garden,  Horticultural  Experiment  Station,  Abu-Ghraib, 
Baghdad. 

Additional  References 

Guest,  E.R.  and  Blakelock,  R.A.  (1954).  Bibliography  of  Iraq.  Kew  Bull.  9(2):  243-249. 
Nasser,  M.H.  (1984).  Porests  and  forestry  in  Iraq:  prospects  and  limitations. 

Commonwealth  Forestry  Review  63(4):  299-304. 
Wendelbo,  P.  (1971).  Some  distributional  patterns  within  the  Flora  Iranica  area.  In 

Davis,  P.H.,  Harper,  P.C.  and  Hedge,  I.C.  (Eds),  Plant  Life  of  South-West  Asia. 

Botanical  Society  of  Edinburgh.  Pp.  29-41. 


Ireland 

(For  Northern  Ireland  see  United  Kingdom) 


Area  68,895  sq.  km 

Population  3,555,000  — ^ 

Floristics  Size  of  flora  for  entire  island:  1000-1150  native  vascular  species, 
estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  one  endemic 
species  (lUCN  figure).  In  Republic  of  Ireland  only,  c.  21  species  less  than  figure  above 
(E.  Ni  Lamha,  1984,  in  litt.).  Elements:  North  American,  Atlantic,  Mediterranean, 
Holarctic,  Eurasian  and  Arctic/alpine. 

Vegetation  Over  much  of  the  country  agricultural  land,  moorland  and  bog.  Most 
of  the  original  broadleaved  deciduous  woodland  destroyed;  what  remains  consists  mostly 
of  semi-natural  oakwoods  with  birch  and  holly.  Plantations  of  pine,  spruce  and  larch  now 
cover  c.  5°Io  of  the  country  (D.A.  Webb,  1984,  in  litt.).  Extensive  areas  of  heath  and 
heathy  grassland  on  mountains  near  the  coast.  The  rocky,  Hmestone  grasslands  of  the 
Burren  region  of  Co.  Clare  are  of  special  interest,  as  are  the  raised  bogs;  the  latter  now 
under  threat. 

181 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Checklists  and  Floras  Most  publications  make  no  distinction  between  species 
occurrence  in  the  Republic  of  Ireland  and  in  Northern  Ireland,  as  in  the  case  with  the 
completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  and  with 
Clapham,  Tutin  and  Warburg's  Flora  of  the  British  Isles  (1962,  1968,  cited  under  U.K.). 
The  standard  Irish  Checklist  and  Flora  are,  respectively: 

Scannell,  M.J. P.  and  Synnott,  D.M.  (1972).  Census  Catalogue  of  the  Flora  of  Ireland. 

Stationery  Office,  Dublin.  127  pp.  (Checklist  for  both  the  Republic  and  Northern 

Ireland;  natives  and  aliens;  new  edition  in  prep.) 
Webb,  D.A.  (1977).  An  Irish  Flora,  6th  Ed.  Dundalgan  Press,  Dundalk.  277  pp. 

'County  Floras',  in  effect,  detailed  checklists  with  localities,  include: 

Booth,  E.M.  (1979).  The  Flora  of  County  Carlow.  Royal  Dublin  Society,  Dublin. 

172  pp. 
Brunker,  J. P.  (1950).  Flora  of  the  County  Wicklow.  Dundalgan  Press,  Dundalk. 

310  pp.  (Introduction  includes  history  of  the  flora,  geography,  climate,  botanical 

sub-divisions;  pteridophytes,  gymnosperms.) 
Colgan,  N.  (1904).  Flora  of  the  County  Dublin.  Flowering  plants,  higher  Cryptogams 

and  Characeae.  Hodges  and  Figgis,  Dublin.  324  pp.  (Supplement,  1961,  published 

by  the  National  Museum  of  Ireland,  95  pp.) 
Hart,  H.C.  (1898).  Flora  of  the  County  Donegal.  Dublin.  391  pp. 
Scully,  R.W.  (1916).  Flora  of  County  Kerry.  Hodges  and  Figgis,  Dublin.  406  pp. 

(Introduction  describes  geology  and  geography;  pteridophytes  and  angiosperms.) 
Webb,  D.A.  and  Scannell,  M.J. P.  (1983).  Flora  of  Connemara  and  the  Burren. 

Cambridge  Univ.  Press,  Cambridge,  and  Royal  Dublin  Society,  Dublin.  322  pp. 

(History,  climate,  geology,  vegetation  description;  gymnosperms,  angiosperms  and 

cryptogams;  illus.) 

The  Irish  Biological  Records  Centre  (address  below)  is  preparing  a  national  atlas  to 
illustrate  the  distribution  of  the  52  taxa  protected  by  the  1976  Wildlife  Act.  Ireland  is  also 
covered  by  Perring  and  Walters'  Atlas  of  the  British  Flora  (1982,  cited  under  U.K.). 

Relevant  journals:  Bulletin  of  the  Irish  Biogeographical  Society;  Irish  Naturalists' 
Journal;  Journal  of  Life  Sciences,  Royal  Dublin  Society;  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Irish 
Academy. 

Field-guides  Most  of  the  field-guides  covered  under  U.K.  could  be  used  in  the 
Republic  of  Ireland,  since  there  are  only  a  handful  of  plants  that  occur  in  the  Republic  and 
not  in  the  U.K.  Those  specifically  covering  Ireland  include  Fitter,  Fitter  and  Blamey  (1974) 
and  Page  (1982),  both  cited  under  U.K. 

Information   on  Threatened   Plants  No  national  plant  Red  Data  Book  or 

published  threatened  plant  list  except  for  the  schedule  of  protected  plants  (see  'Laws 
Protecting  Plants')  and  the  section  on  Ireland  in  the  list  of  rare  species  not  to  be  collected, 
in: 

Richards,  A.J.  (1972).  The  code  of  conduct:  a  list  of  rare  plants.  Watsonia  9(1):  67-72. 
(Lists  70  species  for  protection  in  Ireland;  whole  island.) 

There  is  a  protected  species  cultivation  programme  in  Trinity  College  Botanic  Gardens 
(address  below),  to  bring  into  cultivation  the  52  nationally  protected  species.  A  seed  bank 
is  also  being  set  up.  For  details  see: 

Wyse  Jackson,  P.  (1984).  Irish  rare  plant  conservation  in  the  Trinity  College  Botanic 
Gardens,  Dublin.  In  Jeffrey,  D.W.  (Ed.),  Nature  Conservation  in  Ireland;  Progress 

182 


Ireland 

and  Problems.  Proceedings  of  a  Seminar,  24-25  February  1983.  Royal  Irish 
Academy,  Dublin.  175  pp. 

Ireland  is  included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  Hst  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983, 
cited  in  Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  R:l; 
non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -E:1,V:2,  R:l  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (in  press).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and  Mammals 
(excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community,  which 
included  a  data  sheet  on  one  Irish  Endangered  plant. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Flora  (Protection)  Order  of  1980,  in  accordance  with 
the  Wildlife  Act  1976,  provides  protection  for  52  plant  species  throughout  the  State.  Under 
this  Order,  it  is  an  offence  to  cut,  pick,  uproot  or  otherwise  take,  purchase,  sell  or  be  in 
possession  of  any  of  these  plants  whether  whole  or  part,  or  wilfully  to  alter,  damage, 
destroy  or  interfere  with  the  habitat  of  these  species.  The  list  of  52  protected  taxa  is 
currently  under  review  by  a  sub-committee  of  the  BSBl  (address  below).  For  a  summary 
see: 

White,  J.  (1981).  Irish  plants  -  protection  at  last.  BSBI News  27:  6-8.  (Includes  extract 
from  the  1976  Wildlife  Act  and  lists  taxa  protected.) 

The  Forest  and  Wildlife  Service  (address  below)  is  responsible  for  implementing  and 
enforcing  the  Wildlife  Act,  the  main  legislation  relating  to  conservation. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

An  Taisce  (The  National  Trust  for  Ireland),  The  Tailor's  Hall,  Back  Lane,  Dublin  8. 
Botanical  Society  of  the  British  Isles  -  BSBI  (Irish  Branch),  c/o  Irish  Biological 

Records  Centre  (An  For  as  Forbartha),  address  below. 
Dublin  Naturalists'  Field  Club,  c/o  Trinity  College  Botanic  Gardens,  Palmer ston  Park, 

DubUn  6. 
Irish  Alpine  Garden  Society,  c/o  Ivanhoe,  28  Spencer  Villas,  Glasthule,  Co.  Dublin. 

(One  of  its  aims  is  the  cuhivation  and  conservation  of  endangered  wild  plants.) 
Irish  Wildlife  Federation,  22  Grafton  Street,  Dublin  2. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Gardens,  University  College,  Cork. 

National  Arboretum,  John  F.  Kennedy  Park,  New  Ross,  Co.  Wexford. 

National  Botanic  Gardens,  Glasnevin,  Dublin  9. 

Trinity  College  Botanic  Gardens,  Palmer ston^  Park,  Dublin  6. 

Useful  Addresses 

Forest  and  Wildlife  Service,  Department  of  Fisheries  and  Forestry,  2  Sidmonton  Place, 
Bray,  Co.  Wicklow. 

Irish  Biological  Records  Centre  (An  Foras  Forbartha),  St  Martin's  House,  Waterloo 
Road,  Dublin  4. 

Wildlife  Advisory  Council,  c/o  Department  of  Fisheries  and  Forestry,  Leeson  Lane, 
Dublin  2.  (Representatives  from  many  voluntary  conservation  bodies  and 
government  agencies;  appointed  by  the  Government  to  advise  the  Minister  for 
Fisheries  and  Forestry  about  the  workings  of  the  Wildlife  Act.) 

CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Wildlife  Advisory  Council,  see  above. 


183 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Additional  References 

Doyle,  J.  (1958).  Irish  floristics  since  the  I.P.E.  of  1949.  Veroff.  Geobot.  Inst.  Rubel., 
Zurich  33:  33-46.  (I.P.E. :  International  Phytogeographical  Excursion.) 

Praeger,  R.L.  (1901).  Irish  Topographical  Botany.  Royal  Irish  Academy,  Dublin. 
410  pp. 

Praeger,  R.L.  (1934).  The  Botanist  in  Ireland.  Hodges  and  Figgis,  Dublin.  587  pp. 
(Physical  and  botanical  descriptions;  maps;  black  and  white  photographs;  line 
drawings;  reprinted  1974  by  E.P.  Publishing,  Wakefield.) 

Webb,  D.A.  (1975).  Floristic  report  for  Ireland.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  615-622. 

Webb,  D.A.  (1983).  The  flora  of  Ireland  in  its  European  context.  The  Boyle  Medal 
Discourse,  1982.  J.  Life  Sc.  R.  Dublin  Soc.  4:  143-160. 

White,  J.  (Ed.)  (1982).  Studies  on  Irish  Vegetation.  Contributions  from  Participants  in 
the  Vegetation  Excursion  to  Ireland,  July  1980.  Organized  by  the  International 
Society  for  Vegetation  Science.  /.  Life  Sciences,  Royal  Dublin  Society.  408  pp. 
Papers  include  G.F.  Mitchell  on  the  influence  of  man  on  vegetation  in  Ireland, 
pp.  7-14;  J.  White  on  a  history  of  Irish  vegetation  studies,  pp.  15-42;  J.  White  on  a 
key  for  the  identification  of  Irish  plant  communities,  pp.  65-110;  J.  White  and  G. 
Doyle  on  the  vegetation  of  Ireland  -  a  catalogue  raisonne,  pp.  289-368. 


Israel 

Area  20,705  sq.  km 

Population  4,216,000 

Floristics  2317  native  species;  155  are  endemic  (Shmida,  1984,  pers.  comm.). 
Most  of  the  endemics  are  found  on  the  coastal  plains  in  the  transitional  zone  between  the 
Mediterranean  and  desert  regions,  and  in  the  high  mountains  of  the  desert  region.  8(X) 
species  belong  to  the  Mediterranean  element,  over  300  species  to  both  the  Irano-Turanian 
and  the  Saharo- Arabian  elements.  In  addition,  there  is  a  small  Euro-Siberian  element,  and 
a  Sudano-Zambezian  element  occupying  favourable  sites  in  the  south  (Zohary,  1982). 

Vegetation  Most  of  the  south  covered  by  deserts.  Sandy  desert  with  Retama, 
Artemisia  and  Stipagrostis  in  the  western  Negev  and  with  Anabasis,  Hammada  and 
Haloxylon  in  the  Arava  Valley.  Stony  desert  with  Artemisia,  Gymnocarpos  and 
Zygophyllum  scrub;  open  dwarf  shrub  steppes  occupy  large  areas  of  the  Judean  Desert, 
northern  Negev  and  parts  of  the  Mediterranean  territory  in  the  north.  Evergreen  forests 
and  maquis,  dominated  by  Quercus  calliprinos,  throughout  the  Mediterranean  territory, 
with  Pistacia,  Crataegus,  and  Ziziphus  steppe  forests  along  its  eastern  and  south-western 
borders;  deciduous  Quercus/ Pistacia  forest  in  north  and  north-west  (Zohary,  1982). 

Checklists  and  Floras  An  up  to  date  Flora  of  Israel  is  provided  by  Flora 
Palaestina  (1966-  ).  Also  relevant  may  be  the  Flora  of  Syria,  Palestine  and  Sinai  (Post, 
1932),  and  Eig,  Zohary  and  Feinbrun-Dothan  (1931);  Israel  will  also  be  covered  by  the 
Med-Checklist;  all  of  these  works  are  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Zohary,  M.  (1976).  A  New  Analytical  Flora  of  Israel.  Am  Oved,  Tel  Aviv.  540  pp. 
(Text  in  Hebrew.) 


184 


Israel 

Field-guides 

Duvdevani,  S.  and  Osherov,  S.  (1969).  Analytical  Key  for  Identification  of  Wild  and 

Cultivated  Plants  of  Israel  by  their  Vegetative  Characters.  Massada,  Tel  Aviv. 

254  pp.  (In  Hebrew.) 
Feinbrun-Dothan,  N.  (1960).  Wild  Plants  in  the  Land  of  Israel.  Hakibbutz  Hameuchad 

and  Massada,  Israel.  185  pp.  (94  species  illustrated;  text  in  English.) 
Plitmann,  U.,  Heyn,  C,  Danin,  A.,  and  Shmida,  A.  (1982).  Pictorial  Flora  of  Israel. 

Massada,  Givatayim.  338  pp.  (Covers  750  species;  text  in  Hebrew  with  English 

preface;  distribution  maps.) 
Shmida,  A.  and  Daron,  D.  (in  press).  Field  Guide  to  the  Common  Plants  of  Israel. 

Keter  Publ.,  Jerusalem. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  A  Botanical  Information  Centre  -  ROTEM 
(the  Hebrew  word  for  the  broom  Retama  raetam)  -  has  a  database  on  rare  and  endangered 
plants  of  Israel.  The  Centre  is  a  joint  project  of  the  Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature  in 
Israel  and  the  Hebrew  University  Department  of  Botany,  at  Har-Gillo  Field  Study  Centre, 
south  of  Jerusalem.  Apart  from  computer  listings  giving  distributions  and  status  of  plants, 
there  is  an  Ecological  Mapping  Program  which  uses  the  Rotem  database  to  produce 
computer-generated  maps  of  species  distributions.  In  addition,  the  Nature  Reserves 
Authority  are  planning  a  Red  Data  Book  of  Israel,  to  cover  flora  and  fauna. 

Israel  is  included  in  the  draft  list  for  North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN 
Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  but  the  coverage  for 
Israel  is  known  to  be  very  incomplete.  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978)  has  sheets 
for  Iris  lortetii  and  Rumex  rothschildianus. 

Dafni,  A.  and  Agami,  M.  (1976).  Extinct  Plants  of  Israel.  Biol.  Conserv.  10:  49-52. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Society  for  the  Protection  of  Nature  in  Israel,  4  Hashfela  Street,  Tel  Aviv  66183. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Ben  Gurion  University  of  the  Negev,  Research  and  Development  Authority,  P.O.  Box 

1025,  Beer  Sheva. 
Botanic  Garden  of  Tel  Aviv  University,  Ramat  Aviv,  Tel  Aviv. 
Botanic  Gardens  of  the  Hebrew  University,  Dept  of  Botany,  Jerusalem  91000. 
Botanical  Garden  "Mikveh-Israel",  Holon. 
Havath-Noy  Garden,  Ministry  of  Agriculture  Research  Post,  Ruppin. 

Useful  Addresses 

Nature  Reserves  Authority,  78  Yirmeyahu  Street,  Jerusalem  94467. 
ROTEM,  Har  Gillo  F.S.C.  Sak  Na'ul,  Jerusalem  91999. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Nature  Reserves  Authority,  78  Yirmeyahu  Street, 
Jerusalem  94467. 

Additional  References 

Danin,  A.  (1983).  Desert  Vegetation  of  Israel  and  Sinai.  Cana  Publ.  House,  Jerusalem. 

148  pp. 
Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.)  (1985).  Plant  Conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  Area.  (See  in 

particular  L.  Boulos  on  the  arid  eastern  and  south-eastern  Mediterranean  regions.) 
Rabinovitz,  D.  (1981).  Nature  Conservation  and  Environmental  Protection  in  the 

Negev  Desert.  A  Challenge  for  Israel  in  the  I980's.  Anglo-Israel  Assoc.  Pamphlet 

no.  62.  16  pp. 
Shmida,  A.  (in  press).  Endemism  in  the  flora  of  Israel.  Bot.  Jahrb. 

185 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Waisel,  Y.  and  Alan,  A.  (1980).  Trees  of  the  Land  of  Israel.  Division  of  Ecology,  Tel 

Aviv.  126  pp. 
Zohary,  M.  (1959).  Wild  life  protection  in  Israel  (flora  and  vegetation).  In  Animaux  et 

Vegetaux  Rares  de  la  Region  MMiterraneenne.  Proceedings  of  the  lUCN  7th 

Technical  Meeting,  11-19  September  1958,  Athens,  vol.  5.  lUCN,  Brussels. 

Pp.  199-202. 
Zohary,  M.  (1962).  The  Plant  Life  of  Palestine:  Israel  and  Jordan.  Ronald  Press,  New 

York.  262  pp.  (Includes  useful  vegetation  map  of  Palestine.) 
Zohary,  M.  (1982).  Vegetation  of  Israel  and  Adjacent  Areas.  Reichert,  Wiesbaden. 

166  pp.  (Includes  vegetation  maps,  bibliography.) 
Zohary,  M.  and  Wood,  H.  (1975).  Bouquet  of  Protected  Wild  Flowers.  Nature 

Conservation  Authority,  Tel  Aviv.  79  pp.  (Coloured  plates  of  37  species;  text  in 

Hebrew.) 

Italy 

(Mainland) 

Area  251,447  sq.  km 

Population  56,724,000 

Floristics  4750-4900  native  vascular  species,  for  peninsula  Italy  only,  according 
to  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  estimated  from  Flora  Europaea;  endemic  taxa: 
142  (lUCN  figure)  principally  based  upon  Flora  Europaea;  1\1  endemics,  including 
subspecies  and  other  infraspecific  taxa,  and  including  Sardinia  and  Sicily  (Pignatti,  1982). 
Central  European  element  well-developed  in  northern  Italy  and  south  to  the  Apennines, 
with  the  typical  Mediterranean  flora  becoming  dominant  southwards.  Areas  of  high 
endemism  concentrated  in  parts  of  the  northern,  central  and  southern  Apennines  and  in 
Calabria  (S.  Pignatti,  1984,  in  litt.).  Elements:  Mediterranean,  Central  European,  alpine. 

Vegetation  Much  of  country  modified  by  agriculture.  Central  European 
vegetation  of  broadleaved  and  coniferous  forests,  with  pines  (Pinus  sylvestris,  P.  cembra), 
oaks  and  beech,  along  the  foothills  of  the  Italian  Alps  and  in  the  Apennines.  These  once 
extensive  forests  now  largely  modified  by  grazing  and  forest  plantations  or,  in  the  north- 
west, replaced  by  subalpine  heaths.  Alpine  meadows  abundant  at  higher  altitudes;  up  to 
4000  m  in  the  Alps,  and  2200  m  in  the  Apennines.  In  the  lowlands  and  coastal  areas, 
especially  in  the  south,  original  cover  of  sclerophyllous  forests  (dominated  by  Pinus 
halepensis)  largely  replaced  by  maquis  and  farmland.  Almost  all  of  the  formerly  extensive 
wetlands  have  disappeared,  although  relict  aquatic  communities  survive  in  the  Po  valley. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Italy  is  included  in  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et 
al.,  1964-1980)  and  will  also  be  covered  under  the  Med-Checklist  (both  cited  in  Appendix 
1).  For  a  floristic  bibliography  see  Hamann  and  Wagenitz  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  The 
most  comprehensive  and  modern  national  checklist  and  Flora  are: 

Pignatti,  S.  et  al.  (1980).  Check-list  of  the  Flora  of  Italy,  with  Codified  Plant  Names 
for  Computer  use.  Consiglio  Nazionale  delle  Ricerche,  Rome.  256  pp. 

Pignatti,  S.  (1982).  Flora  d'ltalia,  3  vols.  Edagricole,  Bologna.  (1  -  history  of  Floras, 
ecology,  gymnosperms,  pteridophytes,  dicotyledons;  2  and  3  -  remainder  of 
angiosperms;  line  drawings  and  distribution  maps  for  each  species.) 

186 


Italy 

Other  works: 

Baroni,  E.  (1969).  Guida  Botanica  d'ltalia,  4th  Ed.  CappelH,  Bologna.  545  pp. 

(Revised  by  S.  Baroni  Zanetti;  covers  mainland  Italy,  Corsica,  Sardinia,  Sicily,  Istria 

and  the  French  Riviera;  illus.) 
Fiori,  A.  (1923-1933).  Nuova  Flora  Analitica  d'ltalia,  3  vols.  Edagricole,  Bologna. 

(Covers  mainland  Italy,  Corsica,  Sardinia,  Sicily,  Pantellaria  and  nearby  smaller 

islets;  1  -  pteridophytes,  gymnosperms  and  angiosperms  (Gramineae  to 

Leguminosae);  2  -  Myrtaceae  to  Compositae;  3  -  line  drawings  only,  by  A.  Fiori 

and  G.  Paoletti;  reprinted  1969  and  1974.) 
Zangheri,  P.  (1976).  Flora  Italica,  2  vols.  Cedam,  Padova.  (1  -  gymnosperms, 

pteridophytes,  angiosperms;  2  -  line  drawings.) 

See  also:  ^ 

Moggi,  G.  (1975).  Donnees  disponsibles  et  lacunes  de  la  connaissance  floristique  de 
ritalie.  In  CNRS  (1975,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Pp.  53-63.  (Describes  present 
situation  of  floristic  and  systematic  research  in  Italy;  lists  main  herbaria  and  centres 
of  floristic  study.) 

Pichi  Sermolli,  R.E.G.  and  Moggi,  G.  (1975).  Report  on  the  progress  of  floristic 
research  in  Italy  since  1961.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  623-746. 

A  computerized  floristic  mapping  scheme,  under  the  direction  of  S.  Pignatti 
(Dipartimento  di  Biologia  Vegetale,  Citta  Universitaria  I,  00100  Rome),  is  in  progress. 
Based  essentially  on  Pignatti's  Flora  d'ltalia  (1982),  it  will  include  species  and  distribution 
data  for  the  whole  country,  threatened  plant  data,  biotopes  containing  threatened  species 
and  areas  of  high  endemism  (Anon,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Field-guides 

Dalla  Fior,  G.  (1963).  La  Nostra  Flora  (Guida  alia  Conoscenza  della  Flora  della 

Regione  TrentinoJ.  Casa  Editrice  G.B.  Monauni,  Trento.  (Not  seen.) 
Fenaroli,  L.  (1971).  Flora  delle  Alpi  Vegetazione  e  Flora  delle  Alpi  e  degli  altri  Monti 

d'ltalia,  2nd  Ed.  Aldo  Martello,  Milano.  428  pp.  (Keys,  colour  and  black  and  white 

drawings.) 
Fenaroli,  L.  and  Gambi,  G.  (1976).  Albert:  Dendroflora  Italica.  Museo  Tridentino  di 

Scienze  Naturali,  Trento.  717  pp.  (Trees^-  colour  and  black  and  white  drawings; 

photographs;  maps.) 
Rasetti,  F.  (1980).  I  Fiori  delle  Alpi.  Accademia  Nazionale  dei  Lincei,  Roma.  316  pp. 

(Illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  plant  Red  Data  Book.  A 
very  preliminary  threatened  plant  hst  was  published  in  1972: 

Anon  (1972).  Specie  della  Flora  italiana  meritevoli  di  protezione  (Gruppo  di  Lavoro  per 
la  Floristica,  Societa  Botanica  Italiana).  Inform.  Bot.  Ital.  4(1):  12-13.  List  also  in 
Webbia  29(1):  361-363  (1974).  (Lists  41  species  in  need  of  protection  with 
explanatory  text  in  Itahan,  French,  English  and  German.) 

In  1971  and  1979,  the  Societa  Botanica  Italiana  published  2  large  volumes  documenting 
563  sites  considered  to  be  of  high  botanical  interest  and  in  need  of  conservation: 

Pedrotti,  F.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1971,  1979).  Censimento  dei  Biotopi  di  Rilevante  Interesse 
Vegetazionale  Meritevole  di  Conservazione  in  Italia,  2  vols.  Societa  Botanica 
Italiana,  Camerino.  (Site  details  -  description,  threats,  proposed  protection,  maps.) 

See  also: 

187 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Corti,  R.  (1959).  Specie  rare  o  minacciate  della  flora  Mediterranea  in  Italia.  In 
Animaux  et  V^getaux  Rares  de  la  Region  Mediterran^enne,  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Pp.  112-129.  (Brief  distribution  and  status  details  on  65  threatened  plant  taxa.) 

Filipello,  S.  (Ed.)  (1981).  Problemi  Scientifici  e  Tecnici  della  Conservazione  del 
Patrimonio  Vegetale.  Proceedings  of  a  conference,  18-19  December  1979,  Firenze. 
Consiglio  Nazionale  delle  Ricerche,  Pavia.  146  pp.  {OPTIMA  Leaflet  No.  114.) 
(Contains  many  relevant  articles  in  Italian  with  English  abstracts,  e.g.  S.  Filipello  on 
plant  species  to  protect  (pp.  13-18);  G.G.  Lorenzoni  on  a  census  of  vegetation  types 
under  threat  (pp.  39-46);  A.  Robecchi-Majnardi  on  plant  and  vegetation 
conservation  (pp.  33-37);  F.  Pedrotti  on  the  conservation  of  wetland  vegetation 
(pp.  63-80);  P.L.  Nimis  on  a  data  bank  for  Italian  flora  and  vegetation  (pp.  83-86) 
and  F.M.  Raimondo  on  Italian  species  in  threatened  biotopes  (pp.  103-125).) 

Filipello,  S.  and  Gardini-Peccenini,  S.  (1985).  The  Italian  Peninsular  and  Alpine 
Regions.  In  Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.)  (1985),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  71-88. 
(Includes  lists  of  threatened  plants,  species  case-histories  and  details  of  laws  and 
protected  areas.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics  for  mainland  Italy,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic 
taxa  -  E:6,  V:17,  R:48,  1:5,  K:16,  nt:50;  doubtfully  endemic  taxa  -  V:l,  K:l,  nt:2;  non- 
endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:4,  V:34,  R:38,  1:4  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  included  data  sheets  on  31  Italian  Endangered  plant  species  (including  8  in  Sicily  and 
6  in  Sardinia).  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  includes  4  Italian  threatened  species. 

For  details  of  computerized  threatened  plant  data  see  under  Checklists  and  Floras. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  There  is  no  national  legislation  giving  protection  to  wild 
plant  species  except  those  regulating  the  collection  of  truffles  and  plants  registered  under 
the  official  flora  -  plants  of  medicinal  or  traditional  economic  value.  13  out  of  21  Regions 
and  Autonomous  Provinces  have  passed  local  legislation  to  protect  their  flora,  in 
particular  their  rare  or  characteristic  species.  Moreover,  Law  No.  984  of  27  December  1977 
obliged  those  regions  who  had  not  already  done  so  to  legislate  for  the  protection  of  their 
flora  by  24  June  1978.  Existing  Regional  and  Provincial  laws  are: 


Regional: 


Abruzzo  No. 66  of  1980. 

Basilicata  No.42  of  22  May  1980 

Emilia-Romagna  No. 2  of  24  January  1977. 

FriuH-Venezia  Giulia  No. 44  of  18  August  1972. 

Lazio  No. 61  of  19  September  1974. 

Liguria  No. 9  of  30  January  1984. 

Lombardia  No. 58  of  17  December  1973. 

Marche  No. 6  of  22  February  1973. 

Piedmonte  No. 24  of  13  August  1974. 

Umbria  No.40  of  11  August  1978. 

Valle-d'Aosta  No. 6  of  8  November  1956  and 

special  decree  no.  43  of 

31  January  1957. 

Veneto  No. 53  of  15  November  1974. 


188 


Italy 


Provincial: 


Bolzano 
Trento 


No.  13  of  28  July  1972. 
No.  17  of  25  July  1973. 


Bortolotti,  L.  (1975).  Sulle  leggi  per  la  protezione  della  flora  emanate  dalle  Region!  a 

statuto  speciale  e  ordinario  dalle  Province  autonome.  Boll.  Soc.  Bot.  ltd.  7(2): 

132-139. 
Filipello,  S.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1979).  Repertorio  delle  Specie  della  Flora  Italiana  Sottoposte  a 

Vincolo  di  Protezione  nella  Legislazione  Nazionale  e  Regionale.  Consiglio  Nazionale 

delle  Ricerche,  Pavia.  (Includes  taxa  protected  at  Regional  and  Provincial  levels.) 
Peyronel,  B.  (1973).  Considersizione  su  una  legge  regionale  per  la  conservazione  della 

flora:  Italia.  Inf.  Bot.  Ital.  5(2):  151-154. 
Region  Marche  (Ed.)  (1979).  Flora  Protetta  delle  Marche.  Region  Marche.  96  pp. 

(Maps;  illus.) 
Region  Veneto  (Ed.)  (1975).  Fauna  Inferiore  Flora  e  Funghi  Natura  da  Salvare.  71  pp. 

(Describes  48  protected  species;  illus.) 
Sonnino,  P.P.  (1975).  Protezione  delle  flora  alpina  e  legislazione.  Natura  e  Montagna 

(Italy)  22(2):  41-47. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Associazione  Italiana  per  il  World  Wildlife  Fund  (WWF-Italy),  Via  P.A.  Micheli  50, 

00197  Rome. 
Italia  Nostra,  Via  N.  Porpora  22,  00100  Rome. 
Societa  Botanica  Italiana,  Via  La  Pira,  4-50121  Firenze. 

Botanic  Gardens  Numerous;  outlined  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1; 
only  those  that  subscribe  to  the  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body  listed 
here: 

Ente  Giardini  Botanici  Villa  Taranto,  28048  Verbania  Pallanza,  Lago  Maggiore. 
Istituto  e  Orto  Botanico  dell'  Universita  di  Pavia,  Via  San  Epifanio  14,  27100  Pavia. 

Useful  Addresses 

Federazione  Nazionale  Pro  Natura,  Via  Marchesana  12,  40124  Bologna. 

Food  and  Agriculture  Oganization  of  the  U.N.  (FAO),  Via  delle  Terme  di  Caracalla, 

00100  Roma. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authorities:  Ministero  dell'Agricoltura  e  delle 

Foreste,  Direzione  generale  per  I'Economia  montana  e  per  le  Foreste,  Divisione  II, 

Via  G.Carducci  5,  00187  Roma. 

Additional  References 

Filipello,  S.  (1979).  Projets,  problemes  et  aboutissements  de  la  conservation  de  la  flore 

et  de  la  vegetation  en  Italic.  In  Proceedings  of  the  2nd  OPTIMA  meeting,  23-29 

May  1977.  Webbia  34(1):  63-69. 
Societa  Botanica  Italiana  (1975).  Aufruf  zum  Schutze  der  Italienischen  Flora. 

Willdenowia  7(3):  537-538.  (Lists  43  protected  species.) 
Toschi,  A.  (1959).  Etablissement  des  reserves  pour  la  protection  de  la  faune  et  de  la 

flore  en  Italic.  In  Animaux  et  Vegetaux  Rares  de  la  Region  Mediterraneenne. 

Proceedings  of  the  lUCN  7th  Technical  Meeting,  11-19  September  1958,  Athens, 

vol.  5.  lUCN,  Brussels.  Pp.  58-63. 


189 


Italy:  Sardinia 


Second  largest  island  in  the  Mediterranean  after  Sicily,  c.  255  km  long,  90  km  wide,  with 
over  1200  km  of  coastline. 

Area  24,090  sq.  km 

Population  1,594,175  (1981  census) 

Floristics  1900-2000  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea.  11  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures).  Affinities  with 
flora  of  Corsica  rather  than  Sicily.  Flora  entirely  Mediterranean. 

Vegetation  Little  natural  vegetation,  especially  around  the  coast.  Inland,  a  zone 
of  Holm  Oak  {Quercus  ilex)  is  dominant,  although  much  has  been  replaced  by  dry  pastures 
and  on  the  lower  ground  it  has  largely  been  degraded  to  garigue.  Natural  formations  of 
thorny  shrubs  are  widespread  in  mountainous  areas  (S.  Pignatti,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Checklists  and  Floras  See  under  Italy,  and  also  a  series  of  papers  by  different 
authors  (B.  Corrias,  P.V.  Arrigoni,  I.  Camarda,  M.  Rafaelh  and  F.  Valsecchi)  in  Boll. 
Soc.  Sarda  Sci.  Nat.  entitled  'Le  piante  endemiche  della  Sardegna'.  Vols  16  (1977): 
259-280,  287-313;  17  (1978):  177-225,  227-241,  243-328.  (Reprinted  in  OPTIMA  Leaflets 
49-54  (1977)  and  73-79  (1978);  case-studies  on  individual  taxa,  with  details  of  distribution 
and  ecology;  maps;  line  drawings.) 

Cossu,  A.  (1968).  Flora  Pratica  Sarda.  Gallizi,  Sassari.  365  pp.  (Includes  distribution, 
habitat  and  cultivation  details;  illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  See  under  Italy,  and: 

Arrigoni,  P.V.  (1971).  Nuovi  reperti  di  alcune  species  rare  o  notevoli  della  flora  sarda 
(New  records  for  some  rare  or  interesting  species  in  Sardinia).  Giorn.  Bot.  Ital. 
105(4):  177-178. 

lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:5,  V:3,  R:10,  K:l,  nt:8;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened 
worldwide  -  E:2,  V:5,  R:6,  1:1  (world  categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  See  under  Italy. 

Additional  References 

Arrigoni,  P.V.  (1968).  Fitoclimatologia  della  Sardegna.  Webbia  23(1):  1-100.  (English 

summary.) 
Camarda,  I.  and  Valsecchi,  F.  (1984).  Albert  e  arbusti  spontanei  della  Sardegna. 

Gallizzi.  480  pp.  (Illus.) 


Italy:  Sicily 


Sicily,  the  largest  island  in  the  Mediterranean,  is  separated  from  mainland  Italy  to  the 
north-east  by  the  3-km  straits  of  Messina. 

Area  25,708  sq.  km 

Population  4,906,878  (1981  census) 


190 


Italy:  Sicily 

Floristics  2250-2450  native  vascular  species  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea.  41  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures).  Floristic  diversity 
and  endemism  highest  in  the  north-west,  especially  the  mountains  of  the  Madonie  and 
Nebrodi  area  and  the  slopes  of  Mt  Etna.  A  Mediterranean  flora. 

Vegetation  Little  natural  vegetation.  Most  of  the  land  cultivated.  The  forest 
cover  of  Sicilian  Fir  (Abies  nebrodensis),  once  almost  continuous  in  the  northern 
mountain  range,  now  confined  to  tiny  fragments  in  the  Madonie  area;  some  broadleaved, 
deciduous  forest  of  oak,  chestnut  and  beech  in  the  Nebrodi  and  Madonie  Mountains  and 
the  northern  slopes  of  the  Rocca  Busambra;  maquis  confined  to  the  drier  areas,  especially 
the  lower  slopes  of  the  mountains.  The  volcanic  Mt  Etna  (3323  m),  in  north-east  Sicily, 
supports  oak,  birch  and  chestnut  forests,  with  fragments  of  beech  (1000-1450  m),  but 
forest  degradation  widespread;  at  higher  altitudes,  Laricio  Pine  (Pinus  nigra  ssp.  laricio), 
giving  way  to  low  scrub  communities  rich  in  endemics  e.g.  Genista  aetnensis;  lower  slopes 
are  heavily  cultivated  (Poll  Marchese,  1984).  For  a  vegetation  map  see  Gentile  et  al.  (1968). 

Checklists  and  Floras  See  under  Italy  and: 

Di  Martino,  A.  and  Raimondo,  F.M.  (1979).  Biological  and  chorological  survey  of  the 
Sicilian  flora.  In  Proceedings  of  the  2nd  OPTIMA  meeting,  23-29  May  1977. 
Webbia  34(1):  309-335.  (English  summary.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  See  under  Italy. 

Case  studies  have  been  written  about  individual  threatened  and  endemic  species,  e.g.  by 
F.  Garbari  and  A.  Di  Martino  on  Leopoldia  gussonei  in  Webbia  27(1):  289-297  (1972). 
(English  summaries.) 

lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:6,  V:5,  R:13,  1:4,  K:3,  nt:10;  doubtfully-endemic  taxa  - 
R:l,  nt:l;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:3,  V:5,  R:9,  1:1  (world 
categories). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  See  under  Italy. 

Voluntary  Organizations  See  under  Italy. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Istituto  Botanico  e  Giardino  Coloniale,  Via  A.  Lincoln  2,  90133  Palermo. 

Useful  Addresses  See  under  Italy  and: 

Istituto  Sperimentale  per  la  Selvicoltura,  Viole  S.  Margherita,  80/82,  52100  Arezzo, 
Italy.  (Involved  with  a  conservation  programme  for  Abies  nebrodensis.) 

Additional  References 

Gentile,  S.,  Tomaselli,  R.,  Pirola,  A.  and  Balduzzi,  A.  (1968).  Carta  della  Vegetazione 

Naturale  Potenziale  della  Sicilia,  J/500,000.  No.  40.  Quaderni,  Pavia.  114  pp. 
Poll  Marchese,  E.  (1984).  Excursion  au  M.  Etna  (10  Juin  1983):  une  vue  synthetique  du 

paysage  vegetal  de  I'Etna.  In  Proceedings  of  the  4th  OPTIMA  meeting,  6-14  June 

1983,  Palermo,  Sicily.  Webbia  38:  69-78. 
Raimondo,  F.M.  (1983).  On  the  natural  history  of  the  Madonie  Mountains.  In 

Proceedings  of  the  4th  OPTIMA  meeting,  6-14  June  1983,  Palermo,  Sicily.  Webbia 

38:  29-61.  (A  floristic  and  ecological  account  with  comments  on  conservation.) 
Raimondo,  F.M.,  Rossitto,  M.  and  Villari,  R.  (1982).  Bibliografia  Geobotanica 

Siciliana.  Consiglio  Nazionale  delle  Ricerche,  Palermo.  159  pp.  (Includes  algae, 

lichens,  bryophytes  and  angiosperms.) 

191 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Riggio,  S.  and  Massa,  B.  (1974).  Problemi  di  conservazione  della  natura  in  Sicilia.  1. 
Contribute.  Atti  IV  Simp.  Naz.  Conservazione  Nat.  Bar.  2:  299-425.  (Not  seen.) 


Ivory  Coast 

Area  322,463  sq.  km 

Population  9,474,000 

Floristics  3660  species  of  vascular  plants  (Ake  Assi,  1984);  Ake  Assi  (1971)  gives 
4892  species;  4700  species  (Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  2770  species  in  the  forest 
zone  (Aubreville,  1959).  62  endemic  angiosperms  (Ake  Assi,  1984);  41  endemic  species 
(Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  89  endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures,  see  below). 

Floristic  affinities  predominantly  Guinea-Congolian,  but  flora  in  north  with  Sudanian 
affinities.  Tai  Forest  (868  species,  Ake  Assi  and  Pfeffer,  1975)  and  Mt  Nimba  (shared  with 
Guinea  and  Liberia,  2000  species)  are  especially  important  floristically. 

Vegetation  Northern  quarter  covered  by  Sudanian  woodland  with  Isoberlinia. 
Remainder  of  country  lowland  rain  forest  interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and 
cultivation;  transitional  rain  forest  (between  lowland  and  montane)  on  Mt  Nimba.  Small 
area  of  mangrove  and  swamp  forest  at  coast. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  2900  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
44,580  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  quotes 
coverage  of  primary  moist  forest  to  be  30,000  sq.  km  or  less  (World  Bank),  which  is  being 
opened  up  at  a  rate  of  4(XK)-5000  sq.  km/annum. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Ivory  Coast  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical 
Africa.  The  Ivorian  portion  of  Mt  Nimba  is  included  in  Flore  Descriptive  des  Monts 
Nimba.  Both  works  are  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Ake  Assi,  L.  (1964).  Contribution  a  I'Etude  Floristique  de  la  Cote  d'lvoire  et  des 

Territoires  Limitrophes.  Lechevalier,  Paris.  321  pp.  (Annotated  checklist  with 

extensive  specimen  citations;  line  drawings.) 
Ake  Assi,  L.  (1984).  Flore  de  la  Cote  d'lvoire:  Etude  Descriptive  et  Biogiographique, 

avec  Quelques  Notes  Ethnobotaniques,  3  parts  in  6  vols.  Thesis  presented  to 

University  of  Abidjan.  1206  pp.  (Part  1  -  notes  on  families,  genera,  species; 

numerous  line  drawings;  part  2  -  checklist  of  species;  part  3  -  analysis  of  the  flora; 

list  of  ailments  and  plants  used  in  their  cure;  bibliography.) 
Ake  Assi,  L.  and  Pfeffer,  P.  (1975).  Inventaire  Flore  et  Faune  du  Pare  National  de 

Tai.  BDPA/SEPN,  Abidjan. 
Aubreville,  A.  (1959).  La  Flore  Foresti^re  de  la  Cote  d'lvoire,  3  vols.  2nd  Ed.  (1st  Ed. 

1936).  Publication  No.  15  of  the  Centre  Technique  Forestier  Tropical,  Nogent-sur- 

Marne.  (Keys,  descriptions,  broad  distributions,  line  drawings.) 
Guillaumet,  J.-L.  (1967).  Recherches  sur  la  Vegetation  et  la  Flore  de  la  Region  du  Bas- 

Cavally  (Cote  d'lvoire).  ORSTOM,  Paris.  247  pp.  (Includes  vegetation  map 

1:1,000,000;  39  black  and  white  photographs.) 


192 


Ivory  Coast 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  89  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic  -  E:6, 
V:36,  R:17,  nt:2,  K:28. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Laboratoire  de  Botanique,  ORSTOM,  B.P.  20,  Abidjan. 

Additional  References 

Adjanohoun,  E.,  Ake  Assi,  L.  and  Guillaumet,  J.L.  (1968).  La  Cote  d'lvoire.  In 

Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  76-81. 
Ake  Assi,  L.  (1971).  Progres  dans  la  preparation  de  la  flore  de  la  Cote  d'lvoire.  In 

Merxmuller,  H.  (1971),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  27-29. 
Lamotte,  M.  (1983).  The  undermining  of  Mount  Nimba.  Ambio  12(3-4):  174-179. 

(Photographs,  maps.) 
Lanly,  J. P.  (1969).  Regression  de  la  foret  dense  en  Cote  d'lvoire.  Bois  Forets  Trop. 

127:  45-59. 
Mangenot,  G.  (1971).  Une  nouvelle  carte  de  la  vegetation  de  la  Cote  d'lvoire.  In 

Merxmuller,  H.  (1971),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  116-121.  (With  vegetation  map 

1:4,000,0(X).) 


Jamaica 


Jamaica  lies  south  of  the  eastern  extremity  of  Cuba,  in  the  Caribbean  Sea.  235  km  long 
and  82  km  wide,  it  consists  of  coastal  plains,  divided  by  the  Blue  Mountain  Range  in  the 
east  which  reaches  2256  m,  and  hills  and  limestone  plateaux  in  the  centre  and  west. 

Area  11,425  sq.  km 

Population  2,290,0(X) 

Floristics  3003  species  of  flowering  plants,  with  27.6%  endemism  (CD.  Adams 
pers.  comm.,  from  Proctor,  1982);  579  species  of  ferns,  82  (13.5%)  endemic  (Proctor,  in 
press).  In  Bromeliaceae  and  Orchidaceae,  both  richly  represented  in  Jamaica,  endemism  is 
30.7%  (Adams,  1972). 

Vegetation  Much  of  lowlands  cleared  for  agriculture;  natural  vegetation  in 
littoral  mangrove  swamps  and  salt  pans;  xeric  woodlands,  varying  from  cactus-thorn  scrub 
to  high  forest,  on  limestone;  secondary  woodland  common  on  dry  alluvial  soils  of 
southern  plains.  Native  forest,  on  the  limestone  hills  and  plateaux  of  the  interior,  modified 
and  receding  steadily;  the  largest  extent  of  natural  forest  is  in  the  Cockpit  Country  in  the 
NW  where  101  endemic  species  have  been  described.  Some  well-developed  lower  montane 
rain  forest  on  limestone  in  the  John  Crow  Mountains,  at  the  wet  NE  corner  of  the  island; 
extensive  montane  rain  forest  in  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Blue  Mountains,  steadily 
receding;  elfin  woodland  on  the  summits  and  ridges  of  the  Blue  and  John  Crow 
Mountains.  44.9%  forested  (FAO,  1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  20  sq.  km/annum,  out  of  a  total  of  670  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  Flora  is: 

193 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Adams,  CD.  (1972).  Flowering  Plants  of  Jamaica.  University  of  the  West  Indies, 
Mona.  848  pp. 

See  also: 

Proctor,  G.R.  (1982).  More  additions  to  the  Flora  of  Jamaica.  J.  Arnold  Arbor.  63(3): 

199-315.  (115  native  species  further  to  Adams,  1972.) 
Proctor,  G.R.  (in  press).  Ferns  of  Jamaica.  British  Museum  (Natural  History), 

London. 

Field-guides 

Hawkes,  A.D.  and  Sutton,  B.C.  (1974).  Wild  Flowers  of  Jamaica.  Collins.  96  pp.  (An 
introduction  and  guide  to  174  taxa,  each  illustrated.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  D.L.  Kelly  (1985,  pers.  comm.)  estimates  363 
endemic  species,  48.8%  of  the  total  are  rare,  very  rare  or  extinct;  90  of  them  are  known  in 
recent  times  only  from  single  sites  and  40  only  from  old  collections  of  which  majority  are 
probably  now  extinct. 

Proctor,  G.R.  Conservation  of  Jamaican  plants:  Partial  list  of  endangered  species. 
Undated  manuscript. 

Threatened  plant  conservation  is  discussed  in: 

Howard,  R.A.  (1977).  Conservation  and  the  endangered  species  of  plants  in  the 
Caribbean  islands.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in 
Appendix  1.  Pp.  105-114. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Existing  legislation: 

Bark  of  Trees  Act  -  regulation  of  commercial  bark  removal  for  specific  species. 

Forest  Act  -  declaration  of  forest  reserves. 

Town  Planning  Act  -  declaration  of  Tree  Preservation  Orders. 

Proposed  legislation: 

Wild  Life  Protection  Act:  redefinition  of  'Wild  Life'  to  include  plants. 

Trade  Law:  Inclusion  of  certain  plants  under  various  schedules  to  regulate  export. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Jamaica  Orchid  Society,  c/o  Mr.  A.  Gloudon,  4A  Wai  Rua  Road,  Gordon  Town, 

St  Andrew. 
Natural  History  Society  of  Jamaica,  c/o  Institute  of  Jamaica,  Duke  St.,  Kingston. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Bath  Garden,  Bath,  St  Thomas. 

Castleton  Gardens,  St  Mary. 

Royal  Botanic  Gardens  (Hope),  Hope  Road,  Kingston  6. 

The  Hill  Gardens,  Cinchona,  Hall's  Delight,  St  Andrew. 

See: 

Eyre,  A.  (1966).  The  Botanic  Gardens  of  Jamaica.  Andre  Deutsch,  London.  96  pp., 
16  plates.  (A  guide  to  the  gardens,  remarks  on  the  areas  in  which  they  occur,  and 
their  history.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Department  of  Botany  and  Herbarium,  University  of  the  West  Indies,  Mona, 
Kingston  7. 

194 


Jamaica 

Forestry  Department,  173  Constant  Spring  Road,  Kingston  8. 

Institute  of  Jamaica,  12  East  Street,  Kingston. 

Natural  Resource  Conservation  Division,  Ministry  of  Science,  Technology  and 

Environment,  P.O.  Box  305,  Kingston  10. 
The  Herbarium,  Institute  of  Jamaica,  Duke  St.,  Kingston. 

Additional  References 

Adams,  CD.  (1971).  The  Blue  Mahoe  &  Other  Bush:  an  Introduction  to  Plant  Life  in 

Jamaica.  Sangster's  Bookstores  Ltd.,  97  Harbour  Street,  Kingston,  Jamaica  and 

McGraw-Hill  Far  Eastern  Publishers  Ltd.,  Singapore.  157  pp. 
Asprey,  G.F.  and  Loveless,  A.R.  (1957).  The  dry  evergreen  formations  of  Jamaica. 

J.  Ecol.  45:  799-822. 
Asprey,  G.F.  and  Robbins,  R.G.  (1953).  The  vegetation  of  Jamaica.  Ecol.  Monog.  23: 

359-412. 
Grubb,  P.J.  and  Tanner,  E.V.J.  (1976).  The  montane  forests  and  soils  of  Jamaica:  a 

reassessment.  J.  Arnold  Arbor.  57:  313-368. 
Thompson,  D.A.,  Bretting,  P.  and  Humphries,  M.  (Eds)  (in  press).  Forests  of  Jamaica. 

Institute  of  Jamaica  Publications. 
Woodley,  J.D.  (Ed.)  (1971).  Hellshire  Hills  Scientific  Survey  1970.  University  of  the 

West  Indies  and  Institute  of  Jamaica.  168  pp. 


Japan 


Area  369,698  sq.  km 

Population  119,492,000 

Floristics  4022  vascular  plant  species  in  1098  genera  (excluding  Ogasawara-Gunto 
and  Ryukyu  Retto);  about  500  fern  species  (Ohwi,  1965).  1371  endemic  species  (based  on 
Ohwi,  1965,  quoted  in  Nishida,  1972);  many  occur  in  the  high  altitude  zones.  Floral 
elements  from  Siberia,  Manchuria,  Korea,  southern  China,  Taiwan  and  Malesia. 

Vegetation  Subtropical  broadleaved  evergreen  forest  and  warm  temperate 
broadleaved  evergreen  forest  near  south  and  east  coasts,  and  in  the  lowlands  of  south-west 
Honshu,  Shikoku  and  Kyushu;  cool  temperate  broadleaved  forest  in  low  mountains  and 
highlands  of  the  coastal  hinterlands;  subarctic  coniferous  forests  on  mountains  higher 
than  1400-1500  m,  in  the  north,  on  Shikoku  and  in  the  lowlands  of  Hokkaido.  Alpine  zone 
with  scrub,  grassland  and  rocky  desert,  above  2500  m  in  Central  Honshu,  above 
1900-2000  m  in  the  Tohoku  district  and  above  1400-1500  m  in  Hokkaido.  Many  areas  of 
lowland  vegetation,  especially  near  coasts,  cleared  for  agriculture  and  urbanization. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  principal  Floras  are: 

Nakaike,  T.  (1982).  New  Flora  of  Japan.  Pteridophyta.  Shibundo,  Tokyo.  808  pp. 

(About  850  taxa  described  in  Japanese;  many  photographs.) 
Ohwi,  J.  (1965).  Flora  of  Japan.  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington,  D.C.  1067  pp. 

(Revised  and  extended  English  translation  of  Nihon  Shokubutsu-shi,  1953  and  Flora 

of  Japan  -  Pteridophyta,  1957,  by  the  same  author.  Japanese  revision,  1983,  by 

M.  Kitagawa  et  al.,  published  by  Shibundo,  Tokyo.) 

See  also: 

195 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Hara,  H.  and  Kanai,  H.  (1958,  1959).  Distribution  Maps  of  Flowering  Plants  in  Japan, 
2  vols.  Inoue,  Tokyo.  (Dot  maps  of  200  taxa;  endemics  indicated.) 

Horikawa,  Y.  (1972,  1976).  Atlas  of  the  Japanese  Flora:  An  Introduction  to  Plant 
Sociology  of  East  Asia,  2  vols  so  far;  5  planned  (according  to  Frodin).  Gakken, 
Tokyo.  (Dot  maps  showing  distribution  and  altitudinal  range  of  800  taxa;  short 
descriptions;  vegetation  map  at  scale  1:5,0(X),000.) 

Kurata,  S.  and  Nakaike,  T.  (Eds)  (1979-  ).  Illustrations  of  Pteridophytes  of  Japan, 
4  vols  so  far.  Univ.  Press,  Tokyo.  (Each  volume  describes  about  100  taxa  in 
Japanese;  distribution  maps;  photographs.) 

Field-guides  The  following  illustrated  guides  cover  most  of  the  flora;  Japanese 
text  includes  notes  on  distribution  and  habitats  for  each  species: 

Coloured  Illustrations  of  Herbaceous  Plants  of  Japan.  Hoikusha,  Osaka.  Vol.  1  (1958) 

by  S.  Kitamura,  M.  Hori  and  G.  Murata  (Sympetalae);  vol.  2  (1961)  by  S.  Kitamura 

and  G.  Murata  (Choripetalae);  vol.  3  (1964)  by  S.  Kitamura,  G.  Murata  and 

T.  Koyama  (monocotyledons). 
Coloured  Illustrations  of  the  Pteridophyta  of  Japan  (1962),  by  M.  Tagawa.  Hoikusha, 

Osaka.  207  pp. 
Coloured  Illustrations  of  Wild  Plants  of  Japan  (1957-1959),  4  vols  by  S.  Okuyama. 

Seibundo-Shinkosha,  Tokyo.  (Line  drawings,  colour  photographs,  distribution 

maps.) 
Coloured  Illustrations  of  Woody  Plants  of  Japan  (1973,  1979),  2  vols  by  S.  Kitamura 

and  G.  Murata.  Hoikusha,  Osaka.  (Over  1200  taxa  described,  many  illustrated.) 
Satake,  Y.,  Ohwi,  J.,  Kitamura,  S.,  Watari,  S.  and  Tominari,  T.  (Eds)  (1981).  Wild 

Flowers  of  Japan:  Herbaceous  Plants  (Including  Dwarf  Subshrubs),  3  vols. 

Heibonsha,  Tokyo.  (In  Japanese.) 
Shimizu,  T.  (1982,  1983).  The  New  Alpine  Flora  of  Japan  in  Color,  2  vols.  Hoikusha, 

Osaka.  (About  800  taxa  described  in  Japanese;  keys  in  English;  many  colour  plates.) 
Takeda,  H.  and  Tanebe,  K.  (1951).  Illustrated  Manual  of  Alpine  Plants  of  Japan. 

Hokuryu-Kan,  Tokyo.  347  pp.  (Short  descriptions,  line  drawings  of  432  species.) 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  Japan  has  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  lUCN 
has  a  preliminary  list  of  endemic  Japanese  trees,  including  E:4,  V:4,  R:5.  See  also: 

Shimizu,  T.  and  Satomi,  N.  (1976).  A  preliminary  list  of  the  rare  and  critical  vascular 
plants  of  Japan,  2  parts.  J.  Fac.  Liberal  Arts,  Shinshu  Univ.  Nat.  Sci.  10:  3-16;  11: 
43-54.  (Annotated  list  of  ferns,  gymnosperms,  monocotyledons  and  a  number  of 
dicotyledons;  distribution  details  for  Hokkaido,  Honshu,  Kyushu  and  Shikoku.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  conservation  of  plant  life  in  Japan  was  first  covered 
by  law  under  an  act  of  1919,  which  designated  various  plants  as  "national  monuments". 
This  category  also  includes  a  number  of  natural  forests  and  special  plant  communities.  The 
National  Park  Law  and  the  Nature  Conservation  Law  protect  a  number  of  plants  and 
vegetation  types. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Nature  Conservation  Society  of  Japan,  2-8-1  Toranomon,  Minato-ku,  Tokyo  105. 
WWF-Japan,  6F  39,  Mori  Building,  2-4-5  Azabudai,  Minato-ku,  Tokyo  106. 

Botanic  Gardens  Japan  has  106  botanic  gardens,  but  none  subscribe  to  the  lUCN 
Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body.  For  a  full  list  of  them  see  Henderson 
(1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 


196 


Japan 

Useful  Addresses 

Biological  Institute  and  Herbarium,  Faculty  of  Liberal  Arts,  Shinshu  University, 

Matsumoto  390. 
Japan  Society  of  Plant  Taxonomists,  c/o  Department  of  Botany,  National  Science 

Museum,  Hyakunin-cho,  Shinjuku-ku,  Tokyo. 
TRAFFIC  Japan,  6F  39  Mori  Building,  2-4-5  Azabudai,  Minato-ku,  Tokyo  106. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministry  of  International  Trade  and  Industry, 

International  Economic  Affairs  Division,  International  Economic  Affairs 

Department,  International  Trade  Policy  Bureau,  3-1,  Kasumigaseki  1-chome, 

Chiyoda-ku,  Tokyo. 

Additional  References 

Nishida,  M.  (1972).  An  outline  of  the  distribution  of  Japanese  ferns.  In  Graham,  A. 

(Ed.),  Floristics  and  Palaeofloristics  of  Asia  and  Eastern  North  America.  Elsevier, 

Amsterdam.  Pp.  101-105.  (Discussion  of  distribution  patterns,  checklists  of  ferns  of 

various  floral  zones.) 
Numata,  M.  (Ed.)  (1974).  The  Flora  and  Vegetation  of  Japan.  Kodansha,  Tokyo  and 

Elsevier,  Amsterdam.  294  pp.  (Includes  simplified  vegetation  map.) 
Numata,  M.,  Yoshioka,  K.  and  Kato,  M.  (Eds)  (1975).  Studies  in  Conservation  of 

Natural  Terrestrial  Ecosystems  in  Japan.  Part  1:  Vegetation  and  its  Conservation. 

Japanese  Committee  for  IBP.  157  pp.  (Not  seen.) 


Johnston  Island 


Johnston  Island  (area  129.5  sq.  km;  population  327,  1980  census)  is  an  unincorporated 
territory  of  the  United  States,  c.  1150  km  WSW  of  Honolulu  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  at 
latitude  16°45'N,  longitude  169°3rw.  There  are  2  highly  modified  sand  and  coral  islands 
(Johnston  and  Sand  Islands),  and  2  completely  man-made  islands  (Akau  and  Hikina). 

No  original  vegetation  remained  on  the  atoll  by  1946  due  to  military  operations  (Fosberg, 
1949).  A  few  species  have  arrived  by  natural  means,  but  the  majority  have  been 
intentionally  or  accidentally  introduced  byman  (Christopher  sen,  1931).  127  vascular  plant 
species  have  so  far  been  recorded;  no  endemics  (Amerson  and  Shelton,  1976). 

References 

Amerson,  A.B.  (1973).  Ecological  Baseline  Survey  of  Johnston  Atoll,  Central  Pacific 

Ocean.  Technical  Report,  Environment  Programme,  Smithsonian  Institution, 

Washington,  D.C.  365  pp.  (Plants  on  pp.  48-61.) 
Amerson,  A.B.  and  Shelton,  P.C.  (1976).  The  natural  history  of  Johnston  Atoll, 

central  Pacific  Ocean.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  192.  479  pp.  (Lists  127  vascular  species; 

origin  and  distribution  within  Johnston  Atoll  indicated.) 
Christophersen,  E.  (1931).  Vascular  plants  of  Johnston  and  Wake  Islands.  Occ.  Papers 

Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus.  9(13).  20  pp.  (3  vascular  species  recorded.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.  (1949).  Flora  of  Johnston  Island,  central  Pacific.  Pacific  Science  3: 

338-339.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  27  vascular  plants.) 


197 


Jordan 


Area  97,668  sq.  km 

Population  3,375,000 

Floristics  c.  2200  vascular  plant  species  so  far  recorded  from  eastern  Jordan,  and 
an  additional  100-200  species  likely  to  be  found  to  the  west  of  the  Dead  Sea  (D.M.  Al- 
Eisawi,  1985,  pers.  comm.).  No  figure  for  endemics  to  Jordan;  150  species  are  endemic  to 
Palestine  (Shmida,  in  press).  The  flora  of  Jordan  has  Mediterranean,  Irano-Turanian, 
Saharo- Arabian  and  Sudanian  elements.  The  high  plateaux  of  Edom  in  Trans- Jordan 
include  limestone  and  sandstone  areas  rich  in  endemics. 

Vegetation  About  88%  is  desert,  less  than  1%  forested  (Kasapligil,  1956).  The 
Jordan  River  Valley,  a  branch  of  the  African  Rift  Valley  system,  divides  Jordan  into  two 
regions.  The  hilly  West  Bank  area  is  mainly  hammada  (stony)  desert  supporting  sparse 
thorn  scrub,  particularly  in  the  Upper  Jordan  Valley  (Zohary,  1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 
The  East  Bank,  and  land  to  the  east  of  the  Dead  Sea,  is  the  edge  of  a  high  plateau  which 
supports  dwarf  shrub  steppes  with  Artemisia,  and  deciduous  steppe  forests  with 
Amygdalus,  Crataegus  and  Pistacia;  Pinus  halepensis  and  evergreen  oak  forests,  with 
Quercus  calliprinos,  to  the  north-east  of  the  Dead  Sea,  between  Irbid  and  Amman,  above 
700  m;  deciduous  oak  forests,  with  Quercus  aegilops  at  lower  altitudes;  juniper  forests  on 
the  southern  mountains  above  1000  m,  greatly  modified  by  overgrazing.  Most  of  the  area 
further  east  is  an  extension  of  the  Syrian  and  North  Arabian  Desert.  There  are  extensive 
areas  of  saline  marshes  to  the  north  and  south  of  the  Dead  Sea,  with  Tamarix,  Salsola  and 
A  triplex. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  first  volume  of  the  Flora  of  Jordan  by  D.  Al-Eisawi  is 
in  preparation.  3-4  volumes  are  projected  over  a  period  of  10-15  years.  A  recent  checklist 
of  the  flora  is: 

Al-Eisawi,  D.  (1983).  List  of  Jordan  vascular  plants.  Mitt.  Bot.  Munchen  18:  79-182. 
(Covers  mainly  the  area  to  the  east  of  the  Dead  Sea;  no  distribution  details.) 

Part  of  Jordan  is  covered  by  the  Flora  of  Syria,  Palestine  and  Sinai  (Post,  1932);  Flora 
Palaestina  (1966-  );  and  Eig,  Zohary  and  Feinbrun-Dothan  (1931);  the  whole  country  will 
be  included  in  the  Med-Checklist .  All  of  these  are  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

A  number  of  papers  in  the  series  'Studies  on  the  flora  of  Jordan'  have  been  published  in 
the  journal  Candollea  since  1975,  each  describing  new  species  or  listing  plants  in  a  given 
region.  See  in  particular: 

Boulos,  L.  (1977).  Studies  on  the  flora  of  Jordan,  5.  On  the  flora  of  EI  Jafr-Batir 

Desert.  Ibid.  32(1):  99-110. 
Boulos,  L.  and  Al-Eisawi,  D.  (1977).  Studies  on  the  flora  of  Jordan,  6.  On  the  flora  of 

Ras  en  Naqb.  Ibid.  32(1):  111-120. 
Boulos,  L.  and  Lahham,  J.  (1977a).  Studies  on  the  flora  of  Jordan,  3.  On  the  flora  of 

the  vicinity  of  the  Aqaba  gulf.  Candollea  32(1):  73-80.  (Includes  annotated  checklist 

of  91  angiosperms.) 
Boulos,  L.  and  Lahham,  J.  (1977b).  Studies  on  the  flora  of  Jordan,  4.  On  the  desert 

flora  north-east  of  Aqaba.  Ibid.  32(1):  81-98.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  250 

vascular  plants,  mainly  collected  in  1974  and  1975,  in  the  area  between  Wadi  Yutum 

and  Wadi  Rum.) 


198 


Jordan 

The  series  is  to  continue  in  Kew  Bulletin;  papers  in  press  include  D.  Al-Eisawi  on  orchids 
of  Jordan. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Jordan  is  included  in  the  draft  Hst  for  North 
Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat 
(1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Coverage  for  Jordan  is  very  incomplete. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Royal  Society  for  the  Conservation  of  Nature,  P.O.  Box  6354,  Amman. 

Useful  Addresses 

University  of  Jordan,  Biology  Department,  Irbid. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Royal  Society  for  the  Conservation  of  Nature  (address 
above). 

Additional  References 

Al-Eisawi,  D.M.  (1983).  Vegetation  in  Jordan.  Paper  presented  at  the  Second 

International  Conference  on  the  History  and  Archaeology  of  Jordan.  20  pp.  Mimeo. 
Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.)  (1985).  Plant  Conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  Area.  (See  in 

particular  L.  Boulos  on  the  arid  eastern  and  south-eastern  Mediterranean  regions.) 
Kasapligil,  B.  (1956).  Report  to  the  Government  of  the  Hashemite  Kingdom  of  the 

Jordan  on  an  Ecological  Survey  of  the  Vegetation  in  Relation  to  Forestry  and 

Grazing.  FAO,  Rome.  39  pp. 
Mountfort,  G.  (1966).  Portrait  of  a  Desert:  the  Story  of  an  Expedition  to  Jordan. 

Collins,  London.  192  pp.  (Mainly  covers  fauna.) 
Nelson,  B.  (1973).  Azraq:  Desert  Oasis.  Allen  Lane,  London.  436  pp.  (Physical 

geography,  vegetation,  fauna.) 
Shmida,  A.  (in  press).  Endemism  in  the  flora  of  Israel.  Bot.  Jahrb.  (Analysis  of 

endemism  includes  references  to  Jordanian  flora.) 
Zohary,  M.  (1962).  The  Plant  Life  of  Palestine:  Israel  and  Jordan.  Ronald  Press,  New 

York.  262  pp.  (Includes  useful  vegetation  map  of  Palestine.) 
Zohary,  M.  (1983).  Vegetation  of  Israel  and  Adjacent  Areas.  Reichert,  Wiesbaden. 

166  pp. 


Juan  Fernandez 


The  Juan  Fernandez,  or  Robinson  Crusoe  Islands,  consist  of  3  precipitous  volcanic  islands 
-  Mas  a  Tierra  (Isla  Robinson  Crusoe),  Mas  Afuera  (Isla  Alejandro  Selkirk)  and  Isla  Santa 
Clara  -  situated  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  665  km  west  of  Chile,  between  33-34°S  and 
78-81  °W.  The  highest  point  is  El  Yunque  (916  m),  on  Mas  a  Tierra.  The  islands  are 
administered  by  Valparaiso  province,  Chile. 

Area  93  sq.  km 

Population  650-700 

Floristics  147  native  species  including  54  ferns  (Skottsberg,  1920-1956);  118 
endemic  taxa  (lUCN  figures).  10  endemic  genera  (of  which  5  in  Compositae)  and  one 
endemic  family,  the  monotypic  Lactoridaceae.  Of  the  endemics,  50%  are  confined  to  Mas 
a  Tierra,  33%  to  Mas  Afuera.  Chenopodium  santa-clarae  is  restricted  to  Isla  Santa  Clara 
(Perry,  1984). 

199 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Vegetation  The  Juan  Fernandez  were  originally  covered  by  forests  dominated  by 
Drimys,  Fagara  and  Nothomyrica;  however,  the  slopes  of  eastern  Mas  a  Tierra  below 
100  m  receive  less  rainfall  and  may  have  always  been  treeless.  Throughout  the  islands, 
native  vegetation  is  now  restricted  to  ridges  and  cliffs  due  to  overgrazing  and  competition 
from  introduced  plants  (Sanders  et  al.,  1982).  Remnants  of  temperate  evergreen  forest, 
with  tree  ferns  abundant  on  slopes  above  500  m;  cloud  forest  and  alpine  meadows  above 
700  m;  secondary  scrub  with  invasive  Acaena,  Rubus  and  maqui  scrub  (Aristotelia)  up  to 
montane  zone;  the  summit  of  El  Yunque  is  covered  by  Ugni,  Blechnum  and  Dendroseris 
scrub.  Santa  Clara  is  mainly  grassland.  For  sketch  maps  showing  principal  plant 
communities  see  Skottsberg  (1920-1956),  vol.  2. 

It  is  predicted  that  little  of  the  flora  will  remain  if  nothing  is  done  to  reduce  the  abundant 
introduced  cattle,  sheep,  goats  and  horses.  lUCN/WWF  plan  a  rescue  programme  with 
the  Chilean  authorities  as  part  of  the  lUCN/WWF  Plant  Conservation  Programme. 
Although  the  islands  were  declared  a  National  Park  in  1935  and  accepted  as  a  Biosphere 
Reserve  in  1977,  little  has  been  done  so  far  to  save  the  flora. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Nishida,  H.  (1979).  Plants  of  the  Robinson  Crusoe  Islands.  Plant  and  Nature  13(2): 

27-32;  13(4):  29-33,  35.  (In  Japanese.) 
Skottsberg,  C.J.F.  (Ed.)  (1920-1956).  The  Natural  History  of  the  Juan  Fernandez  and 

Easter  Island,  3  vols.  Almqvist  and  Wiksell,  Uppsala.  (See  in  particular,  1:  193-438, 

derivation  of  the  flora  and  fauna;  2:  1-46,  pteridophytes;  2:  95-240,  phanerogams; 

2:  763-792,  supplement  to  the  pteridophytes  and  phanerogams;  2:  793-960, 

vegetation.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  6  species  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red 
Data  Book  (1978).  See  also  Marticorena  (1980),  cited  under  Chile. 

Perry,  R.  (1984).  Juan  Fernandez  Islands:  a  unique  botanical  heritage.  Envir.  Conserv. 
11(1):  72-76.  (Lists  60  threatened  endemic  species  giving  distribution  by  islands.) 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l  (Santalum  fernandezianum),  E:52,  V:32,  R:9, 
1:1,  K:17,  nt:6. 

An  index  of  threatened  plants  in  cultivation  is: 

Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1984).  The  Botanic 
Gardens  List  of  Rare  and  Threatened  Species  of  the  Galapagos  and  Juan  Fernandez 
Islands.  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body,  Report  No.  11.  lUCN, 
Kew.  6  pp.  (Lists  14  rare  and  threatened  taxa,  from  the  Juan  Fernandez  Islands, 
which  are  in  cultivation,  with  gardens  listed  against  each.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Corporacion  Nacional  Forestal  de  Chile  (CONAF),  Av.  Bulnes,  285  Santiago,  Chile; 
(park  management),  V  Region,  3  Norte  541,  Vina  del  Mar,  Chile. 

Additional  References 

Gutierrez,  A.,  Mann,  G.,  Merino,  R.,  Thelen,  K.D.  and  Dalfelt,  A.  (1976).  Plan  de 
manejo  Parque  Nacional  Juan  Fernandez.  Documento  Tecnico  de  Trabajo  22. 
Proyecto  FAO/RLAT  tf-199.  Santiago. 

Hemsley,  W.B.  (1885).  Report  on  the  botany  of  Juan  Fernandez  and  Masafuera.  In 
Report  on  the  Scientific  Results  of  the  Voyage  of  H. M.S.  Challenger  During  the 
Years  1873-76.  Botany  vol.  1,  part  2.  HMSO,  London.  Pp.  1-96.  (Includes 
annotated  checklist  of  ferns  and  flowering  plants;  botanical  history.) 

200 


Juan  Fernandez 

Kunkel,  G.  (1956).  Uber  den  Waldtypus  der  Robinson-Insel.  Forschungen  und 

Fortschritte  30(5):  129-137.  (Forest  types  of  Robinson  Crusoe  Island;  notes  on 

distribution  of  indigenous  plants.) 
Kunkel,  G.  (1968).  Robinson  Crusoe's  Islands.  Pacific  Discovery  21:  1-8. 
Muiioz  P.,  C.  (1969).  El  Archipielago  de  Juan  Fernandez  y  la  conservacion  de  sus 

recursos  naturales  renovables.  Bol.  Acad.  Cien.  Instituto  de  Chile,  Ser.  1(2):  83-103. 

(Reprinted,  1974,  in  Serie  Educativa.  Museo  Nac.  Hist.  Nat.,  Santiago  9:  17-47.) 
Nishida,  H.  and  M.  (1979).  The  vegetation  of  the  Mas  a  Tierra  (Robinson  Crusoe) 

Island,  Juan  Fernandez.  In  Nishida,  M.  (Ed.),  A  Report  of  the  Palaeobotanical 

Survey  to  Southern  Chile  by  a  Grant-in-Aid  for  Overseas  Scientific  Survey,  1979. 

Faculty  of  Science,  Chiba  Univ.,  Japan.  Pp.  41-48.  (Lists  55  taxa  collected  during 

botanical  survey  1976-1979,  includes  vegetation  map.) 
Sanders,  R.W.,  Stuessy,  T.F.  and  Marticorena,  C.  (1982).  Recent  changes  in  the  flora 

of  the  Juan  Fernandez  Islands,  Chile.  Taxon  31(2):  284-289. 


Kampuchea 


Area  181,940  sq.  km 

Population  7,149,000 

Floristics  No  figure  for  size  of  flora  or  number  of  endemics. 

Vegetation  Closed  broadleaved  forests  cover  71,500  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 
About  40%  of  the  forest  cover  is  probably  deciduous  monsoon  forest,  including  dry 
dipterocarp  and  semi-evergreen  dipterocarp  forests,  mostly  in  the  north,  and  extensively 
modified  by  burning.  About  30%  of  the  forest  cover  is  hill  evergreen  rain  forest,  mostly  in 
southern  uplands  and  along  Annamite  Chain  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Pine 
forests  on  Kirikom  Plateau;  seasonally  inundated  "flood  forest"  around  Great  Lake 
(Legris,  1974).  Much  of  Mekong  Basin  converted  to  rice  cultivation. 

Kampuchea's  forests  have  been  greatly  modified  over  many  centuries;  httle  can  be 
described  as  primary  forest  (Myers,  ~t980,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  250  sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  71,500  sq. 
km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  No  national  Flora.  Kampuchea  is  included  in  Flore  du 
Cambodge,  du  Laos,  et  du  Vietnam  (I960-)  and  Flore  Generate  de  L'Indo-Chine 
(1907-1951),  both  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Additional  References 

Legris,  P.  (1974).  Vegetation  and  floristic  composition  of  humid  tropical  continental 

Asia.  In  Unesco,  Natural  Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources 

Research  12.  Paris.  Pp.  217-238. 
Vidal,  J.E.  (1979).  Outline  of  ecology  and  vegetation  of  the  Indochinese  Peninsula.  In 

Larsen,  K.  and  Holm-Nielsen,  L.B.  (Eds),  Tropical  Botany.  Academic  Press, 

London.  Pp.  109-123. 


201 


Kazan  Retto 


Kazan  Retto,  or  the  Volcano  Islands,  comprise  3  volcanic  islands  -  Iwo  Jima  (18  sq.  km), 
Kita  Iwo  Jima  (5  sq.  km)  and  Minami-Iwojima  (4  sq.  km).  The  islands  are  c.  1250  km 
south  of  Japan,  of  which  they  are  a  dependency.  The  highest  point  is  916  m,  on  Minami- 
Iwojima.  The  population  consists  of  personnel  of  the  military  base  on  Iwo  Jima.  Douglas 
(1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  describes  Minami-Iwojima  as  "practically  inaccessible"  and 
"one  of  the  least  disturbed  islands  in  the  world".  It  was  designated  a  Wilderness  Area  in 
1975. 

The  natural  vegetation  is  broadleaved  evergreen  forest,  but  much  of  that  on  Iwo  Jima  and 
Kita  Iwo  Jima  has  been  destroyed  by  military  activities,  or  else  cleared  for  settlements  and 
crops  in  the  past.  Minami-Iwojima,  on  the  other  hand,  still  has  intact  forest  dominated  by 
Machilus  kobu  (H.  Ohba,  1985,  in  litt.). 

257  flowering  plant  species  (including  introduced  species)  of  which  9  are  endemic  to  Kazan 
Retto  and  33  are  restricted  to  Kazan  Retto  and  Ogasawara-Gunto  (Ohba,  in  litt.).  Minami- 
Iwojima  has  118  vascular  plant  taxa  of  which  4  are  endemic  to  the  island  and  a  further  5 
are  endemic  to  Kazan  Retto  (Ohba  in  Okutomi,  1982a).  The  flora  is  related  to  that  of 
eastern  Asia  and  Ogasawara-Gunto. 

No  information  on  threatened  plants. 

References 

Okutomi,  K.  (Ed.)  (1982a).  Conservation  Reports  of  the  Minami-Iwojima  Wilderness 
Area.  Nature  Conservation  Bureau,  Environment  Agency  of  Japan,  Tokyo.  403  pp. 
(In  Japanese  with  English  summary.  See  in  particular  H.  Ohba  on  vascular  plants, 
with  floristic  analyses  and  distribution  maps  of  selected  species,  pp.  61-143;  and 
H.  Okutomi,  H.  Ohba,  N.  Ishii,  Y.  Tsukamoto  and  M.  Sato  on  the  endemic  flora 
and  fauna,  pp.  393-403.) 

Okutomi,  K.  (Ed.)  (1982b).  Science  Report  on  Nature  and  Natural  Resources  in 
Minami-Iwojima.  Min.  of  Environment,  Tokyo.  174  pp.  (In  Japanese.) 


Kenya 


Area  582,644  sq.  km 

Population  19,761,000 

Floristics  Just  under  6000  species,  plus  about  500  ferns  and  fern-allies  (J.B. 
Gillett,  1984,  pers.  comm.);  8000-9000  species  of  flowering  plant  (Blundell,  1982),  but  this 
estimate  too  high.  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  from  a  sample  of  the  Flora  of 
Tropical  East  Africa,  estimates  265  endemic  species,  but  that  is  probably  an  under- 
estimate. 

Largely  within  the  Somalia-Masai  region;  the  area  from  Lake  Turkana  and  the  Tana  River 
to  the  Ethiopian  and  Somalian  border  is  especially  rich  in  regional  endemics.  Coastal  band 
occupied  by  Zanzibar-Inhambane  regional  mosaic;  forest  fragments,  including  some  on 
limestone,  are  remarkably  rich,  diverse,  and  of  exceptional  biological  interest;  recognized 
as  a  major  target  for  conservation  effort.  Afromontane  region  mostly  on  volcanic 
mountains;  not  notably  rich  in  local  species.  South-west  of  Kenya  within  Lake  Victoria 

202 


Kenya 

regional  mosaic;  Kakamega  Forest  is  the  easternmost  part  of  the  Guinea-Congolian  rain 
forest,  and  has  distinct  West  African  affinities. 

Vegetation  Most  of  the  low  and  medium  altitude  parts  of  Kenya  are  covered  with 
bushland,  with  species  oi  Acacia  and  Commiphora  dominant,  including  some  semi-desert 
with  many  ephemerals  and  succulents.  Vegetation  nearer  the  coast  lusher,  with  coastal 
bushland,  grassland,  wooded  grassland  and  small  patches  of  evergreen  and  dry  semi- 
deciduous  forest  still  remaining.  Large  expanses  of  wooded  grassland,  grassland  and 
cultivation  surrounding  the  highland  areas.  High  altitudes  covered  with  forest  and  forest- 
grassland  mosaic,  with  clear  altitudinal  zonation  from  forest  through  bamboo  thicket  and 
heath  thicket  to  tufted  grass  moorland  above  about  3500  m. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  1 10  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
6900  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  gives  a 
figure  of  16,702  sq.  km  total  forest,  of  which  10,521  sq.  km  is  primary  moist  deciduous 
forest. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Kenya  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  of  Tropical  East 
Africa.  Kenya's  plants  of  high  altitudes  are  listed  in  Afroalpine  Vascular  Plants  (Hedberg, 
1957).  Both  works  are  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Agnew,  A.D.Q.  (1974).  Upland  Kenya  Wild  Flowers:  a  Flora  of  the  Ferns  and 
Herbaceous  Flowering  Plants  of  Upland  Kenya.  Oxford  Univ.  Press,  London. 
827  pp.  (Excludes  grasses  and  sedges;  keys,  short  descriptions,  representative 
specimens,  line  drawings.) 

Dale,  I.R.  and  Greenway,  P.J.  (1961).  Kenya  Trees  and  Shrubs.  Buchanan's  Kenya 
Estates,  Nairobi.  654  pp.  (Keys,  short  descriptions,  representative  specimens;  110 
line  drawings,  80  black  and  white  photographs,  31  colour  plates.) 

Gillett,  J.B.  and  McDonald,  P.G.  (1970).  A  Numbered  Check-List  of  Trees  Shrubs  and 
Noteworthy  Lianes  Indigenous  to  Kenya.  Govt  Printer,  Nairobi.  67  pp. 

Field-guides  A  very  useful  key  to  families  is  included  in  Lind  and  Tallantire,  (in 
press),  cited  under  Uganda. 

Blundell,  M.  (1982).  The  Wild  Flowers  of  Kenya.  Collins,  London.  160  pp.  (Short 
descriptions;  310  species  illustrated  by  colour  photographs.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hedberg,  I.  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  by  J.B.  Gillett  for  Kenya,  pp.  93-94, 

includes  examples  of  taxa  threatened  in  each  of  several  major  vegetation  types,  and 

includes  E:11,V:20,  R:4,  1:1.) 
Mungai,  G.M.,  Gillett,  J.B.,  and  Eagle,  C.F.  (1980).  Plant  Species  in  Kenya:  Survival 

or  Extinction.  Bulletin  of  Wildlife  Clubs  of  Kenya,  Nairobi.  6  pp.  (Lists  over  20 

species  as  threatened.) 

lUCN  holds  records  of  44  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  most  are 
succulents.  (E:15,  V:16,  R:3,  1:3.) 

Data  sheets  are  published  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978)  of  two  species 
occurring  in  Kenya  and  Tanzania,  and  of  three  species  endemic  to  Kenya. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Mazeras  Nurseries,  c/o  Municipal  Council  of  Mombasa,  P.O.  Box  90440,  Mombasa. 
Mutomo  Hill  Plant  Sanctuary,  Kitui. 

203 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Nairobi  Arboretum,  The  Chief  Conservator  of  Forests,  Forest  Dept,  P.O.  Box  30513, 

Nairobi. 
National  Museums  of  Kenya,  P.O.  Box  40658,  Nairobi.  (Surrounding  grounds  planted 

with  many  named  indigenous  trees  and  shrubs.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

African  Wildlife  Foundation,  P.O.  Box  48177,  Nairobi. 

East  Africa  Natural  History  Society,  P.O.  Box  44486,  Nairobi. 

Kenya  Orchid  Society,  P.O.  Box  241,  Nairobi. 

Wildlife  Clubs  of  Kenya  Association,  P.O.  Box  40658,  Nairobi. 

Useful  Addresses 

East  African  Herbarium,  P.O.  Box  45166,  Nairobi. 

Environment  Liaison  Centre,  P.O.  Box  72461,  Nairobi. 

lUCN/WWF  Programme  Representative  for  Eastern  Africa,  c/o  African  Wildlife 

Foundation,  P.O.  Box  48177,  Nairobi. 
Kenya  Agricultural  Research  Institute  (KARl),  P.O.  Box  30148,  Nairobi. 
Kenya  Rangeland  Ecological  Monitoring  Unit  (KREMU),  P.O.  Box  47146,  Nairobi. 
United  Nations  Environment  Programme  (UNEP),  P.O.  Box  30552,  Nairobi. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Wildlife  Conservation  and  Management  Dept,  Ministry 

of  Tourism  and  Wildlife,  P.O.  Box  40241,  Nairobi. 

Additional  References 

Edwards,  D.C.  (1940).  A  vegetation  map  of  Kenya  with  particular  reference  to 

grassland  types.  J.  Ecol.  28:  377-385.  (With  small-scale  vegetation  map.) 
Kuchar,  P.  (1981).  The  Plants  of  Kenya:  a  Handbook  of  Uses  and  Ecological  Status. 

Technical  Report  Series,  Kenya  Rangeland  Ecological  Monitoring  Unit,  Ministry  of 

Environment  and  Natural  Resources,  Nairobi. 
Lucas,  G.Ll.  (1968).  Kenya.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  152-166. 
Trapnell,  C.G.  et  al.  (1966-1969).  Kenya  Vegetation,  sheets  1-3  (maps  1:250,000). 

Directorate  of  Overseas  Surveys,  Tolworth,  U.K. 


Kermadec  Islands 


The  Kermadec  Islands  (30°S,  178°30'W)  are  an  outlying  volcanic  island  group,  in  the 
South  Pacific  Ocean.  They  are  976  km  north-east  of  New  Zealand,  of  which  they  are  a 
dependency.  Raoul,  or  Sunday  Island  (34  sq.  km),  is  the  only  inhabited  island  in  the 
group.  It  attains  520  m  at  the  rim  of  the  central  crater.  Curtis  (0.5  sq.  km)  lies  to  the  south 
of  Macauley  (3  sq.  km).  The  remaining  islets  are  stacks  and  rocks  scattered  around  the 
main  islands.  The  island  group  is  now  a  Nature  Reserve. 

Area  33.5  sq.  km 

Population  10  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1) 

Floristics  195  vascular  plant  species  of  which  113  native  (Sykes,  1977).  Raoul  has 
c.  120  vascular  plant  species  {Flora  of  New  Zealand,  1961,  cited  under  New  Zealand);  23 
endemic  vascular  plant  taxa  (figures  quoted  in  Given,  1981a,  cited  under  New  Zealand). 
About  100  flowering  plants  and  ferns  on  the  Kermadecs  are  shared  with  mainland  New 

204 


Kermadec  Islands 

Zealand;  affinities  also  with  Norfolk  and  Lord  Howe  Islands.  45  taxa  are  found  in 
Polynesia  (Given,  1981a,  cited  under  New  Zealand). 

Vegetation  Coastal  scrub  on  talus  at  the  foot  of  cliffs;  dry  forest  dominated  by 
Metrosideros,  below  240  m;  wet  forest  also  dominated  by  Metrosideros  with  tree  ferns,  on 
higher  slopes.  The  islands  are  still  volcanically  active;  crater  floors  almost  unvegetated. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Kermadecs  are  included  in  the  Flora  of  New  Zealand 
(1961,  1970,  1980),  cited  under  New  Zealand.  See  also: 

Sykes,  W.R.  (1977).  Kermadec  Islands  Flora.  An  Annotated  Checklist.  DSIR  Bulletin 
no.  219.  WelHngton.  216  pp.  (Enumeration  of  native  and  naturalized  plants; 
chapters  on  physical  geography.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Given  (1976,  1977,  1978,  cited  under  New 
Zealand)  includes  5  Kermadec  endemic  taxa,  of  which  4  are  now  Endangered  and  Hebe 
breviracemosa  is  probably  Extinct.  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:4,  R:2, 
nt:2. 


Kiribati 


Kiribati  (area  684  sq.  km;  population  62,(XX))  comprises  the  Gilbert  Group  (17  islands),  the 
Phoenix  Islands  (8)  and  the  Equatorial  (Line)  Islands  (8);  mostly  small  coral  islands  and 
atolls,  many  only  a  few  metres  wide  and  less  than  6  m  above  sea  level;  spread  over  5  million 
sq.  km  in  the  south-west  central  Pacific  Ocean.  Banaba  (Ocean  Island),  to  the  west  of  the 
main  Gilbert  group,  is  an  elevated  limestone  island  reaching  81m.  Most  of  the  islands  are 
uninhabitated.  The  Equatorial  Islands  and  Banaba  have  been  worked  for  guano. 
Christmas  Island  has  been  greatly  modified  by  testing  nuclear  weapons. 

Floristics  c.  100  vascular  plant  species  recorded  from  the  Gilbert  Islands,  of 
which  c.  60  are  indigenous  (Allerton  and  Herbst,  1973);  most  are  widespread  throughout 
the  Pacific.  Fanning  Island,  in  the  southern  Line  Island  group,  has  102  taxa  of  which  only 
22  indigenous,  including  2  endemic  (St  John,  1974).  Vostok  Island  (0.25  sq.  km),  in  the 
northern  Line  Island  group,  has  only  2^vascular  plant  species  (Clapp  and  Sibley,  1971). 

Vegetation  Most  of  the  natural  vegetation  of  the  larger  islands  (Cordia, 
Tournefortia  and  Scaevola  scrub)  has  been  replaced  by  plantations  of  coconuts,  breadfruit 
and  Pandanus.  Some  areas  of  Pemphis  scrub  and  mangroves  (Catala,  1957;  Fosberg, 
1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Checklists  and  Floras  No  complete  Flora;  the  following  checklists  have  been 
published  for  individual  islands: 

Chock,  A.K.  and  Hamilton,  D.C.  (1962).  Plants  of  Christmas  Island.  Atoll  Res.  Bull. 

90.  7  pp.  (Lists  41  species.) 
Christophersen,  E.  (1927).  Vegetation  of  Pacific  Equatorial  Islands.  Bull.  Bernice  P. 

Bishop  Mus.  44.  79  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  for  Palmyra,  Line  Islands.) 
Clapp,  R.B.  and  Sibley,  F.C.  (1971).  Notes  on  the  vascular  flora  and  terrestrial 

vertebrates  of  Caroline  Atoll  southern  Line  Islands.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  145.  18  pp. 

(Includes  annotated  checklist  of  35  taxa,  many  widespread  throughout  the  Pacific.) 
St  John,  H.  (1974).  The  vascular  flora  of  Fanning  Island,  Line  Islands,  Pacific  Ocean. 

Pacific  Science  28(3):  339-355. 

205 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

The  Gilbert  Islands  and  Banaba  are  included  in  the  regional  checklists  of  Fosberg,  Sachet 
and  Oliver  (1979,  1982),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and  will  be  covered  by  the  Flora  of 
Micronesia  (1975-  ),  also  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Additional  References 

AUerton,  J.G.  and  Herbst,  D.  (1972,  1973).  Report  from  the  Gilbert  and  Ellice  Islands. 

Bull.  Pacific  Tropical  Botanic  Garden  2(4):  63-68;  3(1):  2-6. 
Catala,  R.L.A.  (1957).  Report  on  the  Gilbert  Islands:  some  aspects  of  human  ecology. 

Atoll  Res.  Bull.  59.  187  pp.  (Includes  list  of  plants  collected,  including  introductions 

with  notes  on  localities  and  uses.) 
Christophersen,  E.  (1927).  Vegetation  of  the  Pacific  Equatorial  Islands.  Bull.  Bernice 

P.  Bishop  Mus.  44.  79  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  vascular  plants.) 
Clapp,  R.B.  and  Sibley,  F.C.  (1971).  The  vascular  flora  and  terrestrial  vertebrates  of 

Vostok  Island,  south-central  Pacific.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  144.  10  pp. 
Luomala,  K.  (1975).  Ethnobotany  of  the  Gilbert  Islands.  Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus.  213. 

129.  (List  of  plants  with  uses;  arranged  by  vernacular  names.) 


Korea,  Democratic  People's 
Republic  of 

(NORTH  KOREA) 

Area  122,312  sq.  km 

Population  19,630,000 

Floristics  No  figure  for  North  Korea,  but  in  the  Korean  Peninsula  2898  vascular 
plant  species  (T.B.  Lee,  1976).  The  Korean  Peninsula  has  407  endemic  vascular  taxa  of 
which  107  restricted  to  North  Korea  (Lee,  1983). 

Vegetation  Extensive  mixed  deciduous-coniferous  forests  between  700-1700  m 
(Sun,  1974b).  'Taiga'  forest  in  uplands  with  larch,  pine,  fir  forests  and  scrub;  lowlands 
mainly  cleared  for  cultivation.  Alpine  vegetation  above  2000  m  (Sun,  1974a). 

Checklists  and  Floras 
Lee,  T.B.  (1976).  Vascular  plants  and  their  uses  in  Korea.  Bull.  Kwanak  Arboretum  1. 

137  pp.  (Checklists  and  statistics  of  useful  plants.) 
Lee,  T.B.  (1983).  Endemic  plants  and  their  distribution  in  Korea.  Bull.  Kwanak 

Arboretum  4:  71-113.  (Lists  Korean  endemic  ferns,  gymnosperms  and  angiosperms; 

notes  on  distribution.) 
Lee,  Y.N.  (1966).  Manual  of  the  Korean  Grasses  (Excluding  Bambuseae).  Ewha 

Womens  Univ.  Press,  Seoul.  300  pp.  (120  taxa  described;  notes  on  distribution.) 
Lee,  Y.N.  (1976).  Illustrated  Flora  and  Fauna  of  Korea.  18:  Flowering  Plants.  893  pp. 

Samhwa,  Seoul.  (In  Korean;  appendix  includes  short  notes  in  English  on  889  taxa.) 
Mori,  T.  (1922).  An  Enumeration  of  Plants  Hitherto  Known  from  Corea.  Govt  of 

Chosen,  Seoul.  546  pp.  (Checklist  of  2904  species,  506  varieties;  endemics  to  Korean 

Peninsula  indicated;  separate  indices  of  Japanese  and  Chinese  names.) 

206 


Korea,  Democratic  People 's  Republic  of 

Nakai,  T.  (1915-1939).  Flora  Sylvatica  Koreana,  22  parts.  Govt  of  Chosen,  Seoul.  (In 

Latin  and  Japanese;  all  known  woody  species  recorded  for  Korea  listed  before  each 

family  treatment.) 
Nakai,  T.  (1952).  A  synoptical  sketch  of  Korean  flora,  or  the  vascular  plants 

indigenous  to  Korea,  arranged  in  a  new  natural  order.  Bull.  Tokyo  Nat.  Sci.  Mus. 

31.  152  pp.  (Systematic  list  of  3176  vascular  plant  taxa,  with  summary.) 
Park,  M.K.  (1975).  Illustrated  Encyclopedia  of  Flora  and  Fauna  of  Korea,  16: 

Pteridophyta.  549  pp.  Samhwa,  Seoul.  (Descriptions  with  notes  on  distribution, 

habitats;  floristic  summary  and  statistical  table,  includes  272  species.) 
Uyeki,  H.  (1926).  Corean  Timber  Trees,  1.  Ginkgoales  and  Coniferae.  Forestry  Expt 

Station,  Govt  of  Chosen,  Japan.  (In  Japanese,  maps  showing  distribution  in  Korean 

Peninsula.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Botanic  Gardens 

The  Central  Botanical  Garden  of  DPRK,  Pyongyang. 

Additional  References 

Sun,  C.I.  (1974a).  Taiga,  a  major  flora  community  in  our  country.  Korean  Nature 

2(33):  30-32. 
Sun,  C.I.  (1974b).  Coniferous-deciduous  mixed  forest  zone,  a  major  plant  community 

in  our  country.  Korean  Nature  3(34):  25-27. 


Korea,  Republic  of 


(SOUTH  KOREA) 

Area  98,447  sq.  km 

Population  40,309,000 

Floristics  No  figure  for  South  Korea,  but  Korean  Peninsula  has  2898  vascular 
plant  species  (T.B.  Lee,  1976).  407  taxa  ejidemic  to  the  Peninsula,  of  which  224  restricted 
to  South  Korea  (Lee,  1983). 

Vegetation  Warm  temperate,  broadleaved  evergreen  forests,  with  Quercus, 
Camellia  and  bamboos,  along  southern  coasts  and  on  offshore  islands;  temperate  forests 
containing  Quercus,  Carpinus  and  Pinus  densiflora  in  south;  Quercus /Abies  forest  and 
cold  temperate  Abies /Betula  forest  in  north  and  at  high  elevations  in  Taebaek  Mts. 
Rhododendrons  commonly  found  in  understorey  of  all  forest  types  (Hagman  et  al.,  1978). 
Forests  cover  about  two-thirds  of  South  Korea  (Hagman  et  al.,  1978);  about  25%  is  under 
cultivation. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Lee,  T.B.  (1973).  Illustrated  Woody  Plants  of  Korea.  Forest  Expt  Station,  Seoul. 

262  pp.  (Short  descriptions  of  755  taxa,  with  line  drawings  and  keys;  in  Korean.) 
Lee,  T.B.  (1976).  Vascular  plants  and  their  uses  in  Korea.  Bull.  Kwanak  Arboretum  1. 

137  pp.  (Checklists  and  statistics  of  useful  plants.) 
Lee,  T.B.  (1979,  1982).  Illustrated  Flora  of  Korea,  2  vols.  Hyangmunsa,  Seoul.  (Atlas 

flora  covering  3160  taxa  with  descriptions  in  Korean;  no  details  of  distribution  or 

ecology;  not  seen,  citation  based  on  Frodin.) 

207 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Lee,  T.B.  (1983).  Endemic  plants  and  their  distribution  in  Korea.  Bull.  Kwanak 

Arboretum  4:  71-113.  (Lists  Korean  endemic  ferns,  gymnosperms  and  angiosperms; 

notes  on  distribution.) 
Lee,  Y.N.  (1966).  Manual  of  the  Korean  Grasses  (Excluding  Bambuseae).  Ewha 

Womens  Univ.  Press,  Seoul.  300  pp.  (240  taxa  described;  notes  on  distribution.) 
Lee,  Y.N.  (1976).  Illustrated  Flora  and  Fauna  of  Korea.  18:  Flowering  Plants.  893  pp. 

Samhwa,  Seoul.  (In  Korean;  appendix  includes  short  notes  in  English  on  889  taxa.) 
Mori,  T.  (1922).  An  Enumeration  of  Plants  Hitherto  Known  from  Corea.  Govt  of 

Chosen,  Seoul.  546  pp.  (Checklist  of  2904  species,  506  varieties;  endemics  to  Korean 

Peninsula  indicated;  separate  indices  of  Japanese  and  Chinese  names.) 
Nakai,  T.  (1915-1939).  Flora  Sylvatica  Koreana,  22  parts.  Govt  of  Chosen,  Seoul.  (In 

Latin  and  Japanese;  all  known  woody  species  recorded  for  Korea  listed  before  each 

family  treatment.) 
Nakai,  T.  (1952).  A  synoptical  sketch  of  Korean  flora,  or  the  vascular  plants 

indigenous  to  Korea,  arranged  in  a  new  natural  order.  Bull.  Tokyo  Nat.  Sci.  Mus. 

31.  152  pp.  (Systematic  list  of  3176  vascular  plant  taxa,  with  summary.) 
Park,  M.K.  (1975).  Illustrated  Encyclopedia  of  Flora  and  Fauna  of  Korea,  16: 

Pteridophyta.  549  pp.  Samhwa,  Seoul.  (Descriptions  with  notes  on  distribution, 

habitats;  floristic  summary  and  statistical  table,  includes  272  species.) 
Uyeki,  H.  (1926).  Corean  Timber  Trees,  1.  Ginkgoales  and  Coniferae.  Forestry  Expt 

Station,  Chosen.  (In  Japanese,  maps  showing  distribution  in  Korean  Peninsula.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Choi,  K.-C,  Kim,  C.-H.,  Lee,  Y.-N.,  Won,  P.-O.  and  Yoon,  LB.  (1981).  Rare  and 
Endangered  Species  of  Animals  and  Plants  of  Republic  of  Korea.  Korean  Assoc,  for 
Conservation  of  Nature.  293  pp.  (Lists  118  plant  taxa,  including  widespread  non- 
endemic  species.) 

Lee,  T.B.  (1980).  Rare  and  endangered  species  in  the  area  of  Mt  Sorak.  Bull.  Kwanak 
Arboretum  3:  197-201.  (Mentions  12  taxa  with  notes  on  distribution.) 

Lee,  T.B.  (1984).  Endemic  and  rare  plants  of  Mt.  Sorak.  Bull.  Kwanak  Arboretum  5: 
1-6.  (Enumeration  of  114  vascular  plant  taxa  of  which  65  are  endemic;  5  taxa  are 
'endangered',  12  taxa  are  'rare'. 

Preliminary  lUCN  statistics,  mainly  based  on  Choi  et  al.  (1981),  cited  above:  endemic  taxa 
-Ex:l,  E:8,  V:2,  R:20. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Cultural  Properties  Protection  Law  (1973)  provides 
protection  for  a  number  of  plant  species  and  their  habitats  by  designating  them  as  natural 
monuments.  The  law  covers  13  taxa  at  the  northern  hmit  of  their  distribution,  and  6 
endemic  and  threatened  taxa  (T.B.  Lee,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Voluntary  Organizations  A  committee  has  been  set  up  to  protect  the  natural 
habitat  of  Abeliophyllum  (Lee,  in  litt.). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Chollipo  Arboretum,  Uihangni  1-gu,  Sosan  Gun,  Chungchong  Namdo. 
Hongnung  Arboretum,  Forest  Research  Institute,  Chongnyangni,  Tongdaemun-gu, 

Seoul. 
Kumkang  Botanic  Garden,  San  43-1,  Changjon  2-Dong,  Tongnaegu,  Pusan. 
Kwanak  Arboretum,  College  of  Agriculture,  Seoul  National  University,  Suwon. 

Useful  Addresses 

Forest  Research  Institute,  Chung- Ryang-Ri,  Tong  dae  mun-Ku,  Seoul. 

208 


Korea,  Republic  of 

Additional  References 

Hagman,  M.,  Feilberg,  L.,  Lagerstrom,  T.  and  Sanda,  J.E.  (1978).  The  Nordic 

Arboretum  Expedition  to  South  Korea  1976.  Forest  Research  Institute,  Helsinki. 

102  pp.  (Expedition  report,  useful  background  notes  on  vegetation,  forestry 

research  in  South  Korea.) 
Lee,  T.B.  (1980).  Conservation  of  threatened  plants  in  Korea.  Bull.  Kwanak 

Arboretum  3:  190-196.  (Includes  notes  on  plant  re-introductions;  summary  in 

English.) 


Kuwait 

Area  24,281  sq.  km. 

Population  1,703,000 

Floristics  About  300  species  of  vascular  plants  estimated  (quoted  in  Dickson, 
1955);  Halwagy  and  Macksad  (1972)  record  a  further  56  species  not  previously  known 
from  Kuwait.  Affinities  with  the  flora  of  Iraq. 

Vegetation  Mostly  sparse  scrub  with  perennial  herbs  and  ephemerals;  in  the 
south-east  and  north-west,  principally  of  the  Chenopod  Haloxylon  salicornicum,  in  the 
west  of  the  dwarf  shrub  Rhantherium  epapposum,  and  immediately  south  and  south-west 
of  Kuwait  City  a  zone  dominated  by  the  sedge  Cyperus  conglomeratus  (Halwagy,  1974). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  late  Professor  Daoud  prepared  a  Flora  of  Kuwait,  now 
partly  in  press,  edited  by  Ali  al-Rawi  (T.A.  Cope,  1984,  pers.  comm.).  Works  relating  to 
the  Arabian  peninsula  as  a  whole  are  outlined  under  Saudi  Arabia.  See  also: 

Burtt,  B.L.  and  Lewis,  P.  (1949-1954).  On  the  Flora  of  Kuweit.  Kew  Bull.  4:  273-308 

(1949);  7:  333-352  (1952);  9:  377-410  (1954). 
Deeb,  M.  and  Salim,  K.  (1974).  Wild  and  Ornamental  Plants  of  Kuwait.  Kuwait.  (In 

Arabic.) 
Dickson,  V.  (1955).  The  Wild  Flowers  ofJCuwait  and  Bahrain.  Allen  and  Unwin, 

London.  144  pp.  (Notes  on  species;  some  illustrated.) 
Dickson,  V.  and  Macksad,  A.  (1973).  Plants  of  Kuwait.  Ahmadi  Natural  History  and 

Field  Studies  Group,  Kuwait.  13  pp.  (Computer  checklist  of  395  plant  names.) 
Halwagy,  R.  and  Macksad,  A.  (1972).  A  contribution  towards  a  Flora  of  the  State  of 

Kuwait  and  the  Neutral  Zone.  Bot.  J.  Linn.  Soc.  65:  61-79.  (Lists  100  species  of 

flowering  plants.) 

Field-guides 

Husain,  S.M.  and  Mirza,  J.H.  (1979).  A  Field  Key  for  the  Identification  of  Common 
Trees,  Shrubs  and  Climbers  of  Kuwait.  Newsletter  Supplement  No.  1,  Botany  and 
Microbiology  Dept,  Univ.  of  Kuwait.  21  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Ahmadi  Natural  History  and  Field  Studies  Group,  c/o  Kuwait  Oil  Co.,  Ahmadi- 103. 

Useful  Addresses 

Kuwait  Institute  for  Scientific  Research,  P.O.  Box  24885,  Safat,  Kuwait. 

209 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Additional  References 

Clayton,  D.  and  Pilcher,  C.  (Eds)  (1983).  Kuwait's  Natural  History.  An  Introduction. 

Kuwait  Oil  Company.  351  pp.  (Fully  illustrated  with  colour  photographs.  See 

especially  chapters  by  L.  Corrall  on  Vegetation,  pp.  24-66,  and  by  C.  Pilcher  on 

Conservation,  pp.  294-316.) 
Halwagy,  R.  and  M.  (1974,  1977).  Ecological  studies  on  the  desert  of  Kuwait;  I:  The 

physical  environment.  /.  Univ.  Kuwait  (Science)  1:  75-86  (1974);  II:  the  vegetation. 

Ibid.  1:  87-95  (1974);  III:  the  vegetation  of  the  coastal  salt  marshes.  Ibid.  4:  33-74. 


Lakshadweep 


Lakshadweep,  formerly  the  Laccadive  Islands,  are  a  group  of  19  coral  atolls  north  of  the 
Maldives  and  c.  300  km  off  the  Malabar  coast  of  southern  India.  They  are  administered  as 
a  Union  Territory  of  the  Republic  of  India.  Area  32  sq.  km.  10  islands  inhabited; 
population  40,237  (1981  census.  Times  Atlas,  1983). 

348  vascular  plant  species  recorded  (Raghavan,  1977).  The  flora  is  related  to  that  of  the 
Maldives  and  Pacific  Ocean  atolls,  rather  than  to  that  of  the  west  coast  of  India. 
According  to  Prain  (1893)  and  Willis  (1901)  there  are  no  endemics;  many  species  have 
pantropical  and  Indo-Pacific  distributions.  Apart  from  planted  coconuts  the  vegetation  of 
most  of  the  islands  consists  of  littoral  communities,  with  Casuarina,  Pandanus  and 
Terminalia  scrub.  3  islets  are  open  reefs  with  no  vascular  plants. 

References 

Prain,  D.  (1892,  1893).  Botany  of  the  Laccadives.  J.  Bombay  Nat.  Hist.  Soc.  1: 

268-295;  7:  460-486.  (Introduction  in  first  part;  second  part  includes  annotated 

checklist  of  121  species  of  which  40  indigenous.) 
Raghavan,  R.S.  (1977).  Floristic  studies  in  India  -  the  Western  Circle.  Bull.  Bot. 

Survey  India  19:  95-108. 
Sivadas,  P.,  Narayanan,  B.  and  Sivaprasad,  K.  (1983).  An  account  of  the  vegetation  of 

Kavaratti  Island,  Laccadives.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  266.  9  pp.  (Includes  checklist  of  117 

plants  on  Kavaratti.) 
Wadhwa,  B.M.  (1961).  Additions  to  the  flora  of  Laccadives,  Minicoy  and  Aminidives 

groups  of  islands.  Bull.  Bot.  Survey  India  3:  407-408.  (Notes  on  11  species  in 

Cyperaceae  and  Gramineae.) 
Willis,  J.C.  (1901).  Note  on  the  flora  of  Minikoi.  Annals  Royal  Botanic  Gardens 

Peradeniya  1:  39-43.  (Lists  134  species  for  Minicoy  Island.) 
Willis,  J.C.  and  Gardiner,  J.S.  (1901).  The  botany  of  the  Maldive  Islands.  Annals 

Royal  Botanic  Gardens  Peradeniya  1:  45-164.  (Includes  annotated  checklist  of  359 

species  recorded  from  Chagos  Archipelago,  Laccadives  and  Maldives.) 


Laos 


Area  236,725  sq.  km 
Population  4,315,000 

210 


Laos 

Floristics  No  figure  for  size  of  flora  or  number  of  endemics.  Laos,  Kampuchea 
and  Viet  Nam  have  c.  600  fern  species  (Parris,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Vegetation  27,000  sq.  km  of  tropical  lowland  and  hill  evergreen  rain  forest, 
mainly  along  the  Annamite  Chain,  the  Sekong  Valley  bordering  the  Bolovens  Plateau,  and 
a  few  patches  along  the  Mekong  River;  above  1000  m  these  forests  have  been  extensively 
converted  to  grasslands  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  dry  dipterocarp  and  mixed 
deciduous  forests  (with  dipterocarps  and  teak)  in  south  and  between  Vientiane  and 
Burmese  border;  10,000  sq.  km  of  pine  forests  in  the  Xieng  Khouang  region  and  on  sandy 
soils  between  600-1400  m,  greatly  damaged  by  military  activity;  bamboo  forests  estimated 
at  6000  sq.  km  (Myers,  1980). 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forests  1000  sq.  km/annum  out  of  a 
total  of  75,600  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Myers  (1980)  quotes  a  UNDP/UNIDO 
estimate  for  "well-stocked  forests"  of  only  46,000  sq.  km.  Few  areas  of  forest  remain 
undisturbed;  much  has  been  converted  to  grasslands. 

Checklists  and  Floras  No  national  Flora.  Laos  is  included  in  Flore  du  Cambodge, 
du  Laos,  et  du  Vietnam  (1960- ),  and  Flore  Generale  de  L'Indo-Chine  (1907-1951),  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1 .  See  also: 

Seidenfaden,  G.  (1972).  An  enumeration  of  Laotian  orchids.  Bull.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist. 
Naturelle  Bot.  71:  101-152.  (Enumeration  of  about  316  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 

Additional  References 

Legris,  P.  (1974).  Vegetation  and  floristic  composition  of  humid  tropical  continental 

Asia.  In  Unesco,  Natural  Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources 

Research  12.  Paris.  Pp.  217-238. 
Vidal,  J.  (1934-1960).  La  vegetation  du  Laos.  Trav.  Lab.  For.  Toulouse  Tome  5,  sect. 

1,  vol.  1.  (Part  1  -  103  pp.;  part  2  -  582  pp.) 
Vidal,  J.E.  (1979).  Outline  of  ecology  and  vegetation  of  the  Indochinese  Peninsula.  In 

Larsen,  K.  and  Holm-Nielsei.,  L.B.  (Eds),  Tropical  Botany.  Academic  Press, 

London.  Pp.  109-123. 

Lebanon      "^ 

Area  10,400  sq.  km 

Population  2,644,000 

Floristics  No  figure  for  Lebanon,  but  Syria  and  Lebanon  together  have  about 
3000  species;  11%  of  the  flora  of  Syria  and  Lebanon  is  endemic  (Zohary,  1973,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  In  Lebanon,  many  endemics  are  confined  to  the  high  mountains  of  the 
Mediterranean  zone  in  the  west. 

Vegetation  Steppes  and  deserts  cover  most  of  Lebanon.  There  is  a  narrow  coastal 
plain  along  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  with  evergreen  maquis;  further  inland  are  the  Lebanon 
Mountains,  which  rise  to  3086  m.  The  western  slopes  up  to  300  m  support  evergreen 
maquis,  with  Quercus  calliprinos,  Ceratonia  and  Pistacia;  Pinus  halepensis  forest 
(replaced  by  P.  brutia  in  north)  from  sea-level  to  1200  m,  now  reduced  to  remnants;  forests 
with  Cedrus  libani  (Cedar  of  Lebanon),  Pinus  nigra  and  Quercus  calliprinos,  particularly 

211 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

between  1400-1800  m  in  the  north.  The  oldest  and  most  famous  pure  stands  of  C.  libani 
are  at  Bsharri.  The  alluvial  plains  of  the  Beqaa  Valley  separate  the  Lebanon  Mountains 
from  the  Anti-Lebanon  Mountains  in  the  east,  which  reach  2814  m  at  Mt  Hermon.  The 
Anti-Lebanon  Mountains  have  Amygdalus/Pistacia  scrub,  and  fragmented  deciduous 
forests  on  their  western  slopes.  There  are  also  remnants  of  steppe/coniferous  forests  with 
Abies  cilica,  Cedrus  libani  and  Juniperus  excelsa.  Subalpine  and  alpine  communities  occur 
above  2500  m  in  Lebanon.  For  detailed  description  of  vegetation  see  Zohary  (1973),  cited 
in  Appendix  1 . 

Checklists  and  Floras  Lebanon  will  be  covered  by  the  Med-Checklist ,  cited  in 
Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Bouloumoy,  L.  (1930).  Flore  du  Liban  et  de  la  Syrie,  2  vols.  Vigot  Freres,  Paris.  (1  - 

keys;  2  -  plates.) 
Mouterde,  P.  (1966-  ).  Nouvelle  Flore  du  Liban  et  de  la  Syrie,  3  vols  so  far.  Dar  El- 

Machreq,  Beirut.  (Vols  1-2  -  pteridophytes,  gymnosperms,  monocotyledons  and 

dicotyledons  to  Umbelliferae  and  Cornaceae;  3  -  so  far  3  fascicles,  including 

Ericaceae,  Labiatae,  Scrophulariaceae.  In  addition  there  are  2  supplementary 

volumes  with  line  drawings.) 
Mouterde,  P.  (1973).  Novitates  florae  libano-syriacae.  Saussurea  4:  17-25.  (17  new 

species  and  2  varieties  described  from  Lebanon  and  Syria.) 
Thiebaut,  J.  (1936-1953).  Flore  Libano-Syrienne,  3  vols.  Centre  National  de  la 

Recherche  Scientifique,  Paris. 

Information  on  Tiireatened  Plants  None.  The  section  on  Lebanon  in  the  draft  list 
for  North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee 
Secretariat  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  contains  only  41  endemic  species  without 
categories.  The  list  was  taken  from  Mouterde  (1966-  ),  cited  above. 

Additional  References 

Charpin,  A.  and  Greuter,  W.  (1975).  Donnees  disponibles  concernant  la  flore  de  la 

Syrie  et  du  Liban.  In  CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  115-117. 
Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.)  (1985),  cited  in  full  in  Appendix  1. 


Lesotho 


Area  30,344  sq.  km 

Population  1,481,000 

Florisfics  1591  vascular  species  (Jacot  Guillarmod,  1971),  predominantly 
herbaceous;  one  or  two  endemic  species  only. 

Flora  predominantly  Afromontane,  but  lower  altitude  land  in  west  in  Kalahari-Highveld 
region. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  montane  grassland,  with  woody  montane 
communities  in  sheltered  valleys  and  south-facing  slopes;  communities  with  cricoid  shrubs 
at  highest  altitudes.  Most  available  lower  altitude  land  under  cultivation. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 


212 


Lesotho 

Checklists  and  Floras  Lesotho  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  of  Southern 
Africa,  and  in  The  Genera  of  Southern  African  Flowering  Plants  (Dyer,  1975,  1976),  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1 .  The  national  Flora  is: 

Jacot  Guillarmod,  A.  (1971).  Flora  of  Lesotho  (Basutoland) .  Cramer,  Lehre.  474  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hall,  A.V.  et  al.  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  on  pp.  85-86  contains  one  endemic 

species:  Kniphofia  hirsuta,  V,  and  6  non-endemic  species:  V:l  (regional  category), 

R:3,  K:2.) 
Hedberg,  L  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Lesotho,  p.  101,  by  A.  Jacot 

Guillarmod,  contains  five  species  and  three  genera:  E:6,  R:l,  1:1.) 
Talukdar,  S.  (1983).  The  conservation  of  Aloe  polyphylla  endemic  to  Lesotho.  In 

Killick,  D.J.B.  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  985-989.  (Gives  details  of 

conservation  status  and  protective  legislation.) 

Information  on  Aloe  polyphylla  is  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  Legal  Notice  No.  36  of  1969  defines  the  monuments, 
relics,  fauna  and  flora  protected  under  Act  41  of  1967  (Historical  Monuments,  Relics, 
Fauna  and  Flora  Act).  The  list  of  protected  plants  includes  all  aloes  and  specifically 
A.  polyphylla. 

Additional  References 
Bawden,  M.G.  and  Carroll,  D.M.  (1968).  The  Land  Resources  of  Lesotho.  Land 

Resource  Study  3.  Directorate  of  Overseas  Surveys,  Tolworth,  U.K.  89  pp.  (With 

vegetation  map  1:1,000,000.) 
Jacot  Guillarmod,  A.  (1968).  Lesotho.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  253-256. 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  Hst  of  relevant  chapters. 


Liberia 

Area  1 1 1 ,370  sq.  km 

Population  2,123,000 

Floristics  Size  of  flora  unknown.  59  endemic  species  and  1  endemic  genus 
(Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Floristic  affinities  Guinea-Congolian.  Mt  Nimba,  shared  with  Guinea  and  Ivory  Coast, 
has  an  Afromontane  element  and  is  especially  important  floristically,  with  more  than  2000 
species. 

Vegetation  Small  areas  of  mangrove  along  coast.  Coastal  strip  of  lowland  rain 
forest  interspersed  with  secondary  grassland  and  cultivation;  transitional  rain  forest 
(between  lowland  and  montane)  on  Mt  Nimba.  Remainder  of  country  predominantly 
covered  with  lowland  rain  forest. 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  460  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
20,000  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  quotes 
the  following  figures:  25,000  sq.  km  primary  forest,  plus  an  additional  23,000  sq.  km 

213 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

broken  forest;  primary  forest  is  degraded  by  shifting  cultivators  at  300  sq.  km/annum,  and 
by  logging  at  2000  sq.  km/annum. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Liberia  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa. 
The  Liberian  portion  of  Mt  Nimba  is  included  in  Flore  Descriptive  des  Monts  Nimba.  Both 
works  are  cited  in  Appendix  1 .  See  also: 

Kunkel,  G.  (1965).  The  Trees  of  Liberia:  Field  Notes  on  the  More  Important  Trees  of 
the  Liberian  Forests  and  a  Field  Identification  Key.  Report  No.  3,  German  Forestry 
Mission  to  Liberia,  Munich.  270  pp.  (Illustrations,  map.) 

Voorhoeve,  A.G.  (1979).  Liberian  High  Forest  Trees,  2nd  Ed.  (1st  Ed.  1965).  Centre 
for  Agricultural  Publishing  and  Documentation,  Wageningen.  416  pp.  (Extensive 
notes  on  the  75  most  important  or  frequent  high  forest  trees;  72  line  drawings,  32 
black  and  white  photographs.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hedberg,  I.  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (Includes  short  list  of  example  species  and 
genera,  p.  88,  by  J.M.  Thome.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  103  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic,  including 
E:2,  V:10,  R:5,  1:5;  the  remainder  are  K. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Forestry  Development  Authority,  P.O.  Box  3010, 

Monrovia. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  University  of  Liberia,  Capitol  Hill,  Monrovia. 

Additional  References 

Adam,  J.-G.  (1970).  Etat  actuel  de  la  vegetation  des  monts  Nimba  au  Liberia  et  en 

Guinee.  Adansonia,  Ser.  2,  10:  193-211.  (With  10  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Cooper,  G.P.  and  Record,  S.J.  (1931).  The  Evergreen  Forests  of  Liberia.  Bulletin  31  of 

the  Yale  Univ.  School  of  Forestry,  New  Haven.  153  pp.  (Includes  26  black  and 

white  photographs.) 
Lamotte,  M.  (1983).  The  undermining  of  Mount  Nimba.  Ambio  12(3-4):  174-179. 

(Photographs,  maps.) 
Voorhoeve,  A.G.  (1968).  Liberia.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  74-76. 


Libya 

Area  1,759,540  sq.  km 

Population  3,471,000 

Floristics  c.  1600  species  of  which  about  90%  (1440)  occupy  the  coastal  region, 
especially  Jabal  al  Akhdar  (Boulos,  1975);  c.  1800  species  (Le  Houerou,  1975).  Northern 
Cyrenaica  has  134  endemics,  of  which  109  are  endemic  to  Jabal  al  Akhdar  (Bartolo  et  al., 
1977);  lUCN  has  records  of  83  species  and  infra-specific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic. 


214 


Libya 

Floristic  affinities  Mediterranean  and  Saharan,  although  Jabal  al  Akhdar  is  the  only  area 
with  a  typical  Mediterranean  flora.  The  flora  of  most  of  the  country  is  small  and  has 
Saharan  affinities.  Other  coastal  areas  have  a  flora  transitional  between  the  two. 

Vegetation  Mostly  desert  with  little  or  no  perennial  vegetation;  the  only  non- 
desert  vegetation  is  in  a  strip  along  the  coast  and  has  been  cultivated  and  overgrazed  with 
the  result  that  very  little  natural  vegetation  survives  except  in  a  somewhat  degraded  form  in 
the  sclerophyllous  forests  of  Jabal  al  Akhdar. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Libya  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  de  I'Afrique  du 
Nord,  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980),  Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and  is  being  covered  in 
Med-Checklist;  all  of  these  are  cited  in  Appendix  1 .  Below  is  the  recent  Flora,  and  up-to- 
date  checklists: 

Ali,  S.I.,  Jafri,  S.M.H.  and  El-Gadi,  A.  (Eds)  (1976- ).  Flora  of  Libya.  Al  Faateh 
University,  Tripoli.  (86  famihes  published  so  far:  mostly  small  ones,  but  including 
Caryophyllaceae,  Chenopodiaceae,  Liliaceae  and  Brassicaceae.) 

Boulos,  L.  (1977-1980).  A  checkhst  of  the  Libyan  flora.  1.  Introduction  and 

Adiantaceae  to  Orchidaceae.  Publ.  Cairo  Univ.  Herb.  7/8:  115-141;  2.  Salicaceae  to 
Neuradaceae.  Candollea  34(1):  21-48;  3.  Compositae  (by  C.  Jeffrey).  Ibid.  34(2): 
307-332;  corrections  (1980).  Ibid.  35(2):  565-567. 

Also  published: 

Brullo,  S.  and  Furnari,  F.  (1979).  Taxonomic  and  nomenclatural  notes  on  the  Flora  of 

Cyrenaica  (Libya).  Webbia  34(1):  155-174. 
Keith,  H.G.  (1965).  A  Preliminary  Check  List  of  Libyan  Flora,  2  vols.  Ministry  of 

Agriculture  and  Agrarian  Reform,  Govt  of  Libyan  Arab  Republic.  1047  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Libya  is  included  in  the  draft  list  for  North 
Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat 
(1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Boulos,  L.  (1985).  The  arid  eastern  and  south-eastern  Mediterranean  regions.  In 
Gomez-Campo,  C.  (Ed.),  Plant  conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  area. 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:2,  V:18,  R:18,  1:4,  K:20,  nt:21;  non-endemics 
rare  or  threatened  on  a  world  scale  -  E:l,  V:7,  R:6  (world  categories). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Sidi  Mesri  Experiment  Station,  Tripoli. 

Additional  References 

Bartolo,  G.,  Brullo,  S.,  Guglielmo,  A.  and  Scaha,  C.  (1977).  Considerazioni 

fitogeografiche  sugli  endemismi  della  Cirenaica  settentrionale.  Archiv.  Bot. 

Biogeogr.  Ital.  53(3-4):  131-154. 
Boulos,  L.  (1972).  Our  present  knowledge  on  the  flora  and  vegetation  of  Libya: 

bibliography.  Webbia  26:  365-400. 
Boulos,  L.  (1975).  The  Mediterranean  element  in  the  flora  of  Egypt  and  Libya.  In 

CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  119-124. 
Le  Houerou,  H.-N.  (1975).  Etude  preliminaire  sur  la  compatibilite  des  flores  nord- 

africaine  et  palestinienne.  In  CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  345-350. 


215 


Liechtenstein 


The  principality  of  Liechtenstein  is  situated  in  the  European  Alps  between  Austria  and 
Switzerland.  One-third  of  the  country  lies  in  the  Upper  Rhine  valley;  the  rest  is 
mountainous. 

Area  160  sq.  km 

Population  27,000 

Floristics  Over  1400  native  vascular  taxa  (estimated  from  Seitter,  1977). 
Elements:  Central  European,  alpine. 

Vegetation  About  25%  of  the  country  is  agricultural;  semi-natural  and 
plantation  forests  occupy  c.  34%;  alpine  pastures  c.  16%.  Widespread  drainage,  intensive 
agriculture  and  urban  expansion  responsible  for  dramatic  loss,  in  recent  years,  of 
wetlands,  woodlands  and  alpine  pastures  (Anon,  1984,  cited  in  Appendix  1  and  Broggi, 
1977). 

Checklists  and  Floras  National  Flora: 

Seitter,  H.  (1977).  Die  Flora  des  Furstentums  Liechtenstein.  Botanisch-Zoologische 
Gesellschaft,  Liechtenstein.  573  pp.  (In  German;  no  keys;  line  drawings  and  colour 
photographs.) 

Regional  Floras: 

Garcke,  A.  et  al.  (1972).  Illustrierte  Flora,  Deutschland  und  Angrenzende  Gebiete,  23rd 
Ed.  by  K.  von  Weihe.  Parey,  Berlin.  1607  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 

Hess,  H.E.,  Landolt,  E.  and  Hirzel,  R.  (1967- ).  Flora  der  Schweiz  und  angrenzender 
Gebiete,  3  vols  to  date.  Birkhauser,  Basel.  (Covers  all  Switzerland  and  Liechtenstein 
and  parts  of  Austria,  France,  Federal  RepubHc  of  Germany  and  Italy;  1  - 
pteridophytes  and  dicotyledons;  2  and  3  -  dicotyledons  and  monocotyledons;  line 
drawings,  and  detailed  historical  and  ecological  introduction.) 

Relevant  journal:  Mitteilungen  der  Botanisch  Zoologischen  Gesellschaft  Liechtenstein, 
Sargans  Werdenberg. 

Field-guides  See  Grey-Wilson  (1979)  and  Hegi  (1935-1979),  both  cited  in 
Appendix  1. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  national  plant  Red  Data  Book  has  recently 
been  published  (reviewed  in  Oryx  19:  112)  identifying  383  rare  and  threatened  flowering 
plant  taxa  of  which  68  are  'extinct',  102  'endangered',  91  'threatened'  and  122  'rare'; 
about  one  quarter  of  these  are  marshland  plants. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  1933  Nature  Protection  Law,  revised  1966,  (Loi 
relative  a  la  protection  de  la  nature)  provides  full  protection  to  34  plant  species  and  partial 
protection  to  17  additional  species,  1  genus  and  1  family.  For  partially  protected  plants  it  is 
prohibited  to  uproot  them,  but  the  picking  of  their  above-ground  parts  is  allowed.  Under 
the  Law,  it  is  prohibited  to  promote,  to  acquire  or  to  offer  for  sale,  in  either  a  fresh  or  dry 
condition,  any  plants  listed.  For  the  list  of  protected  plants  see: 

Anon  (1967).  Gesetz  vom  21  Dezember  1966,  betreffend  die  Abanderung  des 

Naturschutzgesetzes.  Liechtensteinisches  Landesgesetzblatt  1967,  Nr.  5.  Pp.  1-4. 


216 


Liechtenstein 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Liechtensteinische  Gesellschaft  fiir  Umweltschutz  (Liechtenstein  Society  for 
Environmental  Protection),  Heiligkreuz  52,  Postfach  53290,  9490  Vaduz. 

Useful  Addresses 

Ministere  de  I'agriculture  et  des  forets,  Departement  des  forets,  Vaduz. 

Additional  References 

Broggi,  M.F.  (1977).  Nature  conservation  and  landscape  management  in  Liechtenstein. 
Parks  2(3):  14-16.  (A  short  descriptive  account  of  the  history  of  nature  conservation 
in  Liechtenstein  and  habitat  degradation.) 


Lord  Howe  Island 


Lord  Howe  Island  (31°35'S,  159°05'E)  is  situated  692  km  north-east  of  Sydney,  in  the 
Tasman  Sea.  It  is  a  dependency  of  New  South  Wales,  Austraha.  Unlike  many  colonized 
islands  of  similar  size,  it  retains  a  significant  proportion  of  its  native  vegetation  and  flora. 
In  1981,  8  sq.  km  were  declared  the  Lord  Howe  Island  Permanent  Park  Preserve  which  has 
legislative  protection  equivalent  to  a  National  Park.  In  1982,  the  Lord  Howe  Island  group 
(including  Ball's  Pyramid)  was  designated  a  World  Heritage  Site  under  the  World  Heritage 
Convention. 

Area  13  sq.  km 

Population  300  (1974) 

Floristics  379  vascular  plant  taxa,  of  which  219  are  native  (Rodd  and  Pickard, 
1983).  Of  the  48  native  fern  species,  17  endemic;  of  the  171  flowering  plant  species,  57 
endemic  (Rodd  and  Pickard,  1983).  A  further  5  flowering  plant  taxa  below  the  rank  of 
species  are  listed  as  endemic  by  Rodd  and  Pickard  (1983).  Lord  Howe  has  4  endemic 
genera:  Negria  (Gesneriaceae)  and  the  monotypic  palm  genera  Howea,  Hedyscepe  and 
Lepidorrhachis.  Much  of  the  flora  has  affinities  with  those  of  New  Zealand  and  the  Pacific 
islands.  

Vegetation  Lowland  evergreen  rain  forest  with  Dry  petes  lasiogyna  var. 
australasica  and  Cryptocarya  triplinervis,  mostly  below  460  m  in  north;  lowland  evergreen 
rain  forest  with  Cleistocalyx  fullageri  and  Chionanthus  quadristamineus,  in  south  below 
530  m;  palm  forest  dominated  by  Howea,  mostly  below  300  m  on  coral  sandstone  and 
basalt;  palm  forest  dominated  by  Hedyscepe  on  Mount  Gower  and  Mount  Lidgbird,  pure 
stands  mostly  above  610  m,  but  mixed  stands  as  low  as  335  m;  Pandanus  forest  mostly  in 
south;  mixed  montane  forest  on  summit  plateau  of  Mount  Gower  above  760  m;  scrub 
vegetation,  mostly  in  south;  small  areas  of  grassland  on  exposed  coasts;  tiny  areas  of 
mangroves  in  sheltered  creeks.  Less  than  20%  of  the  vegetation  is  disturbed,  and  less  than 
10%  cleared  (Pickard,  1983b). 

For  vegetation  maps  and  more  detailed  descriptions  of  vegetation  units  see  (Recher  and 
Clark,  1974;  Pickard,  1983b). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Lord  Howe  will  be  included  in  a  forthcoming  volume  of 
the  Flora  of  Australia  (1981-  ),  cited  under  Australia.  The  most  recent  checkUst  is: 


217 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Rodd,  A.N.  and  Pickard,  J.  (1983).  Census  of  the  vascular  flora  of  Lord  Howe  Island. 
Cunninghamia  1:  267-280. 

See  also: 

Recher,  H.F.  and  Clark,  S.S.  (Eds)  (1974).  Environmental  Survey  of  Lord  Howe 
Island:  A  Report  to  the  Lord  Howe  Island  Board.  New  South  Wales  Govt  Printer, 
Sydney.  86  pp.  (Includes  annotated  checklist,  endemics  indicated;  chapter  on 
vegetation;  vegetation  map,  scale  2  inches  to  one  mile,  prepared  by  J.  Pickard.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Pickard,  J.  (1983a).  Rare  or  threatened  vascular  plants  of  Lord  Howe  Island.  Biol. 
Conserv.  27:  125-139.  (Detailed  assessment  of  native  and  endemic  vascular  flora  of 
Lord  Howe  in  terms  of  distribution,  abundance  and  threat.) 

A  preliminary  list  of  endemic  plants  with  notes  on  conservation  status  is  given  in  Leigh  et 
al.  (1981),  cited  under  Australia.  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:2,  V:10,  R:58, 
1:3,  nt:2,  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:3  (world  categories). 

Additional  References 

Pickard,  J.  (1973).  An  annotated  botanical  bibliography  of  Lord  Howe  Island. 

Contrib.  N.S.W.  Nat.  Herb.  4:  470-491. 
Pickard,  J.  (1983b).  Vegetation  of  Lord  Howe  Island.    Cunninghamia  1:  133-265. 
Recher,  H.F.  and  Clark,  S.S.  (1974).  A  biological  survey  of  Lord  Howe  Island  with 

recommendations  for  the  conservation  of  the  island's  wildlife.  Biol.  Conserv.  6: 

263-273. 


Louisiade  Archipelago 


About  100  islands  2(X)  km  south-east  of  New  Guinea  and  politically  part  of  Papua  New 
Guinea.  The  largest  islands  -  Tagula,  Misima  and  Rossel  -  are  volcanic  and  have  fringing 
reefs;  however,  the  majority  of  islands  are  coral  formations.  Population  12,000  (1971, 
Encyclopedia  Britannica,  1974). 

The  Louisiades  have  tropical  rain  forest  (see  the  Vegetation  Map  of  Malaysia  by  van 
Steenis,  1958,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  no  figure  available  for  current  rate  of  deforestation. 

The  flora  has  affinities  with  that  of  New  Caledonia.  No  Flora  or  checklist  has  been 
published.  No  figure  for  size  of  flora  or  number  of  endemics.  No  information  on 
threatened  plants. 


Luxembourg 


Area  2586  sq.  km 

Population  363,000 

Floristics  About  1200  native  and  naturalized  vascular  species  (L.  ReichUng,  1984, 
in  litt.).  No  endemics  (lUCN  figure). 

218 


Luxembourg 

Vegetation  A  largely  agricultural  landscape.  Original  vegetation  cover  almost 
entirely  modified  except  for  small  forest  fragments  on  steep  rocky  slopes,  covering  c.  33% 
of  country,  of  which  beechwoods  comprise  38%,  oakwoods  28%  and  conifer  plantations 
33%  (Reichling,  in  lift.).  In  the  Ardennes,  near  Echternach,  is  one  of  Europe's  most 
ancient  forests,  of  oak,  beech  and  hornbeam,  now  protected  as  the  Deutsch- 
Luxemburgischer  Naturpark  (Muller,  1978). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  by  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al.,  1964-1980),  but 
plant  records  not  distinguished  from  those  for  Belgium.  No  recent  Flora  except: 

De  Langhe,  J.-E.  et  al.  (1983).  Nouvelle  Flore  de  la  Belgique,  du  Grand-Duche  de 
Luxembourg,  du  Nord  de  la  France  et  des  regions  voisines,  3rd  Ed.  Jardin 
Botanique  National  de  Belgique,  Meise.  1016  pp.  (Ferns  and  flowering  plants.) 

For  a  plant  atlas  see: 

Rompaey,  E.  van  and  Delvosalle,  L.  (1979).  Atlas  de  la  Flore  Beige  et 

Luxembourgeoise,  Pteridophtyes  et  Spermatophytes,  2nd  Ed.  Jardin  Botanique 
National  de  Belgique,  Meise. 

For  a  floristic  bibliography  see  Hamann  and  Wagenitz  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  and  for 
floristical  accounts  see: 

Reichling,  L.  (1955- ).  Notes  floristiques.  Observations  faites  dans  le  Grand-Duche  de 
Luxembourg  en  1954.  Bull.  Soc.  Naturalistes  Luxembourg.  Vol.  59  onwards. 

A  computerized  floristic  databank  is  to  be  developed  by  the  Musee  d'Histoire  Naturelle  de 
Luxembourg  (address  below)  under  the  direction  of  the  Centre  de  Recherche  Scientifique 
sur  I'Environnement  Natural  (Anon,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Relevant  journal:  Bulletin  de  la  Societe  des  Naturalistes  Luxembourgeois. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  national  threatened  plant  list  is  in 
preparation  (Reichhng,  in  litt.).  Luxembourg  is  included  in  the  European  threatened  plant 
list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon 
this  work:  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:l,  R:l  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  UK  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  includes  data  sheets  on  2  plant  species  from  Luxembourg,  both  extinct  there,  I 
Endangered  on  a  world  scale,  the  other  of  unknown  world  status. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  1967  Grand-Ducal  Order  (Reglement  grand-ducal  du 
22  decembre  1967  portant  protection  de  certaines  especes  vegetales)  provides  2  main  levels 
of  protection:  18  species  and  3  genera  are  given  "strict  protection",  i.e.  picking, 
uprooting,  sale  and  transport  are  prohibited;  a  further  24  species  and  1  genus  are  given 
more  limited  protection.  For  details  see: 

Reichling,  L.  (1981).  In  Luxembourg  Geschiitzte  Pflanzen.  Ubersicht  sowie  Anleitung 
zum  Kennenlernen  der  in  Luxemburg  geschutzten  wildwachsenden  PJlanzenarten, 
2nd  Ed.  Natura  (Luxemburger  Liga  fur  Natur-  und  Umweltschutz,  Luxembourg. 
47  pp.  (Outlines  the  law;  describes  ecology  and  threats  of  plants  protected; 
distribution  maps;  colour  photographs.) 


219 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Voluntary  Organizations 

NATURA,  6  bd.  Roosevelt,  2450  Luxembourg. 

Societe  des  Naturalistes  Luxembourgeois,  B.P.  327,  2013  Luxembourg. 

Useful  Addresses 

Direction  des  Eaux  et  Forets,  Service  Conservation  de  la  Nature,  34  av.  de  la  Porte- 
Neuve,  2227  Luxembourg. 

Musee  d'Histoire  Naturelle  de  Luxembourg,  Marche-aux-Poissons,  2345  Luxembourg. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Ministere  de  I'Agriculture,  de  la  Viticulture  et  des  Eaux 
et  Forets,  Administration  des  Services  Techniques  de  I'Agriculture,  Service  de  la 
Protection  des  Vegetaux,  P.O.  Box  1904,  16  Route  d'Esch,  1019  Luxembourg. 

Additional  References 

MuUer,  F-C.  (1978).  One  park,  two  countries.  Naturopa  30:  24-25. 


Macau 


Macau,  an  overseas  province  of  Portugal,  consists  of  the  peninsula  of  the  Chinese  district 
of  Fo  Shan  and  two  small  islands  (Taipa  and  Coloane),  64  km  west  of  Hong  Kong.  Area  16 
sq.  km;  population  309,000.  The  highest  point  is  190  m,  on  Coloane. 

Subtropical  evergreen,  monsoon  forest  greatly  modified  by  fuelwood  and  timber  cutting. 
Extensive  areas  of  secondary  scrub  and  grassland.  No  figure  for  size  of  native  flora  or 
number  of  endemics.  No  information  on  threatened  plants. 

References 
Nogueira,  A.C.  de  Sa  (1984).  Catdlogo  descritivo  de  380  esp^cies  botdnicas  da  Coldnia 
de  Macau,  2nd  Ed.  Sevigos  Florestais  E  Agricolas  de  Macau,  Julho.  181  pp. 
(Describes  380  taxa,  mostly  introductions,  in  Portuguese.) 


Macquarie  Island 


Macquarie  Island  (54°29'S,  158°58'E)  is  in  the  South  Pacific  Ocean,  c.  967  km  south-west 
of  New  Zealand.  It  is  a  dependency  of  Tasmania,  Australia.  Area  11  sq.  km.  No 
permanent  population,  but  the  Australian  National  Antarctic  Research  Expedition 
(AN ARE)  station  is  manned  by  about  20  (1981)  temporary  staff  (Clark  and  Dingwall, 
1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

36  native  vascular  plants,  of  which  3  endemic  (all  grasses).  The  vegetation  is  mainly 
tussock  grassland  and  Pleurophyllum  herbaceous  communities;  sedges  and  rushes  occupy 
wetter  areas;  'feldmark'  vegetation,  consisting  of  large  areas  of  open  ground  with  cushion- 
forming  vascular  plants,  mosses  and  lichens,  on  exposed  uplands  above  200  m.  Grazing  by 
rabbits  has  reduced  Poa  foliosa,  the  dominant  tussock  grass  of  coastal  slopes.  Serious 
erosion  has  stripped  surface  peat  to  reveal  bedrock  in  places  (Costin  and  Moore,  1960). 

Leigh  et  al.  (1981),  cited  under  Australia,  provides  notes  on  the  conservation  status  of  the 
endemics.  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  V:l,  R:l,  K:l. 

220 


Macquarie  Island 

References 

Cheeseman,  T.F.  (1919).  The  Vascular  Flora  of  Macquarie  Island.  Scientific  Report  of 

the  Australian  Antarctic  Expedition,  1911-1914,  Ser.  C  (Zoology  and  Botany)  7(3): 

63  pp. 
Costin,  A.B.  and  Moore,  D.M.  (1960).  The  effects  of  rabbit  grazing  on  the  grasslands 

of  Macquarie  Island.  J.  Ecol.  48:  729-732. 
Greene,  S.W.  and  Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  An  annotated  check  Hst  of  the  sub-antarctic 

and  antarctic  vascular  flora.  Polar  Record  17(110):  473-484.  (Includes  tabular  list  of 

native  vascular  plants,  distributions  indicated.) 
Taylor,  B.W.  (1955).  The  Flora,  Vegetation  and  Soils  of  Macquarie  Island.  ANARE 

Scientific  Report,  Ser.  B,  Vol.  2  (Botany).  92  pp. 


Madagascar 


Area  594,180  sq.  km 

Population  9,731,000 

Floristics  Current  estimates  of  flora  between  10,000  and  12,000  species  (Rauh, 
1979;  Guillaumet  and  Mangenot,  1975);  more  than  80%  specific  endemism  (Rauh,  1979), 
but  this  figure  probably  too  high.  Seven  endemic  families. 

East  and  West  Malagasy  regions.  East  region  much  richer,  with  almost  75%  of 
Madagascar's  species,  while  the  West  region  has  25%  (Perrier  de  la  Bathie,  1936).  Floristic 
affinities  principally  pantropical,  African  (especially  East  African)  and  Asian. 

Vegetation  North  and  east:  tropical  rain  forest;  west:  dry  deciduous  forest; 
south:  dry  xerophytic  scrub  (spiny  desert).  All  but  about  20%  of  natural  vegetation  now 
destroyed;  remainder  includes  61,500  sq.  km  rain  forest,  25,500  sq.  km  mountain 
sclerophyllous  and  deciduous  forest  and  29,000  sq.  km  dry  xerophytic  scrub  (Chauvet  in 
Richard- Vindard  and  Battistini,  1972).  Most  of  land  surface  now  uniform  grassland  with 
chronic  problems  of  erosion,  probably  caused  by  man  (Rauh,  1979). 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed^broadleaved  forest  1500  sq.  km/annum  out  of 
103,000  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  However,  Myers  (1980,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  gives  a 
figure  of  26,000  sq.  km  of  eastern  moist  forest,  half  of  which  is  disrupted  by  shifting 
cultivation  which  accounts  for  the  destruction  of  2000-3000  sq.  km/annum. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

For  information  on  He  de  I'Europa  (22°20'S  40°20'E)  and  Juan  de  Nova  (17°02'S 
43°42'E),  small  islands  in  the  Mozambique  Channel,  see  Bosser  (1952),  Capuron  (1966), 
and  Perrier  de  la  Bathie  (1921),  below. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Humbert,  H.  (1936-  ).  Flore  de  Madagascar  et  des  Comores.  Museum  National 

d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris,  (c.  80%  complete,  with  132  families  written  out  of  189, 
the  most  significant  families  outstanding  being  Leguminosae,  Rubiaceae  and 
Gramineae;  many  of  the  early  volumes  now  out  of  date.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  468  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic  - 

221 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

E:3,  V:ll,  R:23, 1:31,  K:375,  nt:25.  By  and  large  these  are  succulents,  information  lacking 
for  other  life  forms. 

One  species  which  occurs  in  Madagascar  (Catharanthus  coriaceus)  is  included  in  The 
lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Index  of  potentially  threatened  plants  in  cultivation: 

Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980).  The  Botanic  Gardens  List  of 

Madagascan  Succulents  1980.  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body 
Report  No.  2.  lUCN,  Kew.  21  pp.  (Lists  235  succulents,  most  endemic  to 
Madagascar,  as  in  cultivation,  from  a  list  of  328  species.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  plants  or  seeds  may  be  exported  without  permission 
(strongly  enforced,  and  includes  botanical  collecting),  but  permission  granted  for  export 
of  thousands  of  rare  succulents. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  Botanique  de  la  DRST  Tsimbazaza,  B.P.  4096,  Antananarivo. 

Useful  Addresses  WWF  is  represented  by  Monsieur  B.  Vaohita,  B.P.  4373, 
Antananarivo. 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Direction  des  Eaux  et  Forets  et  de  la  Conservation  des 
Sols,  Foiben'ny  Rano  sy  Ala,  MPAEF,  B.P.  243,  Antananarivo. 

CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Ministere  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique  et  Technologic  pour 
le  Developpement,  Antananarivo. 

Additional  References 

Bosser,  J.  (1952).  Notes  sur  la  vegetation  des  Ties  Europa  et  Juan  de  Nova.  Naturaliste 

Malg.  4:  41-42.  (Illus.) 
Capuron,  R.  (1966).  Rapport  succinct  sur  la  vegetation  et  la  flore  de  I'ile  Europa. 

Mem.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  Nat..  Ser.  2/ A  (Zool.)  41:  19-21. 
Guillaumet,  J.-L.  and  Mangenot,  G.  (1975).  Aspects  de  la  speciation  dans  la  flore 

malgache.  In  Miege,  J.  and  Stork,  A.L.  (1975,  1976),  cited  in  Appendix  1, 

pp.  119-123. 
Humbert,  H.  and  Cours  Darne,  G.  (1965).  Carte  Internationale  du  Tapis  Vegetal  et  des 

Conditions  Ecologiques:  "Madagascar".  Trav.  Sect.  Sci.  Techn.  Inst.  Fran?. 

Pondichery,  Hors  Ser.  6.  162  pp.  (Illus.,  with  coloured  vegetation  map  1:1,000,000.) 
lUCN  (1972).  Comptes  Rendus  de  la  Conference  Internationale  sur  la  Conservation  de 

la  Nature  et  de  ses  Ressources  a  Madagascar,  1970.  Publications  UICN  Nouvelle 

Serie  36.  239  pp.  (See  especially  papers  by  M.  Keraudren-Aymonin,  pp.  145-151,  on 

the  Didiereaceae  thickets  of  southern  Madagascar,  and  by  R.  Melville,  pp.  139-142, 

on  the  floristic  significance  of  Madagascar.) 
Keraudren,  M.  (1968).  Madagascar.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  261-265. 
Koechlin,  J.,  Guillaumet,  J.-L.  and  Morat,  P.  (1974).  Flore  et  Vegetation  de 

Madagascar.  Cramer,  FL-9490,  Vaduz,  Liechtenstein.  687  pp.  (With  line  drawings 

and  188  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Leroy,  J.-F.  (1978).  Composition,  origin,  and  affinities  of  the  Madagascan  vascular 

flora.  Ann.  Missouri  Bot.  Card.  65(2):  535-589. 
Paulian,  R.  et  al.  (1981).  Madagascar,  un  Sanctuaire  de  la  Nature.  Paris. 
Perrier  de  la  Bathie,  H.  (1921).  Note  sur  la  constitution  geologique  et  la  flore  des  Ties 

Chesterfield,  Juan-de-Nova,  Europa  et  Nosy-Trozona.  Bull.  Ec.  Mad.  170-176. 

222 


Madagascar 

Perrier  de  la  Bathie,  H.  (1936).  Biogeographie  des  Plantes  de  Madagascar.  Paris. 

156  pp.,  40  plates. 
Rauh,  W.  Various  articles  on  the  succulent  flora  of  Madagascar  published  in  the 

journal  Kakteen  und  andere  Sukkulenten  between  1961  and  1970. 
Rauh,  W.  (1973).  tJber  die  Zonierung  und  Differenzierung  der  Vegetation 

Madagaskars.  Tropische  und  Subtropische  Pfanzenwelt  1.  146  pp. 
Rauh,  W.  (1979).  Problems  of  biological  conservation  in  Madagascar.  In  Bramwell,  D. 

(Ed.),  Plants  and  Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  405-421. 
Richard-Vindard,  G.  and  Battistini,  R.  (Eds)  (1972).  Biogeography  and  Ecology  of 

Madagascar.  Junk,  The  Hague.  765  pp.  (See  especially  papers  by  B.  Chauvet, 

pp.  191-199,  on  the  forests,  and  by  J.  Koechhn,  pp.  145-190,  on  the  flora  and 

vegetation,  with  14  black  and  white  photographs.) 

The  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre,  at  the  request  of  UNEP,  has  prepared  an 
extensive  Environmental  Profile  of  Madagascar,  now  in  press.  This  provides  a 
comprehensive  review  of  the  biota,  plant  and  animal,  of  Madagascar  and  of  the  physical 
environment.  It  includes  a  chapter  on  vegetation  types  and  an  analysis  of  forest  cover  and 
loss. 


Madeira  Islands 


A  volcanic  archipelago  in  the  North  Atlantic  Ocean,  belonging  to  Portugal.  Comprises 
Madeira  itself  and  the  Desertas  to  the  south-east  (uninhabited)  and  Porto  Santo 
(inhabited)  to  the  north-east.  Madeira,  itself,  is  a  very  precipitous,  wooded,  volcanic  island 
c.  58  X  23  km.  Its  backbone  is  a  serrated  mountain  range  reaching  the  rugged  peak  of  Pico 
Ruivo  (1861  m)  and,  to  the  west,  the  high  grassy  plateau  of  Paul  da  Serra.  Deep  rugged 
ravines  run  to  the  coast. 

Area  796  sq.  km 

Population  265,100  (1979  estimate.  Times  Atlas,  1983) 

Floristics  About  760  species  of  native  ferns  and  flowering  plants  (Vieira,  1974), 
of  which  131  are  endemic  (lUCN  figures);  also  c.  380  introduced  plants,  mostly 
subtropical  and  many  extensively  naturalized. 

Vegetation  When  discovered  in  1419,  most  of  the  island  was  covered  with  forest, 
now  greatly  reduced.  Sjogren  (1972)  distinguishes  4  vegetation  zones:  coastal  vegetation  of 
low  shrubs,  herbs  and  succulents  (e.g.  Aeonium),  much  now  replaced  by  cultivated  land; 
laurel  forest,  a  subtropical  evergreen  cloud  forest  mainly  of  Ilex  and  Lauraceae,  rich  in 
endemics  and  with  a  large  ground  flora,  occurring  between  1300  and  1850  m;  a  transitional 
zone  (700-1250  m)  between  the  previous  2  zones;  and  above  the  laurel  forest  Erica  scrub. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Covered  in  the  Flora  of  Macaronesia  checklist  (Hansen  and 
Sunding,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Below  is  a  modern  checklist  and  2  Floras,  both  very 
old  and  one  of  them  -  Lowe  -  incomplete: 

Hansen,  A.  (1969).  Checklist  of  vascular  plants  of  the  Archipelago  of  Madeira.  Bol. 

Museu  Municipal  Funchal  24:  1-62.  (Annotated  checklist  with  extensive 

bibliography.) 
Lowe,  R.Th.  (1857-1872).  A  Manual  Flora  of  Madeira  and  the  Adjacent  Islands  of 

Porto  Santo  and  the  Desertas.  London. 

223 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Menezes,  C.A.  (1914).  Flora  do  Archipelago  da  Madeira.  Funchal.  282  pp.  (In 
Portuguese.) 

The  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London,  are  preparing  a  Flora  of  Madeira. 
Hansen  has  updated  his  1969  checkHst  in  a  series  of  papers  in  Bocagiana  (Museu  Municipal 
do  Funchal,  Madeira),  namely  No.  25  (18  pp.,  1970),  No.  27  (14  pp.,  1971),  No.  32  (13 
pp.,  1973)  and  No.  36  (37  pp.,  1974).  See  also: 

Hansen,  A.  (1976).  A  botanical  bibliography  of  the  archipelago  of  Madeira.  Bol. 
Museu  Municipal  Funchal  30:  26-45. 

Field-guides 

Christensen,  T.B.,  Dalgaard,  V.  and  Hamann,  O.  (1970).  Oversigt  over  Madeiras 

Flora.  Kobenhavens  Universitets.  167  pp.  (Includes  keys;  in  Danish.) 
Delagagao  de  Turismo  da  Madeira  (1976).  Plantas  e  Flores/Plantes  et  Fleurs/ Plants 

and  Flowers /Pflanzen  und  Blumen:  Madeira.  151  pp.  (Colour  photographs  of 

selected  species  both  wild  and  cultivated.) 
Pinto  da  Silva,  A.R.  (1975).  L'etat  actuel  des  connaissances  floristiques  et 

taxonomiques  du  Portugal,  de  Madere  et  des  Agores,  en  ce  qui  concerne  les  plantes 

vasculaires.  In  CNRS,  1975,  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  19-28. 
Ramirez  (1953).  Flora  da  Ilha  da  Madeira,  Pteridofitas .  (Not  seen.) 
Vieira,  R.  (1974).  Album  floristico  da  Madeira.  Funchal.  (Colour  photographs  of  124 

plants,  both  wild  and  cultivated;  English  version  available  as  Flowers  of  Madeira.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  The  only  known  list  is  that  produced  by  lUCN 
Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat  (1980)  for  North  Africa  and  the  Middle  East, 
cited  in  Appendix  1.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemics  -  E:17,  V:30, 
R:39,  K:22,  nt:23;  non-endemics  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:2,  V:17,  R:5  (world 
categories). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardim  Botanico  da  Madeira,  Quinta  do  Bom  Sucesso-Caminho  do  Meio,  9000 

Funchal. 
Jardim  Botanico  da  Ribeiro  Frio  (maintained  by  Servi?os  Florestais,  Departamento  de 

Agricultura  e  Pescas,  Avenida  do  Mar,  Funchal). 

Useful  Addresses 

Museu  Municipal  do  Funchal,  9(X)0  Funchal. 

Additional  References 

Bramwell,  D.,  Montelongo,  V.,  Navarro,  B.  and  Ortega,  J.  (1982).  Informe  Sobre  la 
Conservacion  de  los  Bosques  y  la  Flora  de  la  Isla  de  Madeira.  Report  to 
International  Dendrology  Society  and  lUCN,  by  staff  of  the  Jardin  Botanico  "Viera 
y  Clavijo",  outlining  proposals  for  a  protected  areas  system  on  Madeira.  (In 
Spanish  and  Portuguese.) 

Bramwell,  D.  and  Synge,  H.  (1983).  A  conservation  project  in  Madeira.  Int.  Dendrol. 
Soc.  Yb.,  1982:  73-74.  (Summary  of  Bramwell  et  al.,  1982.) 

Malato-Beliz,  J.  (1977).  Consideragoes  sobre  a  protec^ao  da  flora  e  da  vegeta?ao  na 
Madeira.  Natureza  e  Paisagem  3:  1-11. 

Sjogren,  E.  (1972).  Vascular  plant  communities  of  Madeira.  Bol.  Museu  Municipal 
Funchal  16  {UA):  45-125. 

Sjogren,  E.  (1973).  Conservation  of  natural  plant  communities  on  Madeira  and  in  the 
Azores.  \n  Proc.  1  Intern.  Congress  pro  Flora  Macaronesica.  Pp.  148-153.  (Not 
seen.) 

224 


Madeira  Islands 


Tavares,  C.N.  (1965).  Ilha  da  Madeira.  O  meio  e  a  flora.  Lisboa.  174  pp.  (In 
Portuguese.) 


Malawi 

Area  94,081  sq.  km 

Population  6,788,000 

Floristics  c.  3600  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1960,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 
Endemism  generally  low,  but  highest  in  the  mountain  areas;  Brenan  (1978,  cited  in 
Appendix  1)  estimates  69  endemic  species  from  a  sample  of  Flora  Zambesiaca.  Wild  (1964) 
lists  30  species  apparently  endemic  to  Mt  Mulanje. 

Flora  principally  Zambezian  but  with  a  few  islands  of  Afromontane  flora,  especially  the 
Misuku  forests  and  Nyika  and  Viphya  Plateaux  in  the  north,  and  Mt  Mulanje  and  Zomba 
Plateau  in  the  south. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  more  or  less  open  Brachystegia-Julbernardia 
(Miombo)  woodland;  also  considerable  areas  of  Zambezian  woodland  dominated  by 
species  of  Combretum,  Acacia  and  Piliostigma  around  Lilongwe  and  south  of  Lake 
Malawi.  Afromontane  communities  occur  at  higher  altitudes,  including  small  patches  of 
evergreen  forest  and  large  expanses  of  short  grassland.  Lowland  forest  occurs  on  the 
shores  of  the  northern  part  of  Lake  Malawi,  on  the  lower  slopes  of  Mt  Mulanje  and  on  the 
Malawi  Hills  where  they  rise  from  the  Shire  Valley. 

For  vegetation  maps  see  Wild  and  Barbosa  (1967,  1968),  and  White  (1983),  both  cited  in 
Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Malawi  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  Zambesiaca  and 
in  Trees  of  Central  Africa  (Coates  Palgrave  et  al.,  1957),  both  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Binns,  B.  (1968).  A  First  Check  List  of  the  Herbaceous  Flora  of  Malawi.  Govt  Printer, 

Zomba.  113  pp. 
Burtt  Davy,  J.  and  Hoyle,  A.C.  (Eds)  (1958).  Check  Lists  of  the  Trees  and  Shrubs  of 

the  Nyasaland  Protectorate,  2nd  Ed.,  revised  by  P.  Topham,  1958.  Govt  Printer, 

Zomba.  137  pp.  (1st  Ed.  1936  as  Check-Lists  of  the  Forest  Trees  and  Shrubs  of  the 

British  Empire.  No.  2:  Nyasaland  Protectorate,  Oxford.) 

Field-guides 

Kitchin,  A.M.  and  Pullinger,  J.S.  (1982).  Trees  of  Malawi,  with  Some  Shrubs  and 
Climbers.  229  pp.  (Colour  paintings  of  108  species,  mostly  by  J.S.  Pullinger;  text  by 
A.M.  Kitchin.) 

Moriarty,  A.  (1975).  Wild  Flowers  of  Malawi.  Purnell,  Cape  Town.  166  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  c.  130  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic, 
of  which  roughly  half  are  known  to  be  rare  or  threatened.  Of  relevance: 

Chapman,  J.D.  (1981).  Conservation  of  vegetation  and  its  constituent  species  in 
Malawi.  Nyala  6(2):  125-132. 


225 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Voluntary  Organizations 

National  Fauna  Preservation  Society  of  Malawi,  c/o  Museums  of  Malawi,  P.O.  Box 

30360,  Blantyre.  (Publishes  the  journal  Nyala.) 
Society  of  Malawi  Historic  and  Scientific,  P.O.  Box  125,  Blantyre.  (Publishes  The 

Society  of  Malawi  Journal.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Dept  of  Forestry,  Ministry  of  Forestry  and  Natural  Resources,  Lilongwe  3. 
National  Herbarium,  Chancellor  College,  P.O.  Box  280,  Zomba. 
CITES  Management  and  Scientific  Authority:  The  Chief  Game  Warden,  Dept  of 
National  Parks  and  Wildhfe,  P.O.  Box  30131,  Lilongwe  3. 

Additional  References 

Brass,  L.J.  (1953).  Vegetation  of  Nyasaland.  Report  on  the  Vernay  Nyasaland 

expedition  of  1946.  Mem.  New  York  Bot.  Gard.  8:  161-190. 
Chapman,  J.D.  (1962).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Mlanje  Mountains,  Nyasaland.  Govt 

Printer,  Zomba.  78  pp.  (With  25  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Chapman,  J.D.  (1968).  Malawi.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  215-224. 
Chapman,  J.D.  and  White,  F.  (1970).  The  Evergreen  Forests  of  Malawi. 

Commonwealth  Forestry  Institute,  Univ.  of  Oxford.  190  pp.  (Includes  a  useful 

ecological  and  phytogeographical  bibliography;  60  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  list  of  relevant  chapters. 
Wild,  H.  (1964).  The  endemic  species  of  the  Chimanimani  Mountains  and  their 

significance.  Kirkia  4:  125-157. 


Malaysia 


Area  332,669  sq.  km 

Peninsular  Malaysia:  131,587  sq.  km;  Sabah:  76,115  sq.  km;  Sarawak:  124,967  sq.  km 

Population  15,204,000,  of  which  c.  12,000,000  in  Peninsular  Malaysia 

Floristics  Peninsular  Malaysia  has  c.  8000  flowering  plant  species  in  1500  genera; 
c.  500  species  of  ferns  (Keng,  1983).  The  flora  of  the  Malay  Peninsula  comprises  mainly 
Malesian  elements,  with  continental  Asiatic  and  some  Australian  elements  at  low  and 
medium  altitudes.  Floristic  affinities  are  discussed  by  Keng  (1970).  No  figure  for  number 
of  species  in  Sabah  or  Sarawak,  but  Borneo  (whole  island)  has  c.  10,000-11,000  vascular 
plant  species,  based  on  Merrill  (1921). 

Vegetation  Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest  is  the  natural  vegetation  of  most  of 
Malaysia:  lowland  dipterocarp  forest  up  to  300  m,  hill  dipterocarp  forest  at  300-1300  m, 
montane  rain  forest  above;  semi-evergreen  rain  forest  occurs  in  the  far  north-west  of 
Peninsular  Malaysia;  karst  limestone  supporting  rich  endemic  flora  covers  260  sq.  km  in 
Peninsular  Malaysia  (Chin,  1977- );  limestone  forests  at  low  elevations  south  of  Kuching 
and  at  Niah,  and  at  high  elevations  around  Gunung  Mulu  in  Sarawak. 

Peninsular  Malaysia  Lowland  forests  have  been  heavily  logged;  most  hill 
dipterocarp  forests  selectively  logged;  only  tiny  patches  of  heath  forest  remaining  on  east 
coast;  freshwater  swamp-forest  and  c.  1136  sq.  km  of  mangrove  forest  remaining,  mostly 

226 


Malaysia 

in  south  (Corner,  1978).  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  900 
sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  75,780  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Davison  (1982) 
calculated  the  area  of  forest  in  1980  to  be  53,420  sq.  km,  of  which  primary  rain  forest 
occupied  27,925  sq.  km. 

Sabah  Lowland  and  hill  dipterocarp  forests  comprise  c.  54%  of  the  total  forest 
cover;  montane  forests,  14%  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  Most  remaining  forests  are 
'productive'  or  'potentially  productive'  dipterocarp  forests  (Myers,  1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  Upper  montane  forest  (1850-3200  m),  subalpine  rain  forest  (3200-4100  m) 
and  alpine  scrub  occur  on  Mt  Kinabalu.  Mangrove  forests  cover  3500  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981);  peat  swamp  and  mangrove  forests  in  KHas  Peninsula  now  being 
logged.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  760  sq.  km/annum 
out  of  a  total  of  49,970  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981).  According  to  estimates  by  the 
Government  of  Malaysia  (quoted  in  Myers,  1980),  there  were  61,488  sq.  km  still  forested 
in  1977,  of  which  31,000-34,521  sq.  km  were  undisturbed. 

Sarawak  Mixed  dipterocarp  forests  cover  78.6%  of  the  forest  area;  peat  swamp 
forests  about  15%;  heath  forests  (kerangas)  3.9%;  mangroves  1.8%  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 
Gunung  Mulu  National  Park  contains  most  of  the  major  vegetation  types  of  Sarawak, 
including  high  elevation  limestone  forest.  Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  of  closed 
broadleaved  forest  890  sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  84,200  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP, 
1981).  According  to  estimates  by  the  Government  of  Malaysia  (quoted  in  Myers,  1980), 
97,087  sq.  km  were  still  forested  in  1977,  of  which  55,687-62,661  sq.  km  were  undisturbed. 
Malaysia  is  included  on  the  Vegetation  Map  of  Malaysia  (van  Steenis,  1958)  and  on  the 
vegetation  map  of  Malesia  (Whitmore,  1984),  both  covering  the  Flora  Malesiana  region  at 
scale  1:5,000,000  and  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Thomas,  P.,  Lo,  F.K.C.  and  Hepburn,  A.J.  (1976).  The  Land  Capability  Classification 
of  Sabah,  4  vols.  Land  Resources  Study  25.  Ministry  of  Overseas  Development, 
Surbiton,  U.K.  (Land  use  and  evaluation,  includes  maps  of  land  capability 
classification  at  1:250,000.  Vol.  1  -  Tawau  Residency;  2  -  Sandakan  Residency;  3  - 
West  Coast  and  Kudat  Residencies;  4  -  Interior  Residency  and  Labuan.) 

Wyatt-Smith,  J.  (1964).  A  preliminary  vegetation  map  of  Malaya  with  descriptions  of 
the  vegetation  types.  J.  Trop.  Geog.  18:  200-213.  (Includes  vegetation  map  of 
Peninsular  Malaysia  with  notes  on  vegetation  types.) 

Checklists  and  Floras  Malaysia  is  included  in  the  very  detailed  but  incomplete 
Flora  Malesiana  (1948-  ),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Peninsular  Malaysia  is  covered  by: 

A  Revised  Flora  of  Malaya,  3  vols.  1  -  Orchids  of  Malaya,  by  R.E.  Holttum.  3rd  Ed., 
1964.  759  pp.  2  -  Ferns  of  Malaya  by  R.E.  Holttum,  2nd  Ed.,  1966.  653  pp.  3  - 
Grasses  of  Malaya,  by  H.B.  Gilliland  (1971).  319  pp.  Govt  Printer,  Singapore. 

Tree  Flora  of  Malaya.  Vols  1  and  2  (1972)  edited  by  T.C.  Whitmore.  Vol.  3  (1978)  and 
4  (in  press)  edited  by  F.S.P.  Ng.  Longman,  Kuala  Lumpur  and  London.  (Excludes 
Dipterocarpaceae,  but  otherwise  complete;  keys,  descriptions,  line  drawings  of 
selected  taxa.  For  dipterocarps  see  Flora  Malesiana  9(2),  1982.) 

Other  accounts  include: 

Anderson,  J.A.R.  (1980).  A  Checklist  of  the  Trees  of  Sarawak.  Forest  Dept,  Sarawak. 

364  pp.  (Over  2500  species  enumerated.) 
Browne,  F.G.  (1955).  Forest  Trees  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei  and  Their  Products.  Govt 


227 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Printer,  Kuching.  369  pp.  (Descriptions  of  timber  trees  with  notes  on  distribution 

and  wood  properties.) 
Cockburn,  P.F.  (1976,  1980).  Trees  of  Sabah,  2  vols  so  far.  Forest  Dept,  Kuching. 
Dransfield,  J.  (1979).  A  Manual  of  the  Rattans  of  the  Malay  Peninsula.  Malayan 

Forestry  Records  no.  29.  Malaysia  Forest  Dept.  270  pp.  (Keys,  descriptions, 

drawings;  checklist  of  104  species.) 
Dransfield,  J.  (1984).  The  Rattans  of  Sabah.  Forest  Dept,  Sabah.  182  pp.  (Keys, 

descriptions,  drawings;  checkHst  of  82  taxa.) 
Fox,  J.E.D.  (1970).  Preferred  Check-list  of  Sabah  Trees.  Sabah  Forest  Record  no.  7. 

Borneo  Literature  Bureau,  Kuching.  65  pp. 
Merrill,  E.D.  (1921).  /I  Bibliographic  Enumeration  of  Bornean  Plants.  Fraser  and 

Neave,  Singapore.  637  pp.  (Systematic  enumeration  with  notes  on  distribution; 

introduction  covers  vegetation,  history  of  botanical  investigation.) 
Ridley,  H.N.  (1922-1925).  The  Flora  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  5  vols.  Reeve,  London. 

(Reprinted  1968;  Asher,  Amsterdam.) 
Whitmore,  T.C.  (1973).  Palms  of  Malaya.  Oxford  Univ.  Press,  London.  132  pp. 
Wyatt-Smith,  J.  (1952).  Pocket  Check  List  of  Timber  Trees.  Malayan  Forest  Records 

no.  17.  Forest  Dept,  Peninsular  Malaysia.  (3rd  Ed.,  1979,  by  K.M.  Kochummen.) 

Field-guides 

Corner,  E.J.H.  (1952).  Wayside  Trees  of  Malaya,  2nd  Ed.,  2  vols.  Govt  Printing 

Office,  Singapore. 
Henderson,  M.R.  (1949,  1954).  Malayan  Wild  Flowers,  2  vols.  Malayan  Nature  Soc, 

Kuala  Lumpur.  (1  -  dicotyledons;  2  -  monocotyledons;  keys,  descriptions  of  a 

selection  of  wildflowers.) 
Kurata,  S.  (1976).  Nepenthes  of  Kinabalu.  Sabah  National  Parks,  Kota  Kinanbalu. 

80  pp. 
Shivas,  R.  (1984).  Pitcher  Plants  of  Peninsular  Malaysia  and  Singapore.  Maruzen  Asia, 

Singapore.  58  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  list  of  threatened  plants  has  been 
published.  4  species  are  included  in  The  lUCN Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  A  preliminary 
Hst  of  endemics  from  hmestone  areas,  prepared  by  S.C.  Chin  in  1984,  includes  -  E:6,  V:2, 
R:72,  1:41,  nt:30,  K:13.  lUCN  also  has  a  full  list  of  palms,  some  of  which  have 
conservation  categories. 

Kiew,  R.  (1983-  ).  Portraits  of  threatened  plants.  Malayan  Naturalist  37(1):  6-7;  37(2): 
6-7;  37(4):  4-6;  38(1):  9-10;  38(2):  6.  (Data  sheets  on  Maxburretia  rupicola.  Ilex 
praetermissa,  Didymocarpus  primulinus ,  Maclurodendron  magnificum,  Melicope 
suberosa,  Musa  gracilis  and  Maingaya  malayana.) 

Ng,  F.S.P.  and  Low,  CM.  (1982).  Check  List  of  Endemic  Trees  of  the  Malay 

Peninsula.  Forest  Research  Institute,  Kepong.  94  pp.  (Lists  654  trees  endemic  to  the 
Malay  peninsula  of  which  343  'endangered',  based  on  numbers  of  herbarium 
specimens.) 

Rao,  A.N.,  Keng,  H.  and  Wee,  Y.C.  (1983).  Problems  in  conservation  of  plant 

resources  in  South  East  Asia.  In  Jain,  S.K.  and  Mehra,  K.L.  (Eds),  Conservation  of 
Tropical  Plant  Resources.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah.  Pp.  181-204. 
(Includes  list  of  90  endemic  taxa  threatened  in  Malaysia;  useful  bibliography.) 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Malayan  Nature  Society,  P.O.  Box  10750,  Kuala  Lumpur,  Peninsular  Malaysia. 
Sabah  Society,  P.O.  Box  547,  Kota  Kinabalu,  Sabah. 

228 


Malaysia 

WWF-Malaysia,  Wisma  Damansara,  Jalan  Semantan,  P.O.  Box  10769,  Kuala  Lumpur, 
Peninsular  Malaysia. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Gardens,  Penang,  Peninsular  Malaysia. 

Forest  Research  Centre  (Arboretum  and  Herbarium),  P.O.  Box  1407,  Sandakan, 

Sabah. 
Forest  Research  Institute  (Arboretum  and  Herbarium),  Kepong,  Selangor,  Peninsular 

Malaysia. 
Rimba  Ilmu  Botanic  Garden,  Department  of  Botany,  University  of  Malaya,  Lembah 

Pantai,  Kuala  Lumpur,  Peninsular  Malaysia. 
Sabah  Orchid  Centre,  c/o  Cocoa  Research  Station,  P.O.  Box  197,  Tenom,  Sabah. 
Semangoh  Arboretum,  Sarawak  Forest  Department,  Kuching,  Sarawak. 

Useful  Addresses 

Sarawak  Herbarium,  Forest  and  Department  Headquarters,  Jalan  Badruddin,  Kuching, 

Sarawak. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Wildlife  and  National  Parks,  Pejabat-Pejabat 

Kerajaan,  Blok  K-19,  Jalan  Duta,  Kuala  Lumpur  11-04,  Peninsular  Malaysia. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Secretary  General,  Ministry  of  Science,  Technology  and 

the  Environment,  Tingkat  14,  Bangunan  Oriental  Plaza,  Jalan  Ramli,  Kuala 

Lumpur  04-01,  Peninsular  Malaysia. 

Additional  References 

Anderson,  J.A.R.  (1963).  The  flora  of  the  peat  swamp  forest  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei, 

including  a  catalogue  of  all  recorded  species  of  flowering  plants,  ferns  and  fern 

alHes.  Card.  Bull.  Singapore  20:  131-228. 
Brunig,  E.F.  (1974).  Ecological  Studies  in  the  Kerangas  Forests  of  Sarawak  and  Brunei. 

Borneo  Literature  Bureau,  Kuching.  237  pp. 
Burkill,  I.H.  (1966).  A  Dictionary  of  the  Economic  Products  of  the  Malay  Peninsula, 

2nd  Ed.,  2  vols.  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Kuala  Lumpur.  (2432  species,  notes  on 

origin,  uses,  vernacular  names.) 
Chai,  P.K.  and  Choo,  N.C.  (1983).  Conservation  of  forest  genetic  resources  in 

Malaysia  with  special  reference  to  Sarawak.  In  Jain,  S.K.  and  Mehra,  K.L.  (Eds), 

Conservation  of  Tropical  Plant  Resources.  Botanical  Survey  of  India,  Howrah. 

Pp.  39-47.  — 

Chin,  S.C.  (1977-  ).  The  limestone  hill  flora  of  Malaya.  Card.  Bull.  Singapore  30: 

165-219;  32:  64-203;  35:  137-190;  36:  31-91.  (About  1216  vascular  species  found  on 

limestone,  including  261  endemics;  keys,  annotated  checklist.) 
Corner,  E.J.H.  (1978).  The  Freshwater  Swamp-forest  of  South  Johore  and  Singapore. 

Gardens  Bulletin  Supplement  1,  Singapore.  266  pp.  (Ecology;  species  lists.) 
Davison,  G.W.H.  (1982).  How  much  forest  is  there?  Malayan  Naturalist  35:  11-12. 
Holttum,  R.E.  (1954).  Plant  Life  in  Malaya.  Longmans  and  Green,  London.  254  pp. 

(Useful  introduction  to  the  flora.) 
Jacobs,  M.  (1974).  Botanical  panorama  of  the  Malesian  archipelago  (vascular  plants). 

In  Unesco,  Natural  Resources  of  Humid  Tropical  Asia.  Natural  Resources  Research 

12.  Unesco,  Paris.  Pp.  263-294. 
Keng,  H.  (1970).  Size  and  affinities  of  the  flora  of  the  Malay  Peninsula.  /.  Trop. 

Geog.  31:  43-56. 
Keng,  H.  (1983).  Orders  and  Families  of  Malayan  Seed  Plants.   Singapore  Univ.  Press. 

441  pp.  (Revised  edition;  keys  and  brief  systematic  accounts  of  41  orders  and  177 

families  in  the  Malayan  flora.) 

229 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Kiew,  R.  (1983).  Conservation  of  Malaysian  plant  species.  Malayan  Naturalist  37(1): 

2-5.  (Conservation  problems  and  priorities.) 
Lee,  D.  (1980).  The  Sinking  Ark:  Environmental  Problems  in  Malaysia  and  Southeast 

Asia.  Heinemann,  Kuala  Lumpur.  85  pp. 
Luping,  D.M.,  Wen,  C.  and  Dingley,  E.R.  (1978).  Kinabalu:  Summit  of  Borneo.  Sabah 

Society  Monograph,  Kota  Kinabalu.  486  pp.  (Covers  flora,  vegetation,  fauna, 

geology,  history  of  exploitation.) 
Shuttleworth,  C.  (1981).  Malaysia's  Green  and  Timeless  World.  Heinemann,  Kuala 

Lumpur.  221  pp.  (Covers  flora  and  fauna). 
Watson,  J.G.  (1928).  Mangrove  Forests  of  the  Malay  Peninsula.  Malayan  Forest 

Records  no.  6.  Fed.  Malay  States  Govt.  275  pp. 


Maldives 


The  Maldives  (298  sq.  km)  comprise  1201  islands,  grouped  into  19  coral  atolls,  extending 
north-south  for  about  885  km  south-west  of  Sri  Lanka,  between  latitudes  7°N  and  3°S, 
and  longitudes  73-74°E.  202  islands  are  permanently  inhabited;  the  total  population  is 
173,000. 

The  islands  are  mostly  below  1.5  m  above  sea-level,  and  covered  by  coconut  palms, 
grassland  or  scrub.  Little  native  vegetation  remains  undisturbed. 

583  vascular  plant  species  (including  cultivated  plants).  According  to  Adams  (1983),  there 
are  260  "native  or  naturalized"  species,  of  which  about  half  are  likely  to  have  been 
intentionally  introduced.  The  only  recorded  endemics  are  5  species  of  Pandanus  (St  John, 
1961).  There  are  local  restrictions  on  the  cutting  of  any  living  plant  for  firewood,  except 
Scaevola  sericea  (CD.  Adams,  1984,  in  litt.). 

References 

Adams,  CD.  (1983).  Report  to  the  Government  of  the  Maldive  Islands  on  Flora 

Identification.  FAO  Project  RAS  79/123,  Rome.  41  pp. 
Fosberg,  F.R.  (1957).  The  Maldive  Islands,  Indian  Ocean.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  58.  37  pp. 

(Includes  checklist  of  4  ferns,  one  cycad,  322  angiosperms,  many  of  which  are 

introductions.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.,  Groves,  E.W.  and  Sigee,  D.C  (1966).  List  of  Addu  vascular  plants.  In 

Stoddart,  D.R.  (Ed.),  Reef  studies  at  Addu  Atoll,  Maldive  Islands.  Preliminary 

results  of  an  expedition  to  Addu  Atoll  in  1964.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  116:  75-92. 

(Checklist  of  5  ferns,  2  gymnosperms,  135  angiosperms.) 
St  John,  H.  (1961).  Revision  of  the  Genus  Pandanus  Stickman,  Part  5.  Pandanus  of 

the  Maldive  Islands  and  Seychelles  Islands,  Indian  Ocean.  Pacific  Science  15: 

328-346. 
Stutz,  L.-C  (1982).  Herborisation  1981  aux  lies  Maldives.  Candollea  37:  599-631.  (Lists 

123  taxa  in  Male,  Bandos  and  Thulaagiri;  notes  on  uses,  and  additional  reports  on 

31  mainly  introduced  shrubs.) 
WilHs,  J.C  and  Gardiner,  J.S.  (1901).  The  botany  of  the  Maldive  Islands.  Annals 

Royal  Botanic  Gardens  Peradeniya  1:  45-164.  (Includes  annotated  list  of  359  species 

recorded  from  Chagos  Archipelago,  Laccadives  and  Maldives;  284  recorded  on 

Maldives,  of  which  c.  90  are  native.) 

230 


Mali 


Area  1,240,142  sq.  km 

Population  7,825,000 

Floristics  1600  species  (J. -P.  Lebrun,  1984,  pers.  comm.),  with  11  endemic 
species  (Brenan,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Floristically  poor  for  its  enormous  size. 

Floristic  affinities  Saharan,  Sahelian  and  Sudanian  in  north,  centre  and  south  of  country 
respectively. 

Vegetation  Northern  half  of  country  desert  and  semi-desert  with  little  or  no 
perennial  vegetation.  Southwards:  east-west  bands  of  Acacia  wooded  grassland  and 
deciduous  bushland,  Sudanian  woodland  without  characteristic  dominants,  and  Sudanian 
woodland  with  Isoberlinia.  Also,  a  large  area  of  swamp  grassland  with  semi-aquatic 
vegetation  in  centre  of  country. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Clieeklists  and  Floras  Mali  south  of  c.  18°N  is  included  in  the  Flora  of  West 
Tropical  Africa.  Mali  north  of  c.  16°N  is  included  in  Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and 
in  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980);  these  are  all  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Boudet,  G.  and  Lebrun,  J. -P.  (in  prep.).  Catalogues  des  plantes  vasculaires  du  Mali. 
To  be  published  by  the  Institut  d'Elevage  et  de  Medecine  Veterinaire  des  Pays 
Tropicaux,  Maisons-Alfort. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  11  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic, 
including  V:2,  R:3. 

Jaeger,  P.  (1956).  Contribution  a  I'etude  des  forets  reliques  du  Soudan  occidental.  Bull. 
IFAN  18A:  993-1053.  (Includes  small  map  of  distribution  of  threatened  timber  tree 
Gilletiodendron  glandulosum.) 

Additional  References 

Jaeger,  P.  (1968).  MaH.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  51-53. 
Jaeger,  P.  and  Winkoun,  D.  (1962).  Premier  contact  avec  la  flore  et  la  vegetation  du 

plateau  de  Bandiagara.  Bull.  IFAN  24A:  69-111. 
Rossetti,  C.  (1962).  Observations  sur  la  Vegetation  au  Mali  Oriental  (1959).  Projet 

Pelerin,  Rapp.  No.  UNSF/DL/ES/4,  FAO,  Rome.  68  pp. 


Malta 


The  Republic  of  Malta  includes  Malta,  Gozo,  Comino  and  2  uninhabited  islands,  in  the 
central  Mediterranean. 

Area  316  sq.  km 

Population  380,000 


231 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Floristics  900  native  vascular  species  (E.  Lanfranco,  1984,  pers.  comm.);  5 
endemics  (lUCN  figures).  A  Mediterranean  flora. 

Vegetation  Little  natural  vegetation  due  to  agriculture,  building  construction  and 
tourism.  Most  remaining  vegetation  is  semi-natural  and  confined  to  inaccessible  coastal 
cliffs,  e.g.  fragments  of  garigue  and  maquis  with  remnants  of  Holm  Oak  (Quercus  ilex) 
woodland,  now  reduced  to  a  few  individuals.  Inland,  on  the  jagged  coralline  limestone 
plateau  in  the  north  and  west,  there  is  a  thin  scattered  scrub  of  garigue,  with  occasional 
trees  in  the  valleys.  Elsewhere  garigue  is  the  dominant  vegetation  cover  with  Euphorbia, 
Thymus  and  Teucrium  spp.  Little  maquis  remains. 

Priority  areas  for  protection  are  as  follows:  "Wardija  Ridge,  the  pool  and  sand  dunes  at 
Ghadira  and  in  Gozo,  the  dunes  at  Ramla  bay  and  the  coralline  plateau  and  valley  between 
Ta'  Cenc  and  Mgarr  ix-Xini.  These  together  with  the  Wieds  contain  much  of  what  is  left  of 
the  semi-natural  vegetation  of  the  Islands"  (Haslam  et  al.,  1977). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Malta  is  covered  by  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin 
et  al.,  1964-1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1,  but  plant  records  are  not  distinguished  from  those 
for  Sicily.  Malta  is  also  being  covered  by  the  Med-Checklist  (cited  in  Appendix  1). 
National  Floras: 

Borg,  J.  (1927).  Descriptive  Flora  of  the  Maltese  Islands.  Government  Printing  Office, 
Malta.  846  pp.  (Extensive  introductory  text  describes  geology,  climate,  vegetation 
and  botanical  exploration;  reprinted  1976.) 

Haslam,  S.M.,  Sell,  P.D.  and  Wolseley,  P.A.  (1977).  A  Flora  of  the  Maltese  Islands. 
Malta  University  Press,  Msida.  560  pp.  (Introduction  outlines  history  of  floristic 
studies  in  Malta,  plant  communities  and  habitats;  line  drawings.) 

Relevant  journal,  which  includes  conservation  articles:  The  Maltese  Naturalist,  Society  for 
the  Study  and  Conservation  of  Nature  (SSCN),  address  below. 

Field-guides 

Lanfranco,  G.G.  (1977).  Field  Guide  to  the  Wild  Flowers  of  Malta,  2nd  Ed.  Progress 
Press,  Malta.  83  pp.  (Illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  national  plant  Red  Data  Book,  but  see: 

Lanfranco,  E.  (1976).  Report  on  the  present  situation  of  the  Maltese  flora.  The  Maltese 
Naturalist  2(3):  69-80.  (Describes  threats  to  the  flora;  lists  over  300  extinct  and 
endangered  taxa  in  2  appendices;  line  drawings  of  over  50  species.) 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  endemic  taxa  -  V:l,  R:2,  1:1, 
nt:l. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Antiquities  Act  of  1933  (Article  3)  provides 
protection  for  historical  trees  and  those  over  200  years  old.  This  includes  Quercus  ilex  as 
well  as  several  cultivated  trees.  Legislation  for  the  protection  of  Maltese  wildlife  has  been 
prepared  by  the  Environment  Protection  Centre  (address  below)  and  now  awaits 
finalization. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Society  for  the  Study  and  Conservation  of  Nature  (SSCN),  P.O.  Box  459,  Valetta. 
(Formerly  the  Natural  History  Society  of  Malta.) 


232 


Malta 

Botanic  Gardens 

Argotti  Botanic  Gardens,  Floriana. 

Useful  Addresses 

Environment  Protection  Centre  (EPC),  Ministry  of  Health  and  Environment,  Bighi, 
Malta. 

Additional  References 

Kramer,  K.U.  et  at.  (1972).  Floristic  and  cytotaxonomic  notes  on  the  flora  of  the 

Maltese  Islands.  Acta  Bot.  Neerl.  21(1):  54-66. 
Lanfranco,  E.  (1980).  A  survey  of  natural  sites  in  Gozo  and  the  updating  of  flora  and 

fauna  lists.  Gozo  Agricultural  Study.  Working  Paper  no.  Ill/i.  Unesco  and 

University  of  Malta.  (Not  seen.) 
Lanfranco,  E.  (1981).  Suggestions  on  the  conservation  of  the  unique  flora  associated 

with  the  Gozo  Citadel.  Sac.  Stud.  Cons.  Nat.  3  pp. 
Lanfranco,  E.  (1982).  Maltese  succulents  and  conservation.  Kakti  u  Sukkulenti  Ohra 

24:  13-15. 


Mariana  Islands 


14  islands  to  the  north  of  Guam,  in  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  extending  in  a  925  km  arc 
between  latitudes  12-23°N  and  longitudes  145-150°E.  The  northern  islands  are  volcanic, 
some  still  active;  Tinian  (102  sq.  km)  and  Rota  (86  sq.  km)  in  the  south  are  raised  limestone 
terraces  overlying  extinct  volcanoes.  The  Marianas  are  part  of  the  United  Nations  Trust 
Territory  of  the  Pacific  Islands  administered  by  the  United  States,  but  currently  form  the 
Commonwealth  of  the  Northern  Mariana  Islands  (Ballendorf,  1984). 

Area  477  sq.  km 

Population  16,780  (1980  census) 

Floristics  No  overall  figure  for  the  size  of  the  flora,  but  478  dicotyledon  taxa, 
including  introductions.  Of  the  221  native  dicotyledons,  78  are  endemic  (Fosberg,  Sachet 
and  Oliver,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  only  native  gymnosperm  is  Cycas  circinalis, 
which  is  non-endemic.  There  are  64  native  fern  taxa,  of  which  3  are  endemic  (Fosberg, 
Sachet  and  Oliver,  1982,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  The  flora  is  mostly  related  to  that  of  S.E. 
Asia,  Melanesia  and  New  Guinea. 

Vegetation  Pioneer  stands  of  Casuarina,  broadleaved  evergreen  thickets,  mixed 
scrub  forest,  with  some  Miscanthus  and  Nephrolepis  herbaceous  communities  on  the 
northern  islands.  Broadleaved  evergreen  forest  on  old  lava  flows;  Miscanthus  and  tree 
ferns  on  ash  slopes  of  those  northern  islands  with  dormant  volcanoes  (Douglas,  1969,  cited 
in  Appendix  1).  Tinian  has  mostly  secondary  forests;  Rota  has  some  closed  evergreen  and 
limestone  forests  (Fosberg,  1973,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Small  areas  of  cloud  forest  occur 
on  the  volcanic  islands  of  Saipan,  Agrihan,  Alamagan  and  Anatahan  (Dahl,  1980,  cited 
in  Appendix  1).  The  lower  slopes  on  many  islands  have  been  cleared  for  cultivation. 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  Marianas  are  included  in  Flora  Micronesica  (Kanehira, 
1933),  the  regional  checklists  of  Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver  (1979,  1982),  cited  in 
Appendix  1,  and  will  be  covered  by  the  Flora  of  Micronesia  (1975-  ),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 
Separate  lists  include: 

233 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Fosberg,  F.R.,  Falanruw,  M.V.C.  and  Sachet,  M.-H.  (1975).  Vascular  flora  of  the 
Northern  Marianas  Islands.  Smithsonian  Contrib.  Bot.  22.  45  pp.  (Annotated 
checklist  with  geographical  and  ecological  data.) 

Fosberg,  F.R.,  Falanruw,  M.V.C.  and  Sachet,  M.-H.  (1977).  Additional  records  of 
vascular  plants  from  the  Northern  Mariana  Islands.  Micronesica  13(1):  27-31. 

Information   on   Threatened   Plants  Heritiera  longipetioiata  and   Serianthes 
nelsonii  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978). 

Additional  References 

Ballendorf,  D.A.  (1984).  American  social,  political  and  economic  interests  in 
Micronesia.  Ambio  13(5-6):  294-295. 


Marion  and  Prince  Edward 
Islands 


The  volcanic  islands  of  Marion  and  Prince  Edward  in  the  Southern  Ocean  are  22  km  apart; 
the  nearest  continent  is  Africa  1800  km  NNW.  Marion  Island  (46°55'S,  37°45'E)  has  a 
central  highland  plateau  rising  to  over  1200  m,  the  top  of  which  is  permanently  covered 
with  ice.  The  area  of  Marion  is  300  sq.  km;  that  of  Prince  Edward  is  90  sq.  km.  There  is  a 
permanently  manned  weather  and  scientific  station  on  Marion,  with  up  to  12  persons.  In 
1948  South  Africa  proclaimed  sovereignty  of  the  islands. 

Marion  has  22  native  and  13  introduced  vascular  species;  Prince  Edward  has  21  native  and 
1  introduced  vascular  species.  One  endemic  (Elaphoglossum  randii).  (Gremmen,  1982). 
Cryptogams  show  quite  a  high  degree  of  endemism.  There  are  no  trees  or  shrubs.  The 
vegetation  of  the  coastal  areas  consists  of  herbaceous  communities  dominated  by  salt- 
resistant  species.  Otherwise  the  islands  are  mostly  covered  by  various  sorts  of  tundra-type 
mire  in  which  the  important  peat-forming  plants  are  bryophytes,  closed  communities  of 
tussock-forming  grasses,  cushion-forming  flowering  plants,  and  communities  with  large- 
leaved  perennial  species. 

References 

Greene,  S.W.  and  Walton,  D.W.H.  (1975).  An  annotated  check  Hst  of  the  sub-antarctic 

and  antarctic  vascular  flora.  Polar  Record  17(110):  473-484. 
Gremmen,  N.J.M.  (1982).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Subantarctic  Islands  Marion  and 

Prince  Edward.  (Geobotany  3.)  Junk,  The  Hague.  149  pp.  (With  tables  of  the 

indigenous  vascular  plants  and  their  distributions.) 
van  Zinderen  Bakker  Sr,  E.M.,  Winterbottom,  J.M.  and  Dyer,  R.A.  (Eds)  (1971). 

Marion  and  Prince  Edward  Islands:  Report  on  the  South  African  Biological  and 

Geographical  Expedition,  1965-1966.  Balkema,  Cape  Town.  427  pp.  (Includes 

numerous  papers  on  the  islands;  see  especially  that  of  B.J.  Huntley,  pp.  98-160,  on 

the  vegetation.) 


234 


Marquesas  Islands 


The  Marquesas  are  an  isolated  group  of  14  volcanic  islands  in  the  central  Pacific  Ocean, 
between  latitudes  7°50'  and  10°35'S,  and  longitudes  138°25'  and  140°50'W.  Their  nearest 
neighbours  are  the  atolls  of  the  Tuamotu  Archipelago,  483  km  to  the  south.  Apart  from 
Ua  Pu,  each  island  appears  to  consist  of  half  an  original  volcanic  peak.  The  highest  point 
is  1260  m,  on  Hiva  Oa.  The  Marquesas  form  an  administrative  division  of  French 
Polynesia. 

Area  1275  sq.  km 

Population  800,  most  on  Tahuata  and  Fatu  Hiva  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in 
Appendix  1). 

Floristics  76  ferns  and  171  native  angiosperm  taxa  (Flora  of  Southeastern 
Polynesia,  1931-1935,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  103  endemic  vascular  plant  taxa  (lUCN 
figures).  24  species  are  found  only  on  Nuku  Hiva,  13  are  confined  to  Hiva  Oa,  6  to  Fatu 
Hiva,  5  to  Ua  Pu,  2  to  Eiao,  and  one  confined  to  each  of  Ua  Huka  and  Mohotani 
(Melville,  1970).  Lebronnecia  and  Cyrtandroidea  are  monotypic  endemic  genera. 

Vegetation  The  natural  vegetation  included  upland  rain  forest,  with 
Metrosideros,  Weinmannia  and  tree  ferns,  above  600  m,  in  northern  and  western  Nuku 
Hiva,  Fatu  Hiva,  Ua  Huku  and  Ua  Pu,  and  above  1000  m  on  Hiva  Oa;  dry  forest,  with 
Hibiscus,  Pandanus,  Thespesia  and  Cordia,  on  the  lower  slopes  below  the  cloud  line,  and 
originally  covering  most  of  Eiao  and  Fatu  Huku  (Melville,  1970);  and  intermediate  or 
'mesophytic'  forest,  with  Hibiscus,  Piper  and  Cordyline,  on  the  plateaux  to  the  west  and 
east  of  Mt  Ootua  on  Hiva  Oa,  and  over  most  of  central  Nuku  Hiva  (Adamson,  1936). 
Eragrostis  grassland  and  xerophytic  scrub  is  still  found  on  the  lower,  more  arid  islands 
such  as  Hatutu. 

All  the  islands  have  been  devastated  by  overgrazing  by  feral  and  domestic  animals.  Much 
of  the  original  dry  forest  on  the  lower  slopes  below  1000  m,  has  been  totally  destroyed,  or 
reduced  to  Gleichenia  and  tussock  grassland,  and  on  some  islands,  such  as  Eiac,  the  drier 
parts  of  Nuku  Hiva,  and  in  north-west  Ua  Pu,  there  is  no  vegetation  left  at  all  (Melville, 
1970,  1979;  Schafer,  1977).  Feral  cattle  have  caused  extensive  damage  to  upland  rain 
forests  on  the  larger  islands  (Melville,  1970) 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  only  complete  account  is  the  Flora  of  Southeastern 
Polynesia  (Brown  and  Brown,  1931-1935),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Sachet,  M.-H.  (1975).  Flora  of  the  Marquesas,  1:  Ericaceae-Convolvulaceae. 
Smithsonian  Contrib.  Bot.  23.  34  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Lebronnecia  kokioides  and  Pelagodoxa 
henryana  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics: 
endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:17,  V:13,  R:7,  1:21,  K:40,  nt:4. 

Additional  References 

Adamson,  A.M.  (1936).  Marquesan  insects:  environment.  Bull.  Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus. 

139.  73  pp.  (Includes  description  of  vegetation.) 
Gillett,  G.W.  Report  on  botanical  research  in  the  Marquesas  Islands  (1970).  Bull.  Soc. 

Etud.  Oceanien.  (Not  seen.) 
Halle,  F.  Arbres  et  forets  de  lies  Marquises.  Cah.  Pacifiq.  27.  (Not  seen.) 
Melville,  R.  (1970).  The  endemic  plants  of  the  Marquesas  Islands  and  their 

conservation  status.  (Unpublished  Red  Data  Bulletin  material.) 

235 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Melville,  R.  (1979).  Endangered  island  floras.  In  Bramweil,  D.  (Ed.),  Plants  and 

Islands.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  361-377. 
Sachet,  M.H.,  Schafer,  P. A.  and  Thibault,  J.C.  (1975).  Mohotani:  une  Tie  protegee  aux 

Marquises.  Bull.  Soc.  Etudes  Oceanien  16(6):  557-568. 
Sal  vat,  B.  (1974).  Mesures  en  faveur  de  la  Protection  de  la  lies  Marquises.  Unpublished 

report.  (Not  seen.) 
Schafer,  P. A.  (1977).  La  Vegetation  et  L'Influence  Humaine  aux  lies  Marquises. 

Academic  de  Montpellier,  Languedoc.  31  pp. 


Marshall  Islands 


The  Marshall  Islands  are  the  easternmost  island  group  of  Micronesia  in  the  western  Pacific 
Ocean,  between  latitudes  8-12°N  and  longitudes  I62-172°E.  There  are  two  island  chains: 
the  Ralik  Chain  (18  atolls)  and  the  Ratak  Chain  (15  atolls).  They  form  a  district  of  the 
United  Nations  Trust  Territory  of  the  Pacific  Islands  administered  by  the  United  States. 
All  the  atolls  are  low  with  numerous  islets,  some  of  which  enclose  a  central  lagoon.  The 
largest  island  is  Kwajalein  (16  sq.  km)  with  92  islets. 

Area  181  sq.  km 

Population  30,873 

Floristics  No  overall  figure  for  size  of  flora,  but  293  dicotyledon  taxa,  of  which 
88  are  native  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  one  native  cycad 
{Cycas  circinalis)  and  10  native  fern  taxa  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1982,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  Most  of  the  atolls  are  species-poor,  the  majority  of  plants  having  a 
widespread  distribution  throughout  the  Pacific  and  Indian  Oceans.  No  endemic  ferns  or 
gymnosperms;  4  endemic  Pandanus  spp.  (St  John,  1960).  Pokak,  in  the  Ratak  Chain,  has 
an  endemic  grass  {Lepturus  gassaparicensis)  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Vegetation  Small  remnants  of  atoll/beach  forest  (mostly  comprising  pan-Pacific 
species  such  as  Pisonia  grandis,  Casuarina  equisetifolia,  Pandanus  tectorius  and  Scaevola 
spp.)  on  some  northern  atolls  (e.g.  Wotho,  Ujae  and  some  of  the  islets  of  Kwajalein); 
small  areas  of  mangrove  forest  on  Jaluit,  Ailinglapalap  and  Mejit  (Dahl,  1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1).  All  the  Marshall  Islands  have  been  greatly  modified;  most  atolls  have 
coconut  and  breadfruit  plantations  and  some  islands  have  been  drastically  damaged  by  the 
testing  of  atomic  weapons.  For  an  account  of  the  condition  and  status  of  the  forests  see 
Fosberg  (1973),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checlilists  and  Floras  The  Marshall  Islands  are  included  in  Flora  Micronesica 
(Kanehira,  1933),  the  regional  checklists  of  Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver  (1979,  1982),  and 
will  be  covered  by  the  Flora  of  Micronesia  (1975- ),  all  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Separate  lists 
for  individual  islands  include: 

Fosberg,  F.R.  (1955).  Northern  Marshalls  expedition  1951-1952:  land  biota;  vascular 

plants.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  39.  22  pp.  (Annotated  list;  notes  on  habitats,  distribution. 

For  additions  see  ibid.,  68.  9  pp.,  1959.) 
Fosberg,  F.R.  (1956).  Military  Geography  of  the  Northern  Marshalls.  U.S.  Army 

Engineers  and  U.S.  Geological  Survey.  320  pp.  (Describes  21  atolls,  notes  on 

vegetation,  lists  about  150  species  on  13  atolls.) 


236 


Marshall  Islands 

Fosberg,  F.R.  and  Sachet,  M.-H.  (1962).  Vascular  plants  recorded  from  Jaluit  Atoll. 

Atoll  Res.  Bull.  92.  39  pp. 
Hatheway,  W.H.  (1953).  The  land  vegetation  of  Arno  Atoll,  Marshall  Islands. 

Scientific  investigations  in  Micronesia.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  16.  68  pp.  (Arno  has  c.  125 

species  of  which  44  are  native;  all  are  wide-ranging  species  of  the  Pacific  and  Indian 

Oceans.) 
Koidzumi,  G.  (1915).  The  vegetation  of  Jaluit  Island.  Bot.  Mag.  (Tokyo)  29:  242-252. 

(59  species  listed;  40  indigenous,  all  of  widespread  distribution.) 
Okabe,  M.  (1941).  An  enumeration  of  the  plants  collected  in  Marshall  Islands.  J.  Jap. 

Forestry  Soc.  23:  261-272. 
St  John,  H.  (1951).  Plant  records  from  Aur  Atoll  and  Majuro  Atoll,  Marshall  Islands, 

Micronesia.  Pacific  Plant  Studies  9.  Pacific  Science  5:  279-286.  (Annotated  list  of  78 

vascular  plant  taxa  collected  on  the  atolls,  43  indigenous.) 
St  John,  H.  (1960).  Flora  of  Eniwetok  Atoll.  Pacific  Science  14:  313-336.  (95  taxa 

recorded;  42  indigenous,  4  endemic  pandans;  includes  keys  and  brief  descriptions.) 
Taylor,  W.R.  (1950).  Plants  of  Bikini  and  Other  Northern  Marshall  Islands.  Ann 

Arbor,  Univ.  of  Michigan  Press.  227  pp.  (Results  of  investigations  carried  out 

before  the  testing  of  atomic  weapons.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 


Mauritania 

Area  1,030,700  sq.  km 

Population  1,832,000 

Floristics  1100  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Levels  of 
endemism  not  known,  but  probably  low.  Floristic  affinities  Saharan  and  Sahelian. 

Vegetation  Mostly  desert  and  semi-desert,  with  little  or  no  perennial  vegetation. 
As  rainfall  increases  further  south,  semi-desert  grassland  grades  into  rather  low  wooded 
grassland  with  Acacia  tortilis,  increasing  in  density  and  height,  reaching  8  m  or  so  high  in 
the  extreme  south.  \ 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Mauritania  is  included  in  Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977), 
and  in  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980).  The  tropical,  southern  part  of  Mauritania  is  included  in 
the  Flora  of  West  Tropical  Africa.  These  are  all  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Adam,  J.G.  (1962).  Itineraires  botaniques  en  Afrique  occidentale;  flore  et  vegetation 
d'hiver  de  la  Mauritanie  Occidentale.  Les  paturages.  Inventaire  des  plantes  signalees 
en  Mauritanie.  J.  Agric.  Trop.  Bot.  Appl.  9:  85-200,  297-416.  Also  reprinted 
separately  by  Museum  National  d'Histoire  Naturelle,  Paris,  according  to  Frodin. 
(With  18  plates  of  black  and  white  photographs.) 

Monod,  T.  (1939).  Phanerogams.  In  Contributions  a  I'Etude  du  Sahara  Occidental, 
vol.  2:  55-211.  Larose,  Paris.  (Publications  du  Comite  d'Etudes  Historiques  et 
Scientifiques  de  1' Afrique  Occidentale  Frangaise,  Ser.  B,  No.  5,  according  to 
Frodin.) 

237 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  only  7  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic, 
including  R:3. 

Additional  References 

Adam,  J.G.  (1968).  La  Mauritanie.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Pp.  49-51. 
Audry,  P.  and  Rossetti,  C.  (1962).  Observations  sur  les  Sols  et  la  Vegetation  en 

Mauritanie  de  Sud-Est  et  sur  la  Bordure  Adjacente  du  Mali  (1959  et  1961).  Projet 

Pelerin,  Rapp.  No.  UNSF/DL/ES/3,  FAO,  Rome.  267  pp.  (With  24  black  and 

white  photographs.) 
Monod,  T.  (1938).  Notes  botaniques  sur  le  Sahara  occidental  et  ses  confins  saheliens. 

Mem.  Soc.  Biogeogr.  6:  351-374. 
Monod,  T.  (1952).  Contribution  a  I'etude  du  peuplement  de  la  Mauritanie.  Notes 

botaniques  sur  I'Adrar  (Sahara  Occidental).  Bull.  IFAN  14:  405-449;  16A:  1-48. 
Murat,  M.  (1944).  Esquisse  phytogeographique  du  Sahara  occidental.  Remarques  et 

Commentaires  par  T.  Monod,  C.  Rungs  et  C.  Sauvage.  Mem.  Off.  Nat.  Anti-acrid. 

1:  1-31. 
Naegele,  A.  (1958-1960).  Contributions  a  I'etude  de  la  flore  et  des  groupements 

vegetaux  de  la  Mauritanie.  Bull.  IFAN  20A:  293-305,  876-908;  21A:  1195-1204;  22A: 

1231-1247.  (Most  of  these  have  several  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Roberty,  G.  (1958).  Vegetation  de  la  guelta  de  Soungount  (Mauritanie  meridionale)  en 

mars  1955.  Bull  IFAN  20A:  869-875. 
Rossetti,  C.  (1963).  Observations  sur  la  Vegetation:  Conclusions  sur  les  Travaux 

Entrepris  en  1959  et  1961.  Projet  Pelerin,  Rapp.  No.  UNSF/DL/ES/5,  FAO,  Rome. 

71pp. 


Mauritius 


The  volcanic  island  of  Mauritius,  part  of  the  Mascarenes  group,  lies  some  840  km  east  of 
Madagascar.  It  has  very  varied  topography,  with  ranges  of  peaks,  plateaux  and  low-lying 
plains.  The  highest  point  is  Piton  de  la  Petite  Riviere  Noire,  at  828  m,  near  the  south-west 
coast.  Round  Island  is  a  small  island  of  1.6  sq.  km  24  km  north-east  of  Mauritius. 

Area  1865  sq.  km 

Population  1,031,000  (including  Rodrigues,  q.v.,  and  other  dependencies) 

Floristics  800-900  species  (W.  Strahm,  1984,  in  litt.),  including  186  ferns 
(Lorence,  1978);  roughly  a  third  of  species  endemic;  eight  endemic  genera.  Baker  (1877, 
cited  in  Appendix  1)  gives  869  'wild'  vascular  species. 

46  species  of  ferns  and  flowering  plants  recorded  from  Round  Island.  70  species  of  ferns, 
fern  allies  and  flowering  plants  recorded  from  Gunner's  Quoin,  28  of  which  also  occur  on 
Round  Island;  20  indigenous  species  and  eight  species  endemic  to  the  Mascarenes.  (Bullock 
etal.,  1984.) 

Floristically  each  island  of  the  Mascarenes  is  related  primarily  to  the  others,  but 
relationships  also  exist  with  Madagascar  (Melville,  1970,  cited  in  Appendix  1),  and, 
somewhat  remotely,  with  Malesia,  India  and  Sri  Lanka  (M.J.E.  Coode,  1984,  pers. 
comm.). 

238 


Mauritius 

Vegetation  Most  of  the  island  used  to  be  covered  with  dense  tropical  evergreen 
forest,  with  heath  and  dwarf  forest  at  higher  altitudes  and  palm  savannas  in  the  dry  eastern 
regions  (Procter  and  Salm,  1975;  Vaughan  and  Wiehe,  1937).  Mauritius  is  now  almost 
totally  devoid  of  indigenous  vegetation.  The  best  examples  remaining  are  the  patches  of 
upland  forest  around  the  Black  River  Gorges  in  the  south-west. 

More  than  60%  of  the  area  of  the  island  is  under  sugar  cultivation,  and  tea  and  other 
vegetables  are  also  important.  An  additional  cause  of  destruction  of  the  indigenous 
vegetation  has  been  the  super-abundance  of  exotic  plants  and  animals  introduced 
dehberately  or  by  accident,  which  prevent  natural  regeneration  of  the  native  species. 

Round  Island  is  now  so  badly  degraded  by  introduced  goats  and  rabbits  that  very  little 
vegetation  of  any  sort  remains  on  the  island.  Goats  have  been  exterminated,  but  rabbits 
continue  to  be  a  pest. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Mauritius  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  des 
Mascareignes,  and  in  the  rather  dated  Flora  of  Mauritius  and  the  Seychelles  (Baker,  1877), 
both  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Johnston,  H.H.  (1895).  Additions  to  the  Flora  of  Mauritius  as  recorded  in  Baker's 
'Flora  of  Mauritius  and  the  Seychelles'.  Trans  and  Proc.  Bot.  Soc.  Edinburgh  20: 
391-407. 

Field-guides 

Cadet,  L.J.T.  (1981).  Fleurs  et  Plantes  de  la  Reunion  et  de  I'lle  Maurice.  Editions  du 
Pacifique,  Tahiti.  131  pp.  (Incomplete  for  indigenous  flora.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hedberg,  I.  (1979),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Mauritius  and  Rodrigues,  p.  103,  by 
A.W.  Owadally,  contains  34  species:  E:12,  V:2,  R:18,  1:2.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  222  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic  to  Mauritius 
-  Ex:  19,  E:65,  V:35,  R:39,  1:14,  K:ll,  nt:39.  Non-endemic  taxa  rare  or  threatened 
worldwide  -  Ex:l,  E:8,  V:15,  R:9,  1:3  (world  categories).  (Covers  the  74  famiUes  in  Flore 
des  Mascareignes  (out  of  203  in  total),  and  some  others  as  well,  including  Rubiaceae  and 
Myrtaceae.) 

A  Red  Data  Book  for  Mauritius  is  being  written  by  W.  Strahm  as  part  of  the  lUCN/WWF 
Plants  Programme  (Project  3149).    / 

Four  species  which  occur  in  Mauritius  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book 
(1978). 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Forests  and  Reserves  Act  (1983)  gives  general 
protection  to  the  island's  forest  and  reserves,  and  specific  protection  to  all  indigenous 
orchids  and  ferns,  species  of  three  genera,  and  to  five  additional  species. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Mauritius  Wildlife  Conservation  Society. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Gardens,  Curepipe.  (Belongs  to  Curepipe  Municipality,  but  partly  managed  by 

the  Forestry  Service,  address  below.) 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Pamplemousses.  (MaiUng  address:  Chief  Agricultural  Officer, 

Reduit.) 


239 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Useful  Addresses 

Curator,  Herbarium,  Mauritius  Sugar  Industry  Research  Institute,  Reduit. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Conservator  of  Forests,  Forestry  Service, 
Curepipe. 

Additional  References 

Bullock,  D.,  North,  S.  and  Greig,  S.  (Eds)  (1984).  Round  Island  Expedition  1982:  final 

report.  Unpublished,  but  available  from  D.  Bullock,  Dept  of  Botany,  St  Andrews 

KYI 6  9AL,  Scotland.  123  pp.  (Includes  annotated  ckecklists  of  plants  from  Round 

Island  and  Gunner's  Quoin.) 
Cadet,  L.J.T.  (1984).  Plantes  Rares  ou  Remarquables  des  Mascareignes.  Agence  de 

Cooperation  Culturelle  et  Technique,  13  quai  Andre-Citroen,  75015  Paris.  132  pp. 

(With  48  photographs.) 
Lorence,  D.  (1978).  The  pteridophytes  of  Mauritius  (Indian  Ocean):  ecology  and 

distribution.  Bot.  J.  Linn.  Soc.  76:  207-247. 
Procter,  J.  and  Salm,  R.  (1975).  Conservation  in  Mauritius  1974.  lUCN,  Morges, 

Switzerland.  (Cyclostyled.) 
Vaughan,  R.E.  and  Wiehe,  P.O.  (1937).  Studies  on  the  vegetation  of  Mauritius,  1:  A 

preliminary  survey  of  the  plant  communities.  J.  Ecol.  25:  289-343.  (With  vegetation 

map,  20  plates  of  black  and  white  photographs.) 
Vaughan,  R.E.  and  Wiehe,  P.O.  (1941).  Studies  on  the  vegetation  of  Mauritius,  3:  The 

structure  and  development  of  the  upland  climax  forest.  J.  Ecol.  29:  127-160.  (With  4 

black  and  white  photographs.) 
Vaughan,  R.E.  (1968).  Mauritius  and  Rodriguez.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  265-272. 
Vinson,  J.  (1964).  Sur  la  disparition  progressive  de  la  flore  et  de  la  faune  de  I'lle 

Ronde.  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  Arts  Sci.  Mauritius  2:  247-261. 


Mexico 


Area  1,972,546  sq.  km 
Population  77,040,000 

Floristics  Due  to  its  latitudinal  and  altitudinal  range,  Mexico  contains  a  very 
diverse  flora  of  an  estimated  20,000  vascular  plant  species  (Rzedowski,  1978,  Lot  and 
Toledo,  1980);  3376  endemic  species  (Toledo,  1984,  pers.  comm.);  a  meeting  point  of 
boreal  and  tropical  floras. 

Vegetation  Tropical  and  subtropical  region  (c.  one  third  of  Mexico,  mainly  on 
the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  seaboards  south  of  the  tropic  of  Cancer  and  east  of  the  Isthmus  of 
Tehuantepec):  Rain  forests,  the  northernmost  in  the  Americas,  once  formed  a  continuous 
corridor  from  Veracruz  to  Chiapas,  covering  6%  of  Mexico;  half  of  them  now  destroyed, 
the  largest  remaining  being  the  13,000  sq.  km  Lacandon  Forest  along  the  Guatemala 
border,  now  partly  protected  (Estrada  and  Coates-Estrada,  1983).  Where  rainfall  is  lower 
and  the  winter  dry  season  more  pronounced,  the  forest  canopy  is  lower  and  the  percentage 
of  deciduous  species  increases  sharply.  Low  deciduous  forest  (Selva  Baja  Caducifolia), 
with  many  broadleaved  species  to  c.  15  m  tall,  occupies  16%  of  the  area. 


240 


Mexico 

Temperate  region  (one  third  of  Mexico),  occupying  the  main  Cordilleras:  The  principal 
forest  is  of  pines  (Pinus  spp.)  and  oaks  (Quercus  spp.)  in  varying  proportions  and  with 
numerous  constituent  species.  In  the  higher  parts  of  the  cordilleras,  to  3300  m,  forests  of 
silver  fir  (Abies  spp.)-  In  all,  these  vegetation  types  occupy  about  15%  of  Mexico. 

Semi-arid  and  arid  zone,  also  about  a  third  of  Mexico,  mainly  in  the  north  and  centre 
(Sonoran  and  Chihuahuan  desert  regions  and  central  altiplano):  Mostly  open  shrubland 
(matorraf),  the  principal  variants  dominated  by  (i)  small-leaved  shrubs,  (ii)  cacti,  and  (iii) 
xerophytic  monocotyledons  {Agave,  Yucca,  Dasylirion,  Nolina  spp.,  Bromeliaceae). 

Estimated  rate  of  deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  4700  sq.  km/annum,  out  of 
a  total  of  265,700  sq.  km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

Checklists  and  Floras  The  tropical  part  of  Mexico,  principally  east  of  the  Isthmus, 
of  Tehuantepec,  is  covered  by  the  Flora  Mesoamericana  Project,  described  in  Appendix  1 ; 
the  part  south  of  the  Tropic  of  Cancer  by  the  family  and  generic  monographs  of  Flora 
Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  State  and  regional  Floras  are: 

Flora  de  Veracruz  (1978-  ).  (Various  authors).  Institute  de  Investigaciones  sobre 

Recursos  Bioticos  (INIREB).  39  family  fascicles  so  far.  (The  output  of  a  substantial 
project  to  provide  a  database  on  Veracruz  flora,  described  by  Gomez-Pompa  et  al., 
1984,  cited  under  'Additional  References',  below.) 

Flora  of  Chiapas  (1981-  ).  (Various  authors).  Published  by  the  California  Academy  of 
Sciences,  two  parts  completed  so  far:  1  -  introduction  and  descriptions  of  vegetation 
types  and  their  endemics,  by  D.E.  Breedlove  (1981,  35  pp.);  2  -  ferns,  by  A.  Smith 
(609  species).  (Breedlove,  1981,  refers  to  8200  vascular  plant  species  recorded  from 
Chiapas;  "the  number  ...  will  probably  climb  to  between  9000  and  10,000  by  the 
time  the  entire  Flora  is  published".) 

Flora  Yucatanense  project.  Edited  by  V.  Sosa,  INIREB,  Calle  43  No  506,  Apdo  Postal 
281,  CP  97000,  Merida,  Yucatan.  (2100  species  -  Toledo,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1, 
quoting  Sosa,  pers.  comm.) 

Johnston,  M.C.,  Henrickson,  J.  et  al.  (in  press).  Chihuahuan  Desert  Flora.  Prepared  at 
Dept  of  Botany,  University  of  Texas  at  Austin,  Texas,  U.S.A.  (About  3000  species 
of  vascular  plants,  from  southern  New  Mexico  to  San  Luis  Potosi.) 

McVaugh,  R.  (1974- ).  Flora  Novo-Galiciana.  University  of  Michigan.  17  vols  planned, 
by  various  authors.  Gramineae  (Vol.  14)  published;  Compositae  (12)  to  be 
completed  in  late  1984,  Orchidaceae  (16)  in  1985,  Leguminosae  (5)  in  1986.  (Covers 
Mexican  states  of  AguascalienteS,  Jalisco,  CoHma,  and  parts  of  Nayarit,  Durango, 
Zacatecas,  Guanajuato  and  Michoacan.) 

Martinez,  M.  and  Matuda,  E.  (1953-1972).  Flora  del  Estado  de  Mexico.  Many 

separates,  reissued  as  3  vols  by  Biblioteca  Enciclopedica  del  Estado  de  Mexico,  1979. 

Rzedowski,  J.  and  Rzedowski,  G.C.  de  (1979-  ).  Flora  Fanerogamica  del  Valle  de 
Mexico.  Ed.  Continental,  Mexico.  Vol.  1  (introductory,  gymnosperms,  dicotyledons 
Saururaceae  to  Polygalaceae)  published.  Vol.  2  in  press.  Vol.  3  in  prep. 

Sanchez  Sanchez,  O.  (1968).  La  Flora  de  Valle  de  Mexico.  Herrero,  Mexico.  519  pp. 

Shreve,  F.  and  Wiggins,  I.L.  (1964).  Vegetation  and  Flora  of  the  Sonoran  Desert, 
2  vols.  Stanford  Univ.  Press,  Stanford.  1740  pp.  (Vegetation  types  and 
representative  species,  vegetation  map.) 

Wiggins,  I.L.  (1980).  Flora  of  Baja  California.  Stanford  Univ.  Press,  Stanford. 
1025  pp.  (2705  species  with  686  endemic  taxa.) 

See  also: 


241 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Bravo-HoUis,  H.  (1978- ).  Las  Cactdceas  de  Mexico,  Ed.  2.  Vol.  1.  Univ.  Nacional 

Autonoma  de  Mexico.  743  pp.  Vol.  2  in  press. 
Cowan,  C.P.  (1983).  Listados  Flon'sticos  de  Mexico.  I.  Flora  de  Tabasco.  Institute  de 

Biologia,  UNAM,  Mexico.  (Checklist  with  cited  specimens.) 
Gentry,  H.S.  (1942).  Rio  Mayo  Plants:  A  Study  of  the  Flora  and  Vegetation  of  the 

Valley  of  the  Rio  Mayo,  Sonora.  Carnegie  Institution  Publication  527,  Washington, 

D.C.  328  pp.  (Annotated  list  of  1276  species.) 
Gentry,  H.S.  (1982).  Agaves  of  Continental  North  America.  Univ.  Arizona  Press, 

Tucson,  Arizona.  670  pp. 
Lundell,  C.L.  (1942).  Flora  of  eastern  Tabasco  and  adjacent  Mexican  areas.  Contrib. 

Univ.  Mich.  Herb.  8:  1-74.  (Annotated  list  of  c.  700  species.) 
Martinez,  M.  (1963).  Las  Pindceas  Mexicanas,  3rd  Ed.  Universidad  Nacional 

Autonoma  de  Mexico.  401  pp. 
Pennington,  T.D.  and  Sarukhan,  J.  (1968).  Los  Arboles  Tropicales  de  Mexico. 

Institute  Nacional  de  Investigaciones  Forestales,  Mexico  and  FAO,  Rome.  413  pp. 
Sousa  S.,  M.  and  Cabrera  C,  E.F.  (1983).  Listados  Flon'sticos  de  Mexico.  IL  Flora  de 

Quintana  Roo.  Institute  de  Biologia,  UNAM,  Mexico.  (Checklist  with  cited 

specimens.) 
Standley,  P.C.  (1920-1926).  Trees  and  shrubs  of  Mexico.  Contrib.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb. 

23(1-5).  1721  pp. 
Standley,  P.C.  (1930).  Flora  of  Yucatan.  Field  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.,  Bot.  Ser.  3(3): 

157-492.  (Annotated  list  of  1263  plants.) 
Tellez  v.,  O  and  Sousa  S.,  M.  (1982).  Imagenes  de  la  Flora  Quintanarroense.  Centro 

de  Investigaciones  de  Quintana  Roo,  Puerto  Morelo,  Q.R. 
Williams,  L.O.  (1951).  The  Orchidaceae  of  Mexico.  Ceiba  2(1):  1-321.  (600  species.) 

Selected  bibliographies: 

Jones,  G.N.  (1966).  An  Annotated  Bibliography  of  Mexican  Ferns.  Univ.  Illinois  Press, 

Urbana.  297  pp.  (1200  author  entries.) 
Langman,  I.K.  (1964).  A  Selected  Guide  to  the  Literature  of  the  Flowering  Plants  of 

Mexico.  Univ.  Pennsylvania  Press,  Philadelphia.  1015  pp. 

The  National  Council  of  the  Flora  of  Mexico,  which  includes  about  40  institutions,  is 
promoting  and  co-ordinating  a  catalogue  of  Mexican  plants  (Flora  de  Mexico  Project). 

Field-guides 

Clark,  P.  (1972).  A  Flower  Lover's  Guide  to  Mexico.  Minutiae  Mexicana,  Mexico. 

128  pp.  (Guide  to  common  species.) 
Coyle,  J.  and  Roberts,  N.C.  (1975).  A  Field  Guide  to  the  Common  and  Interesting 

Plants  of  Baja  California.  Natural  History  Publishing  Co.,  La  Jolla,  Calif.  206  pp. 

(259  plants,  endemics  indicated.) 
Tellez  Valdes,  O.  and  Sousa  Sanchez,  M.  (1982).  Imagenes  de  la  flora  Quintanarroense. 

Puerto  Morelos,  Centro  de  Investigaciones  de  Quintana  Roo,  A.C.  (116  of  known 

1300  species  described,  illus.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  There  is  no  national  Red  Data  Book.  The 
most  comprehensive  list  published  so  far  is  that  of  Vovides  (1981),  see  below.  lUCN  is 
preparing  a  threatened  plant  list  for  release  in  a  forthcoming  report  The  list  of  rare, 
threatened  and  endemic  plants  of  Middle  America.  Latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this 
work:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:8,  E:72,  V:176,  R:320,  1:66,  K:2084,  nt:732;  non-endemics  rare 
or  threatened  worldwide  -  E:3,  V:22,  R:36,  1:4  (world  categories). 

Threatened  plants  are  mentioned  in  several  papers  in: 
242 


Mexico 

Prance,  G.T.  and  Elias,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  See  in  particular  J.T. 
Mickel  on  rare  and  endangered  ferns  (pp.  323-328),  H.E.  Moore  on  endangerment 
in  palms  (pp.  267-282),  P.  Ravenna  on  endangered  bulbous  plants  (pp.  257-266), 
and  A. P.  Vovides  and  A.  Gomez-Pompa  (cited  below). 

Other  relevant  publications: 

Anon  (1979).  Especies  en  peligro  de  extincion.  Macpalxochitl,  Bol.  Bimestral  de  Soc. 

Bot.  Mexico  79:  3-4.  (24  taxa  listed.) 
Howard,  T.M.  (1981).  Current  status  of  some  endangered  Mexican  Hymenocallis 

species.  PI.  Life  37(1-4):  157-158. 
Hunt,  D.R.  (1982).  The  conservation  status  of  Mexican  Mammillarias:  a  preliminary 

assessment.  Cact.  Succ.  J.  Great  Britain  44(4):  87-88.  (lUCN  categories  assigned  to 

each  of  233  taxa.) 
Perez  D.,  J.F.  (1982).  Especies  amenazadas  y  en  peligro  de  extincion  de  la  peninsula  de 

Baja  California.  Publ.  Espec.  Inst.  Nacion.  Invest.  Forest.  Mexico  37:  62-67. 
Pina,  I.  (1980).  Rare  and  threatened  Agavaceae  and  Cactaceae  of  Mexico.  Sociedad 

Mexicana  Cactologia.  (Unpublished.) 
Rzedowski,  J.  (1979a).  Extincion  de  especies  vegetales.  In  Rzedowski,  J.  and  G.  (Eds), 

Flora  Fanerogdmica  del  Valle  de  Mexico:  Vol.  1.  Cited  under  Checklists  and  Floras, 

above.  Pp.  42-45. 
Rzedowski,  J.  (1979b).  Deterioro  de  la  Flora.  Memorias  sobre  Problemas  Ambientales 

en  Mexico.  Instituto  Politecnico  Nacional,  Escuela  de  Ciencias  Biologicas. 

Pp.  51-57. 
Toledo,  V.M.  (1985).  Criterios  fitogeograficos  para  la  conservacion  de  la  flora  de 

Mexico.  In  Gomez,  L.D.  (Ed.),  Memorias  del  Simposio  de  Biogeografi'a  de 

Mesoamerica.  In  press. 
Vovides,  A. P.  (1981).  Lista  preliminar  de  plantas  Mexicanas  raras  o  en  peligro  de 

extincion.  Biotico  6(2):  219-228.  (Preliminary  list  of  210  rare,  threatened  and 

endangered  species.) 
Vovides,  A. P.  and  Gomez-Pompa,  A.  (1977).  The  problems  of  threatened  and 

endangered  plant  species  of  Mexico.  In  Prance,  G.T.  and  EUas,  T.S.  (Eds)  (1977), 

cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  77-88. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  No  information.  The  U.S.  Government  has  determined 
Abies  guatemalensis  (Mexico,  Guatemala,  El  Salvador  and  Honduras)  as  'Threatened' 
under  the  U.S.  Endangered  Species  Act. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Asociacion  Mexicana  de  Orquideologia  A.C.,  Apdo  Postal  53-123,  11320  Mexico  17, 

D.F. 
Pronatura  A.C.,  Apdo  Postal  20-768,  Del.  Alvaro  Obregon,  01000  Mexico,  D.F. 
Sociedad  Botanica  de  Mexico,  Apto  Postal  70-385,  Mexico  200,  D.F. 
Sociedad  Mexicana  de  Cactologia  A.C.,  2a  Juarez  42,  Col.  San  Alvaro,  Deleg. 

Azcapotzalco,  02090  Mexico,  D.F. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Jardin  Botanico,  Centro  de  Investigacion  Cientifico  de  Yucatan,  Merida,  Yucatan. 
Jardin  Botanico,  Centro  de  Investigaciones  de  Quintana  Roo,  77500  Puerto  Morales, 

Quintana  Roo. 
Jardin  Botanico,  Escuela  Nacional  de  Ensenaza  Profesional,  Universidad  Nacional 

Autonoma  de  Mexico,  Ixtapalapa. 


243 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Jardin  Botanico,  La  Estacion  de  Biologia  Tropical  "Los  Tuxtlas",  Instituto  de 

Biologi'a,  Universidad  Nacional  Autonoma  de  Mexico,  Municipio  de  San  Andres 

Tuxtla,  Catemaco,  Veracruz. 
Jardin  Botanico  "Francisco  J.  Clavijero",  INIREB,  Km  2.5  Antigua  Carretera  A. 

Coatepec,  91000  Xalapa,  Veracruz. 
Jardin  Botanico,  INIREB,  Km  7,  Camino  San  Cristobal  de  Las  Casas  a  Comitan,  San 

Cristobal  de  Las  Casas,  Chiapas. 
Jardin  Botanico,  Tuxtla  Gutierrez,  Chiapas. 
Jardin  Botanico,  Universidad  Autonoma  Agraria  "Antonio  Narro",  Buenavista, 

Saltillo,  Coahuila. 
Jardin  Botanico,  Departamento  de  Difusion  y  Enseiianza,  Universidad  Nacional 

Autonoma  de  Mexico,  Ciudad  Universitaria,  Deleg.  Coycoacan,  04510  Mexico,  D.F. 
Jardin  Botanico  Medicinal,  Instituto  Nacional  de  Antropologia  e  Historia,  Matamoros 

200,  Colonia  Acapanzingo,  Cuernavaca,  Morelos. 

A  Union  of  Mexican  Botanical  Gardens  has  recently  been  formed. 

Index  of  threatened  plants  in  cultivation: 

Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Conservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1985).  The  Botanic 
Gardens  List  of  Rare  and  Threatened  Species  of  Mexican  Cacti.  Botanic  Gardens 
Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body,  Report  No.  13.  lUCN,   Kew.  25  pp.  (Lists  all 
but  20  of  301  rare,  threatened  and  insufficiently  known  taxa  reported  in  cultivation, 
with  gardens  listed  against  each.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Direccion  General  de  Flora  y  Fauna  Silvestres,  Netzahuackoyotl  No.  109,  1°  Piso, 

Deleg.  Cuauhtemoc,  06080  Mexico,  D.F. 
Herbario  Nacional  de  Mexico,  Universidad  Nacional  Autonoma  de  Mexico  (UNAM), 

Apdo  Postal  70-367,  Mexico  20,  D.F. 
Instituto  Nacional  de  Investigaciones  sobre  Recursos  Bioticos  (INIREB),  P.O.  Box  63, 

Xalapa,  Veracruz. 

Additional  References 
Avila,  J.A.R.,  Calderon,  G.  and  Chapa,  H.  (1961).  Los  recursos  naturales  de  Mexico; 

estado  actual  de  las  investigaciones  de  hidrologi'a  y  pesca.  Instituto  Mexicana  de 

Recursos  Naturales  Renovables.  421  pp. 
Estrada,  A.  and  Coates-Estrada,  R.  (1983).  Rain  forest  in  Mexico:  research  and 

conservation  at  Los  Tuxtlas.  Oryx  17:  201-204. 
Flores  Mata,  G.  et  al.  (1971).  Mapa  de  Tipos  de  Vegetacion  de  la  Republica  Mexicana. 

Secretaria  de  Recursos  Hidraulicos,  Mexico.  Map  (1:2,000,000),  with  explanatory 

text. 
Gomez-Pompa,  A.  (1973).  Ecology  of  the  vegetation  of  Veracruz.  In  Graham,  A.  (Ed.) 

(1973),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  73-148. 
Gomez-Pompa,  A.,  Moreno,  N.P.,  Gama,  L.,  Sosa,  V.  and  Allkin,  R.  (1984).  Flora  of 

Veracruz:  Progress  and  prospects.  In  Allkin,  R.  and  Bisby,  F.A.  (Eds),  Databases  in 

Systematics.  Academic  Press,  London.  Pp.  165-174.  (Systematics  Assoc.  Special 

Vol.  No.  26.) 
Hagsater,  E.  (1976).  Orchids  and  conservation  in  Mexico.  Orchid  Review  84:  39-42. 
Lot,  A.  and  Toledo,  V.M.  (1980).  Hacia  una  Flora  de  Mexico:  vamos  por  buen 

camino.  Macpalxochitt  88/89:  1-31. 


244 


Mexico 


McCullough,  R.  (1981).  Mexico  and  its  orchids.  In  Stewart,  J.  and  van  der  Merwe, 

C.N.  (Eds),  Proceedings  of  the  10th  World  Orchid  Conference.  South  African 

Orchid  Council,  Johannesburg.  Pp.  111-114. 
Miranda,  F.  and  Hernandez,  E.  (1963).  Los  tipos  de  vegetacion  de  Mexico  y  su 

clasificacion.  Bol.  Soc.  Bot.  Mex.  28:  29-179. 
Pesman,  M.W.  (1962).  Meet  Flora  Mexicana.  Northland  Press,  Flagstaff,  Arizona. 

278  pp.  (2nd  Ed.  by  R.  Bye  and  E.  Linares  Mazari  in  press.) 
Rzedowski,  J.  (1966).  Vegetacion  de  Estado  de  San  Luis  Potosi.  Universidad 

Autonoma  de  San  Luis  Potosi,  Mexico.  291  pp.  (Vegetation  zones  and 

representative  species.) 
Rzedowski,  J.  (1978).  Vegetacion  de  Mexico.  Editorial  Limusa,  Mexico.  432  pp. 


Midway  Islands 


Midway  (5  sq.  km),  an  unincorporated  territory  of  the  United  States,  lies  1850  km  north- 
west of  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  in  the  central  Pacific  Ocean,  at  latitude  28°12'N,  longitude 
177°24'W.  It  is  an  atoll  with  2  islets.  Eastern  Island  (135  ha)  and  Sand  Island  (384  ha) 
surrounding  a  lagoon.  The  population  is  over  2220  (1970).  The  vegetation  includes 
extensive  Casuarina  plantations,  Scaevola  and  Boerhavia  scrub.  90  vascular  plant  species, 
most  of  which  have  been  recently  introduced  (Neff  and  DuMont,  1955).  Military  activity 
and  the  construction  of  air  and  submarine  bases  has  greatly  modified  the  vegetation. 

References 
Neff,  J.A.  and  DuMont,  P. A.  (1955).  A  partial  list  of  the  plants  of  the  Midway 
Islands.  Atoll  Res.  Bull.  45.  11  pp. 


Minami-Tori-Shima 


Minami-Tori-Shima  (Marcus  Island)  is  a  raised  coral  atoll  with  a  fringing  reef,  of  area 
3(X)  ha,  situated  965  km  east  south-east  of  the  Ogasawara  Islands  in  the  north-west  Pacific 
at  24°14'N  and  154°E.  It  is  a  Japanese  dependency.  Following  extensive  levelling,  the 
highest  point  on  the  island  is  7  m.  The  vegetation,  which  has  been  greatly  modified  by  war 
damage  and  construction  works,  consists  mainly  of  Tournefortia  and  Pisonia  scrub. 
Papayas  and  bananas  have  been  introduced  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

The  flora  consists  of  widespread  angiosperms,  including  18  dicotyledon  taxa,  of  which  9 
are  indigenous  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  4  species  of 
monocotyledons  (Sakagami,  1961).  There  are  no  endemics. 

References 

Sakagami,  S.F.  (1961).  An  ecological  perspective  of  Marcus  Island,  with  special 
reference  to  land  animals.  Pacific  Science  15:  82-104.  (Includes  plant  list,  notes  on 
vegetation.) 


245 


Mongolia 


Area  1,565,000  sq.  km 

Population  1,851,000 

Floristics  2272  vascular  plant  species;  of  these  229  endemic  and  a  further  143 
species  restricted  to  Mongolia  and  the  adjacent  territories  of  Inner  Mongolia,  Altai  and 
Tuva  in  the  U.S.S.R.,  and  Dzungaria  in  China  (V.I.  Grubov,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Vegetation  Almost  90%  grassland,  semi-desert  and  desert;  c.  10%  forested, 
mainly  of  larch,  cedar  and  pine.  In  the  south,  the  vast  Gobi  Desert  covers  c.  1,300,000  sq. 
km,  and  supports  sparse  scrub  with  Artemisia,  Ephedra  and  Haloxylon;  in  the  west,  the 
vegetation  cover  is  less  than  5%  and  is  mainly  Nitraria  scrub;  on  dunes  above  10  m  there  is 
no  plant  life  at  all.  The  only  natural  forests  of  the  Gobi  are  in  the  west,  around  Ala  Shan, 
where  Populus  diversifolia  and  Tamarix  spp.  are  found  along  river  banks.  Northern 
Mongolia  has  semi-deserts  and  grass  steppes. 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Grubov,  V.I.  (1955).  Konspeckt  Flory  Mongol'skoi  Narodnoi  Respubliki.  Mongolian 

Commission.  307  pp.  (Annotated  checklist  of  1875  species.) 
Grubov,  V.l.  (1972).  Additions  and  corrections  to  the  "Concised  Flora  of  the 

Mongolian  People's  Republic".  Novitates  Syst.  Plantarum  Vascularium  9:  275-305. 

(Enumeration  of  133  species  described  since  Grubov,  1955.) 
Grubov,  V.l.  (1982).  Key  to  the  Vascular  Plants  of  Mongolia  (with  an  Atlas).  Academy 

of  Sciences  of  the  U.S.S.R.,  Leningrad.  441  pp.  (In  Russian.) 

Mongolia  is  also  covered  in  Grubov  (1963-  )  and  by  the  Flora  of  the  Mongolian  Steppe 
and  Desert  Areas  (Norlindh,  1949),  cited  in  full  in  Appendix  1.  See  also: 

Inner  Mongolia  Botanical  Records  Compiling  Group  (1977-1982).  Flora 

Intramongolica,  6  vols.  Typis  Intramongolicae  Popularis,  Huhhot.  (In  Chinese.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  lUCN  has  a  preliminary  list,  compiled  by  V.I. 
Grubov,  which  includes  1 1  threatened  plants,  of  which  one  is  endemic  to  Mongolia,  and  a 
further  10  species  are  also  found  in  Inner  Mongolia  (China). 

Gubanov,  I. A.  (1982).  Zametki  o  redkikh  rasteniyakh  Mongolii  (Notices  on  rare  plants 
of  Mongolia).  Byull.  Most.  Obshch.  Ispyt.  Prir.  Biol.  87(1):  122-129.  (In  Russian.) 

Botanic  Gardens 

Botanic  Garden,  The  Academy  of  Sciences  of  the  MPR  Institute  of  Botany,  Ulan 
Bator. 

Additional  References 

Printz,  H.  (1921).  The  Vegetation  of  the  Siberian-Mongolian  Frontiers  (The  Sayansk 
Region).  Det  Kongelige  Norske  Videnskabers  Selskab.  458  pp.  (Includes 
enumeration  of  plants  in  region.) 

Walker,  E.H.  (1941).  Plants  collected  by  R.C.  Ching  in  southern  Mongolia  and  Kansu 
Province,  China.  Contrib.  U.S.  Nat.  Herb.  28(4):  563-675. 


246 


Montserrat 


Montserrat  is  a  Dependent  Territory  of  the  United  Kingdom,  in  the  Leeward  Islands  of  the 
Eastern  Caribbean,  43.5  km  north-west  of  Antigua.  It  is  a  small  island  of  104  sq.  km  and 
with  a  population  of  13,000.  It  consists  of  a  serrated  range  of  volcanic  peaks;  the  Soufriere 
is  still  active.  It  has  among  the  best  natural  vegetation  in  the  Leewards:  high  forest 
practically  non-existent  due  to  cultivation  to  near  summits  and  hurricane  activity  but 
secondary  rain  forest  to  summit  peaks;  palm  brake  and  elfin  woodland  along  ridges; 
secondary  thickets  of  young  trees  and  dry  scrub  woodland  below;  north  slopes  of  hills 
better  wooded  than  south  slopes  due  to  favourable  moist  conditions;  40%  forested 
according  to  FAO  (1974,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  For  botanical  information,  see  the  account 
for  Antigua  and  Barbuda. 

R.A.  Howard  is  preparing  a  checklist  of  the  flora  for  Montserrat  National  Trust, 
Plymouth,  Montserrat. 


Morocco 


Area  659,970  sq.  km 

Population  22,848,000 

Floristics  3500  species  (Le  Houerou,  1975);  3600  species  (Lebrun,  1976,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  3700  species  (Sauvage,  1975).  600-650  endemic  species  estimated,  of  which 
c.  170  are  from  the  high  Moroccan  Atlas  (Quezel,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  lUCN 
figures,  from  existing  Floras,  record  537  endemic  taxa. 

Flora  in  north  and  centre  of  Morocco  with  Mediterranean  affinities;  Saharan  flora  along 
southern  border;  transition  zone  between  the  two. 

Vegetation  Desert  along  southern  border,  with  little  or  no  perennial  vegetation. 
Semi-desert  and  transition  from  Mediterranean  scrubland  to  succulent  semi-desert 
shrubland  along  west  coast  arid  in  east-central  part  of  country.  Mediterranean 
sclerophyllous  forest  in  band  along  north  coast  and  at  lower  altitudes  on  the  Atlas 
mountains.  Mediterranean  montane  forest,  altimontane  shrubland  and  Cedrus  forests  on 
the  Atlas  mountains. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Morocco  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flore  de  I'Afrigue 
du  Nord,  the  computerized  Atlas  der  Pflanzenwelt  des  Nordafrikanischen  Trockenraumes 
(Frankenberg  and  Klaus,  1980),  Flore  du  Sahara  (Ozenda,  1977),  and  is  being  covered  in 
Med-Checklist .  These  are  all  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Jahandiez,  E.  and  Maire,  R.  (1931-1941).  Catalogue  des  Plantes  du  Maroc,  4  vols. 

Alger.  (Annotated  checklist;  4th  vol.  by  M.L.  Emberger  and  R.  Maire.  For 

additions  see  Sauvage,  C.  and  Vindt,  J.  (1949-1956),  4  papers  in  Bull.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat. 

Maroc  29:  131-162,  32:  27-51,  34:  217-234,  36:  185-222.) 
Negre,  R.  (1961,  1962).  Petite  Flore  des  Regions  Arides  du  Maroc  Occidental,  2  vols. 

CNRS,  Paris.  413,  566  pp.  (Covers  only  west-central  Morocco;  keys,  descriptions, 

distributions,  line  drawings,  and  several  colour  photographs.) 

247 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Sauvage,  C.  (1961).  Flore  des  suberaies  marocaines:  catalogue  des  cryptogames 
vasculaires  et  des  phanerogames.  Trav.  Inst.  Sci.  Ch&if.,  S^r.  Bot.  22.  252  pp. 

Sauvage,  C.  and  Vindt,  J.  (1952,  1954).  Flore  du  Maroc,  analytique,  descriptive  et 
illustree.  Trav.  Inst.  Sci.  CMrif.  4  and  Ibid.,  S^r.  Bot.  3.  (Incomplete,  covering  only 
Ericaceae  to  Boraginaceae.) 

Field-guides 

Emberger,  L.  (1938).  Les  Arbres  du  Maroc  et  Comment  Les  Reconnaitre.  Larose, 
Paris.  317  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  Morocco  is  included  in  the  draft  list  for  North 
Africa  and  the  Middle  East  produced  by  lUCN  Threatened  Plants  Committee  Secretariat 
(1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Mathez,  J.,  Quezel,  P.  and  Raynard,  C.  (1985).  The  Maghrib  countries.  In  Gomez- 
Campo,  C.  (Ed.),  Plant  Conservation  in  the  Mediterranean  Area. 

Sauvage,  C.  (1959).  Au  sujet  de  quelques  plantes  rares  et  menacees  de  la  flore  du 
Maroc.  In  Animaux  et  Vegetaux  Rares  de  la  Region  M^diterraneenne.  Proceedings 
of  the  lUCN  7th  Technical  Meeting,  11-19  September  1958,  Athens,  vol.  5.  lUCN, 
Brussels.  Pp.  156-158. 

Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  E:l,  V:3,  R:162,  1:23,  K:54,  nt:294.  Non-endemic 
taxa  rare  or  threatened  worldwide  -  V:2  (world  category). 

Botanic  Gardens 

Institut  Scientifique  Cherifien,  Laboratoire  de  Phanerogamic,  Avenue  Moulay  Cherif, 

Rabat. 
Jardins  Exotiques  de  Rabat-Sale,  km  13  Route  No.  2  par  Sale,  Rabat. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority:  Comite  national  de  I'Environnement,  Division  de 
I'environnement,  Direction  de  I'amenagement  du  territoire  Ministere  de  I'habitat  et 
de  I'amenagement  du  territoire,  B.P.  6(X),  Rabat. 

Correspondence  to: 

Administration  des  Eaux  et  Forets  et  de  la  Conservation  des  Sols,  Division  de  la 

Protection  de  la  Nature,  Ministere  de  I'Agriculture  et  de  la  Reforme  Agraire,  Rabat. 

Additional  References 

Braun-Blanquet,  J.  and  Maire,  R.  (1924).  Etudes  sur  la  vegetation  et  la  flore 

marocaines.  Mem.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Maroc  8(1).  244  pp.  (20  black  and  white 

photographs.) 
Emberger,  L.  (1939).  Apergu  general  sur  la  vegetation  du  Maroc.  In  Riibel,  E.  and 

Ludi,  W.  (Eds),  Ergebnisse  der  internationalen  pflanzengeographischen  Exkursion 

durch  Marokko  und  Westalgerian  1936.  Veroff.  Geobot.  Inst.  Zurich  14:  40-157. 

(With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:1,500,(X)0.)  (Published  also  as  an  out-of-series 

number  of  Mem.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Maroc.) 
Frodin,  J.  (1923).  Recherches  sur  la  vegetation  du  Haut  Atlas.  Lunds  Univ.  Arsskr., 

N.F.,  Avd.  2,  19(4):  1-24. 
lonesco,  T.  and  Sauvage,  C.  (1962).  Les  types  de  vegetation  du  Maroc.  Essai  de 

nomenclature  et  de  definition.  Rev.  Geogr.  Maroc.  1-2:  75-83. 
Le  Houerou,  H.-N.  (1975).  Etude  preliminaire  sur  la  compatibilite  des  flores  nord- 

africaine  et  palestinienne.  In  CNRS  (1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  345-350. 


248 


Morocco 

Maire,  R.  (1924).  Etudes  sur  la  vegetation  et  la  flore  du  Grand  Atlas  et  du  Moyen 

Atlas  marocains.  Mem.  Soc.  Sci.  Nat.  Maroc  7.  220  pp.  (32  black  and  white 

photographs.) 
Mathez,  J.  (1973).  Nouveaux  materiaux  pour  la  Flore  du  Maroc.  Fasc.  2.  Contribution 

a  I'etude  de  la  flore  de  la  region  d'Ifni.  Trav.  RCP  249(1):  105-120.  CNRS,  Paris. 
Negre,  R.  (1959).  Recherches  phytogeographiques  sur  I'etage  de  vegetation 

mediterraneen  aride  (sous-etage  chaud)  au  Maroc  occidental.  Trav.  Inst.  Sci. 

Cherif.,  Ser.  Bot.  13.  385  pp.  (With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:500,000;  16  black 

and  white  photographs.) 
Sauvage,  C.  (1975).  L'etat  actuel  de  nos  connaissances  sur  la  flore  du  Maroc.  In  CNRS 

(1975),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Pp.  131-139. 


Mozambique 

Area  784,754  sq.  km 

Population  13,693,000 

Floristics  5500  species  (quoted  in  Lebrun,  1960,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  Brenan 
(1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  estimates  219  endemic  species,  from  a  sample  of  Flora 
Zambesiaca.  Northern  part  of  coast  especially  rich  in  local  endemics  because  of  extension 
of  coastal  mosaic  south  from  Tanzania. 

Inland  flora  predominantly  Zambezian,  with  Afromontane  elements  on  high  ground.  The 
flora  of  a  broad  band  along  the  coast  is  part  of  the  so-called  Zanzibar-Inhambane  region, 
which  extends  from  southern  Mozambique  to  southern  Somalia;  it  has  substantial  floristic 
affinities  with  the  Guinea-Congolian  region  of  central  and  western  tropical  Africa. 

Vegetation  Predominantly  dry  Brachystegia-Julbernardia  (Miombo)  woodland, 
but  wetter  Miombo  in  the  north  and  large  areas  of  Colophospermum  mopane  (Mopane) 
woodland  along  the  Zambezi  and  Limpopo  valleys  in  the  north-west  and  south.  Also 
woodland  without  characteristic  dominants  in  extreme  south  and  in  centre  of  country. 
Coastal  strip  occupied  by  East  African  coastal  mosaic  consisting  of  a  rather  dry  woodland 
with  abundant  Adansonia,  Acaciq  and  Commiphora;  also  abundant  mangrove  forests. 
Montane  communities  confined  to  the  border  with  eastern  Zimbabwe.  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  for  closed  broadleaved  forest  100  sq.  km/annum  out  of  9350  sq.  km 
(FAO/UNEP,  1981). 

For  vegetation  maps  see  Wild  and  Barbosa  (1967,  1968),  and  White  (1983),  both  cited  in 
Appendix  1. 

Checklists  and  Floras  Mozambique  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora 
Zambesiaca,  cited  in  Appendix  1 . 

Fernandes,  A.  and  Mendes,  E.J.  (Eds)  (1969- ).  Flora  de  Mozambique.  Junta  de 

Investiga?5es  Cientfficas  do  Ultramar,  Lisboa.  (Incomplete:  64  families  plus 

Pteridophytes  pubHshed,  c.  55%  of  it,  so  far.) 
Gomes  e  Sousa,  A.  (1966,  1967).  Dendrologia  de  Mozambique,  2  vols.  Instituto  de 

Investigagao  Agronomica  de  Mozambique .  822  pp.  (Numerous  black  and  white 

photographs  and  line  drawings.) 


249 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  lists  of  rare  or  threatened 
plants;  lUCN  has  records  of  195  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic, 
including  E:6,  V:5,  R:59,  1:15,  nt:19. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Departamento  de  Botanica,  Universidade  Eduardo  Mondlane/Biologia,  C.P.  257, 

Maputo. 
Jardim  Municipal,  Camara  Municipal,  Lourenco  Marques. 

Useful  Addresses 

CITES  Management  Authority  (Plants):  Unidad  de  Direcgao  de  Florestal,  Maputo. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority  (Plants):  Instituto  Nacional  de  Investigagao  Agronomica, 
P.O.  Box  3656,  Maputo. 

Additional  References 

Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1968).  Mozambique.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  224-232. 
Bruton,  M.N.  (1981).  Major  threat  to  the  coastal  dune  forest  in  Maputoland.  The 

Naturalist  (South  Africa)  25(1):  26-27.  (Discusses  invasion  by  Bardados  Gooseberry.) 
Mendonga,  F.A.  (1952/1955).  The  vegetation  of  Mozambique.  Lejeunia  16:  127-135. 
Pedro,  J.  Gomes  and  Barbosa,  L.A.  Grandvaux  (1955).  A  vegeta^ao.  In  EsboQO  do 

Reconhecimento  Ecologico-Agricola  de  Mogambique,  Mems  Trab.  Cent.  Invest. 

Cient.  Algod.  23(2):  67-224.  (With  coloured  vegetation  map  1:2,000,000.) 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  list  of  relevant  chapters. 


Namibia 

Area  824,293  sq.  km 

Population  1,507,000 

Floristics  3159  species  (Merxmiiller,  1966-1972).  Unknown  levels  of  endemism, 
but  II  taxa  endemic  to  the  Brandberg  (Nordenstam,  1974). 

The  flora  of  the  north-eastern  part  bordering  Angola  has  Zambezian  affinities.  The  flora 
of  the  Namib  desert  along  the  coast  is  related  to  the  flora  of  the  Karoo  further  south.  Most 
of  the  centre  of  the  country  has  a  flora  transitional  between  the  two,  the  so-called 
Kalahari-Highveld  transition  zone,  with  affinities  with  the  Kalahari  flora. 

Vegetation  Vegetation  predominantly  of  a  dry  type.  Rainfall  decreases  from  the 
north-east  to  the  coastal  Namib  desert  and  to  the  south.  In  the  north-east  corner  mosaic  of 
dry  deciduous  forest  (rich  in  species)  and  transition  from  woodland  without  characteristic 
dominants  to  Acacia  deciduous  bushland  and  wooded  grassland.  Large  areas  of  Kalahari 
Acacia  wooded  grassland  and  deciduous  bushland,  sand  dunes  with  sparse  grass- 
land/wooded grassland,  Colophospermum  mopane  woodland,  scrub  woodland  (including 
the  swampy  Etosha  pan),  and  shrubland.  Parallel  with  the  coast:  band  of  bushy  shrubland 
and,  along  the  coast,  the  Namib  desert.  This  is  almost  devoid  of  vegetation,  but  includes 
the  desert  gymnosperm  Welwitschia  mirabilis. 

For  vegetation  map  see  White  (1983),  and  for  vegetation  map  of  Caprivi  Strip  only  see 
Wild  and  Barbosa  (1967,  1968).  Both  are  cited  in  Appendix  1. 


250 


Namibia 

Checklists  and  Floras  Namibia  is  included  in  the  incomplete  Flora  of  Southern 
Africa,  and  in  The  Genera  of  Southern  African  Flowering  Plants  (Dyer,  1975,  1976),  both 
cited  in  Appendix  1 .  The  Caprivi  Strip  is  included  in  Flora  Zambesiaca,  cited  in  Appendix 
1.  See  also: 

Merxmiiller,  H.  (1966-1972).  Prodromus  einer  Flora  von  SUdwest-afrika,  35  fasc. 

Cramer,  Lehre.  (Keys,  descriptions,  distributions,  specimens.  For  additions  see 

Roessler,  H.  and  Merxmiiller,  H.  (1976).  Nachtrage  zum  Prodromus  einer  Flora  von 

Siidwestafrika.  Mitt.  Bot.  Staatssamml.  Mtinchen  12:  361-373.) 
Nordenstam,  B.  (1970).  Notes  on  the  flora  and  vegetation  of  Etosha  Pan,  South  West 

Africa.  Dinteria  5:  3-18.  (Includes  list  of  134  species.) 
Nordenstam,  B.  (1974).  The  flora  of  the  Brandberg.  Dinteria  11:  3-67.  (Annotated 

checklist  of  337  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Hall,  A.V.  et  al.  (1980),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  (List  for  Namibia,  p.  78,  contains  12 
endemic:  R:4,  1:3,  K:5  and  44  non-endemic:  V:2  (regional  category),  R:17,  1:3,  K:22 
species  and  infraspecific  taxa.) 

lUCN  has  records  of  31  species  and  infraspecific  taxa  believed  to  be  endemic;  most  are 
succulents.  (R:4,  1:4,  K:23.) 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  49  taxa  (mostly  whole  genera  but  including  all  orchids) 
are  specifically  protected  under  Ordinance  No.  4  of  1975  (Nature  Conservation 
Ordinance).  This  also  prohibits  the  picking  of  any  indigenous  plant  without  written 
permission  from  the  owner  of  the  land. 

Useful  Addresses 

Dept  of  Agriculture  and  Nature  Conservation,  Private  Bag  xl3306,  Windhoek  9000. 

Additional  References 

Giess,  W.  (1962).  Some  notes  on  the  vegetation  of  the  Namib  Desert.  Cimbebasia  2: 

1-35.  (Includes  annotated  list  of  plants;  black  and  white  photographs  throughout.) 
Giess,  W.  (1971).  A  preliminary  vegetation  map  of  South  West  Africa.  Dinteria  4: 

5-114.  (Includes  70  black  and  white  photographs  and  coloured  vegetation  map 

1:3,000,000.) 
Giess,  W.  and  Tinley,  K.L.  (1968).  (South  West  Africa.  In  Hedberg,  I.  and  O.  (1968), 

cited  in  Appendix  1 .  Pp.  250-251, 
Werger,  M.J. A.  (1978),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Citation  includes  Hst  of  relevant  chapters. 


Nauru 


A  raised  limestone  island  of  20.7  sq.  km  in  the  west-central  Pacific  Ocean  at  0°3rS, 
160°56'E.  Population  8000.  The  highest  point  is  71  m  surrounded  by  a  terrace  and  fringing 
reef.  Vegetation  of  mixed  plateau  forest,  dominated  by  Calophyllum;  a  few  remaining 
areas  of  atoll  forest,  with  Pandanus  and  Cocos  (Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 
About  two-thirds  of  the  island  has  been  mined  for  phosphates. 

4  native  fern  species,  no  gymnosperms  (Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1982,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  no  figure  for  monocotyledons  but  87  dicotyledon  taxa,  of  which  35  native 


251 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

(Fosberg,  Sachet  and  Oliver,  1979,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  One  endemic,  an  undescribed 
Phyllanthus. 

Nauru  will  be  covered  by  the  Flora  of  Micronesia  (1975-  ),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

Navassa  Island 


A  3.5  sq.  km  islet,  belonging  to  U.S.A.,  at  18°25'N,  75°00'W,  50  km  west  of  the  western 
extremity  of  Hispaniola  in  the  West  Indies.  Uninhabited  except  for  lighthouse  staff  and  a 
large  introduced  population  of  goats;  no  streams  or  rivers. 

102  species  of  vascular  plants,  44  possibly  indigenous  to  the  island  and  only  4  species  of 
trees  (Ekman,  1929). 

The  island  rises  abruptly  from  the  sea  to  a  table-land.  Towards  the  margin  of  the  table- 
land forest  of  low  stunted  trees;  in  centre,  grass  savanna;  on  lower  terraces,  similar  but 
more  stunted  savanna,  with  cacti  and  shrubs,  usually  less  than  30  cm  (Ekman,  1929). 

Ekman,  E.L.  (1929).  Plants  of  Navassa  Island,  West  Indies.  Arkiv  for  Botanik 
22A(16):  1-12.  Plates. 


Nepal 

Area  141,414  sq.  km 

Population  16,107,000 

Floristics  An  estimated  6500  species  of  flowering  plants  of  which  c.  315  endemic; 
30  species  of  gymnosperms,  and  c.  450  species  of  ferns  (Hara  et  al.,  1978).  Many  endemics 
in  Western  Himalaya  do  not  extend  into  the  wetter  Eastern  Himalaya  (Stainton,  1972). 
Sino-Japanese  floristic  elements  in  east  and  centre;  western  Himalayan  and  Mediterranean 
elements  in  west;  central  Asiatic  elements  north  to  Himalayan  foothills;  Indo-Gangetic 
elements  in  southern  Himalayan  foothills  and  in  the  plains  (Terai). 

Vegetation  Tropical  moist  deciduous  or  Sal  {Shorea  robustd)  forest  in  northern 
Terai  and  valleys  of  Churia  hills  below  1000  m,  little  remaining;  tropical  evergreen  rain 
forest  along  river  valleys  below  1000  m,  the  richest  forests  being  those  in  the  east; 
subtropical  mixed  broadleaved  forest  (10(X)-2(X)0  m)  with  Schima-Castanopsis  in  east,  dry 
oak  forest  in  centre,  and  Chir  Pine  (Finns  roxburghii)  forest  in  west;  moist  temperate 
broadleaved  forest,  with  laurel,  evergreen  oak  and  rhododendron  at  15(X)-3(X)0  m,  in  east 
and  centre;  mixed  coniferous  forests  on  Churia  hills,  Mahabharat  range  (1000-1800  m)  and 
southern  Himalayas  (above  2450  m).  Subalpine  forests  occur  around  3500  m;  alpine  scrub 
dominated  by  birch  and  rhododendron,  and  alpine  meadows  at  40(X)-45(X)  m;  alpine 
steppes  north  of  Dhaulagiri-Annapurna  massif  (Stainton,  1972).  Estimated  rate  of 
deforestation  of  closed  broadleaved  forest  8(X)  sq.  km/annum  out  of  a  total  of  16,1(X)  sq. 
km  (FAO/UNEP,  1981). 


252 


Nepal 

Checklists  and  Floras  No  modern  Flora,  but  see  the  Flora  of  British  India 
(Hooker,  1872-1897),  cited  in  Appendix  I.  For  ferns  see  Beddome  (1892)  and,  Nayar  and 
Kaur  (1972),  cited  in  Appendix  1.  Recent  checklists  of  the  flora  are: 

Flora  of  Eastern  Himalaya  (1966-1975),  3  vols,  by  H.  Hara  (vols  1-2)  and  H.  Ohashi 
(vol.  3),  cited  in  full  in  Appendix  1. 

Hara,  H.  et  al.  (1978-1982).  An  Enumeration  of  the  Flowering  Plants  of  Nepal,  3  vols. 
British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London.  (1  -  gymnosperms,  monocotyledons, 
including  keys  and  notes  on  distribution;  2-3  -  dicotyledons.  Vols  1  and  2  by 
H.  Hara,  W.T.  Steam  and  L.H.J.  Williams;  vol.  3  by  H.  Hara,  A.O.  Chater  and 
L.H.J.  Williams.) 

Other  relevant  literature: 

Banerji,  M.L.  (1965).  Contributions  to  the  Flora  of  East  Nepal.  Rec.  Bot.  Survey  India 
19(2).  90  pp.  (Enumeration  of  583  dicotyledons;  introductory  notes  on  vegetation.) 

Kitamura,  S.  (1955).  Flowering  plants  and  ferns.  In  Kihara,  H.  (Ed.),  Fauna  and  Flora 
of  Nepal  Himalaya:  Scientific  Results  of  the  Japanese  Expeditions  to  Nepal 
Himalaya  1952-1953,  1.  Fauna  and  Flora  Research  Society,  Kyoto.  Pp.  73-290. 
(Annotated  checklist  of  34  ferns,  14  gymnosperms  and  910  angiosperms;  notes  on 
vegetation.) 

Malla,  S.B.,  Shrestha,  A.B.,  Rajbhandari,  S.B.,  Shrestha,  T.B.,  Adhikari,  P.M.  and 
Adhikari,  S.R.  (Eds)  (1976).  Flora  of  Langtang  and  Cross  Section  Vegetation  Survey 
(Central  Zone).  Bull.  Dept  of  Medicinal  Plants  no.  6,  Kathmandu.  269  pp. 
(Enumeration  of  911  vascular  species;  northern  half  of  area  covered  by  Langtang 
National  Park;  detailed  analysis  of  vegetation  types.) 

An  earlier  list,  covering  about  half  the  flora  is: 

Malla,  S.B.,  Shrestha,  A.B.,  Rajbhandari,  S.B.,  Shrestha,  T.B.,  Adhikari,  P.M.,  and 
Adhikari,  S.R.  (1976).  Catalogue  of  Nepalese  Vascular  Plants.  Bull.  Dept  Medicinal 
Plants  no.  7,  Kathmandu.  211  pp.  (Lists  308  ferns  and  fern  allies,  24  gymnosperms 
and  3121  angiosperm  species;  based  mainly  on  collections  by  the  Dept  of  Medicinal 
Plants,  address  below.) 

Field-guides 

Polunin,  O.  and  Stainton,  J.D.A.  (1984).  Flowers  of  the  Himalaya.  Oxford  University 

Press.  580  pp. 
Storrs,  A.  and  J.  (1984).  Discovering  Trees  in  Nepal  and  the  Himalayas.  Sahayogi 

Press,  Kathmandu.  366  pp.  (Descriptions  and  photographs  of  nearly  200  species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants 

Sahni,  K.C.  (1979).  Endemic,  relict,  primitive  and  spectacular  taxa  in  eastern 
Himalayan  flora  and  strategies  for  their  conservation.  Indian  J.  Forestry  2(2): 
181-190.  (Mentions  30  taxa  rare  or  threatened  in  the  Himalayan  region,  including 
Nepal;  notes  on  vegetation.) 

lUCN/WWF  are  sponsoring  an  inventory  of  endemic  and  threatened  plants,  to  result  in  a 
Nepalese  Plant  Red  Data  Book,  as  part  of  their  Plants  Programme. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Royal  Botanical  Garden,  Department  of  Medicinal  Plants,  Ministry  of  Forests, 
Godawari,  Lalitpur. 


253 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Useful  Addresses 

Department  of  Medicinal  Plants,  Thapathali,  Kamaladi,  Kathmandu. 

Royal  Nepal  Academy,  Kamaladi,  Kathmandu. 

The  King  Mahendra  Trust  for  Nature  Conservation,  P.O.  Box  3712,  National  Parks 

Building,  Babar  Mahal,  Kathmandu. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  The  Director  General,  Dept  of  Botany,  Thapathali, 

Kathmandu. 

Additional  References 

Dobremez,  J.F.  et  al.  (1969-1975).  Cart  Ecologique  du  Nepal.  Documents  de 

Cartographie  Ecologique  15:  1-7.  Grenoble.  (Vegetation  maps  covering  central  and 

eastern  Nepal,  at  1:50,000  and  1:250,000.) 
Hara,  H.  (1968).  Photo-Album  of  Plants  of  Eastern  Himalaya.  Inoue,  Tokyo.  89  pp. 

(249  plates  with  notes  on  vegetation;  in  Japanese.) 
Khadka,  R.B.  (1983).  Mountain  flora  and  their  conservation  in  Nepal.  In  Jain,  S.K. 

and  Mehra,  K.L.  (Eds),  Conservation  of  Tropical  Plant  Resources.  Botanical  Survey 

of  India,  Howrah.  Pp.  132-141.  (Includes  outline  of  vegetation  and  human  impact 

on  mountain  flora.) 
Majupuria,  T.C.  (Ed.)  (1984).  Nepal  -  Nature's  Paradise  (Insight  into  Diverse  Facets  of 

Topography,  Flora  and  Ecology).  White  Lotus,  Bangkok.  476  pp.  (Chapters  cover 

vegetation;  checklists  of  ferns  in  Nepal;  orchids  of  Kathmandu  Valley;  economic 

plants;  man  and  the  environment.) 
McNeely,  J. A.  (1985).  Man  and  nature  in  the  Himalaya:  what  can  be  done  to  ensure 

that  both  can  prosper.  14  pp.  (Paper  presented  to  the  International  Workshop  on 

the  Management  of  National  Parks  and  Protected  Areas  in  the  Hindukush, 

Himalaya.  Kathmandu,  Nepal,  6-11  May  1985.) 
Nakao,  S.  (1964).  Living  Himalayan  Flowers.  Mainichi  Newspapers,  Tokyo.  194  pp. 

(253  colour  plates  with  chapters  covering  vegetation  and  major  plant  families; 

introduction  to  Himalayan  plants  by  S.  Kitamura.) 
Numata,  M.  (Ed.)  (1983).  Biota  and  Ecology  of  Eastern  Nepal.  Chiba  University, 

Japan.  (Includes  plant  lists.) 
Stainton,  J.D.A.  (1972).  Forests  of  Nepal.  Murray,  London.  181  pp. 

For  useful  background  to  the  Himalayas  see  Lall  and  Moddie  (1981),  cited  in  Appendix  1. 

A  Prospectus  for  a  National  Conservation  Strategy  was  prepared  in  1983  by  His  Majesty's 
Government  of  Nepal  and  lUCN  as  a  first  step  toward  the  formulation  of  a  complete 
National  Conservation  Strategy. 


Netherlands 

Area  41,160  sq.  km 

Population  14,339,551  (1983  estimate) 

Floristics  1400-1600  native  vascular  species,  estimated  by  D.A.  Webb  (1978,  cited 
in  Appendix  1)  from  Flora  Europaea;  1436  native  and  naturalized  species  (Meijden  et  al., 
1983);  no  endemics.  Floristic  element:  predominantly  Atlantic,  although  the  rocky  terrain 
of  the  far  south  (Limburg  district)  supports  an  isolated  central  European  flora. 


254 


Netherlands 

Vegetation  Natural  vegetation  grossly  modified  by  agriculture,  forestry  and 
urban  development;  c.  40%  of  land-surface  is  man-made,  the  result  of  reclamation  from 
the  sea.  Despite  the  drainage  of  the  large  marsh  and  peat  bog  region  (the  Polders)  in  the 
west,  a  valuable  wetland  flora  still  remains  in  places.  The  original  acid  oak  woodland  of 
the  higher  parts  of  the  east  and  south,  and  oak/beech  woodland  with  birch,  was  cleared  in 
the  middle  of  the  19th  century.  Remaining  areas  of  floristic  interest:  the  Wadden  Sea  area, 
dunes  along  the  North  Sea,  especially  the  Isle  of  Voorne,  relict  heathlands  of  the  Veluwe 
and  the  Biesbos  delta  (J.  Mennema,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Checklists  and  Floras  Included  in  the  completed  Flora  Europaea  (Tutin  et  al., 
1964-1980)  cited  in  Appendix  1.  National  Floras  include: 

Heimans,  E.,  Heinsius,  H.W.  and  Thijsse,  J. P.  (1983).  Geillustreerde  Flora  van 

Nederland,  22nd  Ed.  Versluys,  Amsterdam.  1242  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 
Heukels,  H.  and  Meijden,  R.  van  der  (Ed.)  (1983).  Flora  van  Nederland,  20th  Ed. 

Wolters-Noordhoff,  Groningen.  583  pp.  (Line  drawings.) 
Weevers,  T.  et  al.  (Eds)  (1948-  ).  Flora  Neerlandica:  Flora  van  Nederland.  De 

Koninklijke  Nederlands  Botanische  Vereeniging,  Amsterdam.  9  parts  to  date.  (Line 

drawings.) 

For  a  detailed  checklist  see: 

Meijden,  R.  van  der,  Arnolds,  E.J.M.,  Adema,  F.,  Weeda,  E.J.  and  Plate,  C.L. 

(1983).    Standaardlijst  van   de  Nederlandse  Flora   1983.   Rijksherbarium,   Leiden. 
32  pp. 

The  Central  Bureau  of  Statistics  (CBS  -  address  below)  has  a  data-bank  on  plant 
distributions,  using  a  5  km  square  grid  system  (Anon,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1). 

Field-guides  The  popular  field-guide  in  English  by  Fitter,  Fitter  and  Blamey 
(1974),  cited  in  Appendix  1 ,  has  been  translated  into  Dutch  and  revised  by  H.  Korthof  and 
J.  Mennema  (1984)  (Elseviers  Nieuwe  Bloemengids,  Elsevier,  Amsterdam).  See  also: 

Heukels,  H.  and  Ooststroom,  S.J.  van  (1968).  Beknopte  School-En  Excursieflora  voor 
Nederland,  12th  Ed.  by  S.J.  van  Oostroom.  Wolters-Noordhoff,  Groningen.  425  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  A  national  plant  Red  Data  Book  is  in 
preparation  (J.  Mennema,  1984,  in  litt.).  The  first  2  volumes  of  the  plant  atlas  by 
Mennema  et  al.  (1980-  )  are  devoted  to  extinct,  threatened  and  rare  species: 

Mennema,  J.,  Quene-Boterenbrood,  A.J.  and  Plate,  C.L.  (Eds)  (1980- ).  Atlas  van  de 
Nederlandse  Flora,  1  vol.  so  far,  by  Kosmos,  Amsterdam.  English  edition  by  Junk, 
The  Hague.  226  pp.  3  vols  planned.  (1  -  Uitgestorven  en  zeer  zeldzame  planten 
(Extinct  and  very  rare  species);  contains  conservation  data  and  maps  for  over  300 
vascular  plant  species  (native  and  introduced);  ecological  and  phytogeographical 
descriptions.  2  (in  press)  -  zeldzame  en  vrij  zeldzame  planten  (Rare  and  rather  rare 
species);  includes  a  chapter,  by  E.J.  Weeda,  about  the  changes  in  the  occurrence  of 
vascular  plants  in  the  Netherlands;  Bohn,  Scheltema  and  Holkema,  Utrecht.  3  (in 
prep.)  -  Vrij  algemene  en  algemene  planten  (Rather  common  and  common  species); 
a  threatened  plant  list  will  be  included  in  the  introduction.) 

See  also: 

Leeuwen,  C.G.  van  and  Westhoff,  V.  (1961).  De  nivellering  van  flora  en  vegetatie. 
Natura  58:  132-140. 


255 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Mennema,  J.  (1973).  La  regression  des  especes  vegetales  en  Hollande,  basee  sur  les 

premiers  resultats  de  I'atlas  de  la  flore  neerlandaise  en  preparation.  Rijksherbarium, 

Leiden.  9  pp.  (Mimeo.) 
Mennema,  J.  (1975a).  Threatened  and  protected  plants  in  the  Netherlands.  Naturopa 

22:  10-13. 
Mennema,  J.  (1975b).  Zeldzame  planten  tellen  (Census  of  rare  plants).  Levende  Nat. 

78(2):  29-31. 
Quene-Boterenbrood  A.J.  (1974).  Een  'tussenrapport'  over  zeldzame  Nederlandse 

plantesoorten  (An  interim  report  of  rare  Dutch  plant  species).  Natuur  en  Landschap 

28:  297-308. 
Westhoff,  V.  (1956).  De  verarming  van  flora  en  vegetatie  (The  impoverishment  of  the 

flora  and  vegetation).  In  Gedenkboek  50  jaar  Natuurmonumenten.  Pp.  151-184. 

(Not  seen.) 
Westhoff,  V.  (1976).  Die  Verarmung  der  Niederlandischen  Gefasspflanzenflora  in  den 

letzten  50  Jahren  und  ihre  Teilweise  Erhaltung  in  Naturreservaten  (The  decline  of 

the  Dutch  vascular  plant  flora  during  the  past  50  years  and  the  contribution  of 

nature  reserves  to  its  conservation).  Schr.-R.  Vegetationskunde  10:  63-73. 
Westhoff,  V.  (1979).  Bedrohung  und  Erhaltung  seltener  Pflanzengesellschaften  in  den 

Niederlanden.  In  Wilmans,  O.  and  Tiixen,  R.  (Eds),  Werden  und  Vergehen  von 

Pflanzengesellschaften,  Vaduz.  Pp.  285-313. 
Westhoff,  V.  and  Weeda,  E.J.  (1984).  De  achteruitgang  van  de  Nederlandse  flora  sinds 

het  begin  van  deze  eeuw.  (The  decline  of  the  Dutch  flora  since  the  beginning  of  the 

first  century).  Natuur  en  Milieu  8(8):  8-17. 
Wijnands,  D.O.  (1981).  Bedreigde  Nederlandse  Waterplanten  (Threatened  Dutch  water 

plants).  Bull.  Arbor.  Waasland  4(1):  38-42.  (English  translation  pp.  48-50;  describes 

over  40  species.) 

See  also  a  series  of  papers  written  by  many  authors  (S.L.  van  Oostroom,  J.  Mennema  and 
Th.  J.  Reichgelt  et  al.)  entitled  'Nieuwe  vondsten  van  zeldzame  planten  in  Nederland'  (New 
discoveries  of  rare  plants  in  the  Netherlands)  in  Gorteria  from  1964  onwards. 

Included  in  the  European  threatened  plant  list  (Threatened  Plants  Unit,  1983,  cited  in 
Appendix  1);  latest  lUCN  statistics,  based  upon  this  work:  non-endemics  rare  or 
threatened  worldwide  -  V:5,  R:l,  1:1  (world  categories). 

In  1982  lUCN,  under  contract  to  the  EEC  through  the  U.K.  Nature  Conservancy  Council, 
prepared  a  report  (unpublished).  Threatened  Plants,  Amphibians  and  Reptiles,  and 
Mammals  (excluding  Marine  Species  and  Bats)  of  the  European  Economic  Community, 
which  included  a  data  sheet  on  1  Dutch  plant,  now  extinct  in  the  country. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Besluit  of  6  August  1973  specifies  31  plant  species 
and  5  genera  as  being  absolutely  protected.  It  is  prohibited  to  uproot  or  take  any  part  of 
these  plants.  In  addition,  it  is  forbidden  to  possess  these  plants,  or  to  offer  them  for  sale, 
unless  they  have  originated  from  propagated  stock  in  a  nursery  or  garden.  In  some 
provinces  and  municipals  there  are  local  regulations  forbidding  the  collection  of  certain 
plants,  for  example  Eryngium  maritimum. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Christian  Youth  Organization  for  Nature  Study  (ACJN),  Driebergseweg  16,  3708  7B 

Zeist. 
Koninklijke  Nederlandse  Botanische  Vereeniging  (KNBV)  (Royal  Botanical  Society  of 

the  Netherlands),  Lange  Nieuwstraat  106,  3512  PN  Utrecht. 


256 


Netherlands 

Netherlands  Youth  Organization  for  Nature  Study  (NJN),  Noordereinde  60,  1243  77 

's-Graveland. 
Royal  Naturalists'  Organization  for  the  Netherlands  (KNNV),  Burg.  Hoogenboomlaan 

24,  1718  B7  Hoogwoud. 
Vereniging  tot  behoud  van  Natuurmonumenten  in  Nederland  (Society  for  Nature 

Preservation  in  the  Netherlands),  Schaep  en  Burgh,  Noordereinde  60,  1243  JJ 

's-Graveland. 
WWF-Netherlands  (Wereld  Natuur  Fonds),  P.O.  7,  3700  AA  Zeist. 

Botanic  Gardens  Numerous  botanic  gardens,  as  listed  in  Henderson  (1983),  cited 
in  Appendix  1 .  Only  subscribers  to  the  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation  Co-ordinating  Body 
are  Hsted  below: 

Arboretum  Trompenburg,  Groene  Wetering  46,  3062  PC  Rotterdam. 

Botanical  Gardens  of  the  State  University,  Harvardlaan  2,  Postbus  80-162,  3508  TC 

Utrecht. 
Botanische  Tuinen  en  Belmonte  Arboretum  Wageningen,  Generaal  Foulkesweg  70,  6703 

BL  Wageningen. 
Botanische  Tuin  I.V.N.-Elsloo,  Op  den  Berg  7,  Elsloo. 
Botanische  Tuin  "Jochum-Hof",  Maashoek  2b,  Steyl,  Gem.  Tegelen. 
Hortus  Botanicus  der  Katholieke  Universiteit  Nijmegen,  Toernooiveld,  6525  ED 

Nijmegen. 
Hortus  Botanicus  der  Rijksuniversiteit  Leiden,  Nonnensteeg  3,  2311  VJ  Leiden. 
Hortus  Botanicus  Vrije  Universiteit,  Postbus  7161,  1007  MC  Amsterdam. 
University    of    Amsterdam    Botanic    Garden,    Plantage    Middenlaan    2,     1018    DD 

Amsterdam. 

Useful  Addresses 

Central  Bureau  of  Statistics  (CBS),  Department  of  the  Natural  Environment,  P.O.  Box 

959,  2270  AZ  Voorburg. 
Institute  for  the  Investigation  of  the  Vegetation  in  the  Netherlands  (I VON), 

Schelpenkade  6,  2313  ZT  Leiden. 
Natuur  en  Milieu  (Foundation  for  Nature  Conservation  and  Environmental  Protection), 

Donkerstraat  17,  3511  KB  Leiden. 
Natuurbeschermingsraad  (Nature  Conservancy  Council),  Maliebaan  12,  3581  CN 

Utrecht.  / 

Research  Institute  for  Nature  Management  (RIN),  Kasteel  Broekhuizen,  3956  ZR 

Leersum. 
Rijksherbarium,  Schelpenkade  6,  2313  ZT  Leiden. 
Staatsbosbeheer  (Government  Nature  Conservancy  Service),  P.O.  20020,  3505  CA 

Utrecht. 
CITES  Management  Authority:  Hoofd  van  de  Directie  Natuur-en- 

Landschapsbescherming,  Ministerie  van  Landbouw  en  Visserij,  Prins  Clauslaan  6, 

P.O.  20401,  2500  EK  's-Gravenhage. 
CITES  Scientific  Authority:  Adviescommissie  wet  bedreigde  uitheemse  diersoorten, 

Prins  Clauslaan  6,  P.O.  20401,  2500  EK  's-Gravenhage. 
TRAFFIC  (Nederland),  Muur  10,  1422  Uithoorn. 

Additional  References 

Bakker,  P. A.  (1979).  Vegetation  science  and  nature  conservation.  In  Werger,  M.J.A. 
(Ed.),  The  Study  of  Vegetation.  Junk,  Den  Haag.  Pp.  249-288.  (Historical  and 
theoretical  account  of  nature  conservation;  maps  and  diagrams.) 


257 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Donselaar,  J.  van  (1970).  De  Nederlandse  natuurbescherming  gezien  in  internationaal 
verband-Botanie  (Dutch  nature  conservation  in  the  context  of  international  botany). 
In  J.C.  van  de  Kramer  et  at.,  Het  Veerstoorde  Evenwicht.  Oosthoek,  Utrecht.  Pp. 
231-244.  (Describes  important  botanical  areas  in  international  context;  in  Dutch.) 

Leeuw,  W.C.  de  (1935).  The  Netherlands  as  an  Environment  for  Plant  Life.  E.J.  Brill, 
Leiden.  19  pp.  (Describes  edaphic,  climatic  and  biotic  factors;  maps.) 

Ministry  of  Cultural  Affairs,  Recreation  and  Social  Welfare  (1981).  Conservation  in  the 
Netherlands:  Factsheet  on  the  Netherlands.  7  pp.  (History  of  growth  of  nature 
conservation  in  the  Netherlands,  including  plants;  statistics.) 

Ooststroom,  S.J.  van  (1975).  Floristic  literature  published  in  the  Netherlands  mainly 
between  1962  and  1972.  Mem.  Soc.  Brot.  24(2):  747-763. 

Westhoff,  v.,  Bakker,  P.A.,  Leeuwen,  C.G.  van  and  Voo,  E.E.  van  der  (1970-1973). 
Wilde  Planten  -  Flora  en  Vegetatie  in  Onze  Natuurgebieden  (Wild  Plants  -  Flora 
and  Vegetation  in  our  Nature  Areas),  3  vols.  Vereniging  tot  Behoud  van 
Natuurmonumenten  in  Nederland.  320  pp,  303  pp,  359  pp.  (1  -  Algemene  inleiding, 
duinen,  zilte  gronden;  2  -  Het  lage  land;  3  -  De  hogere  gronden.) 

Westhoff,  V.  and  Den  Held,  A.J.  (1975).  Planten  Gemeenschappen  in  Nederland 
(Plant  communities  in  the  Netherlands).  W.J.  Thieme  and  CIE-Zutphen.  324  pp. 


Netherlands  Antilles 


The  Netherlands  Antilles,  two  widely  separated  groups  of  islands  of  the  Lesser  Antilles  in 
the  Caribbean,  are  an  integral  part  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  Netherlands.  The  southern 
group,  igneous  with  coral  reefs,  comprises  Curasao,  Aruba  and  Bonaire  and  are  less  than 
100  km  off  the  coast  of  Venezuela.  The  northern  group,  volcanic  and  within  the  Leeward 
Islands,  comprise  St  Eustatius,  Saba  and  the  southern  part  of  St  Martin  (see  also  under 
Guadeloupe  and  Martinique). 

Area  993  sq.  km 

Population  260,000 

Floristics  Accounts  of  Flora  of  the  region  are  incomplete  but  the  study  of 
published  Floras  revealed  7  species  endemic  to  the  southerly  group  and  12  doubtfully 
endemic. 

Vegetation  On  the  southern  group  of  Curasao,  Aruba  and  Bonaire  xerophytic 
vegetation  of  thorny  shrubs  and  cacti;  on  St  Eustatius,  Saba  and  St  Martin,  where  the 
climate  is  more  humid,  vegetation  of  Croton  shrubs  and  some  woodland;  mostly  modified 
by  man. 

Checklists  and  Floras  St  Eustatius,  St  Martin  and  Saba  are  covered  by  the  Flora 
of  the  Lesser  Antilles,  Leeward  and  Windward  Islands  (only  monocotyledons  and  ferns 
published  so  far,  Howard,  1974-  ,  cited  in  Appendix  1)  and  by  the  family  and  generic 
monographs  of  Flora  Neotropica  (cited  in  Appendix  1).  See  also: 

Arnoldo,  M.  (A.N.  Broeders)  (1967).  Handleiding  tot  het  gebruik  van  inheemse  en 
ingevoerde  planten  op  Aruba,  Bonaire  en  Curagao.  Uitgare:  Boekhandel  'St. 
Augustinus',  Curagao.  257  pp.  (In  Dutch,  with  keys  and  black  and  white 
photographs.) 


258 


Netherlands  Antilles 

Arnoldo,  M.  (A.N.  Breeders)  (1971).  Gekweekte  en  Nuttige  Planten  van  de 
Nederlandse  Antillen.  Utigaven  van  de  Natuurwetenschappelijke  Werkgroep 
Nederlandse  Antillen,  Curasao  no.  20.  279  pp.  (In  Dutch,  with  keys  and  black  and 
white  photographs.) 

Stoffers,  A.L.  et  al.  (1963,  1966).  Flora  of  the  Netherlands  Antilles,  Uitgaven 

'Natuurwetenschappelijke,  studierkring  voor  Suriname  en  de  Nederlandse  Antillen', 
Utrecht.  3  parts.  (Covers  ferns  and  25  angiosperm  families.) 

Field-guides 

Arnoldo,  M.  (A.N.  Breeders)  (1964).  Zakflora,  wat  in  het  wild  groeit  en  bloeit  op 
Curagao.  Aruba  en  Bonaire  (Pocket  Flora  of  Curagao,  Aruba  &  Bonaire.)  Uitgaven 
van  de  Natuurwetenschappelijke  Werkgroep  Nederlandse  Antillen,  Cara?ao  no.  16. 
2nd  Ed.  232  pp.  (68  plates;  in  Dutch,  with  keys.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  None. 


New  Caledonia 


The  French  Overseas  Territory  of  New  Caledonia,  12(K)  km  east  of  Australia  in  the  south- 
west Pacific  Ocean,  includes  the  main  island  of  New  Caledonia  (16,750  sq.  km),  the 
Loyalty  Islands  (2227  sq.  km),  the  Isle  of  Pines  (134  sq.  km)  and  the  uninhabited  Huon 
Islands.  In  addition.  Hunter  (40.5  ha),  Matthew  (12  ha)  and  Walpole  (125.5  ha)  are  550  km 
east  of  the  main  island,  whereas  the  Chesterfield  Islands  are  450  km  to  the  west.  The 
highest  point,  Mt  Panic  (1649  m),  is  on  the  main  island.  The  Loyalty  and  Huon  Islands  are 
low  coral;  Walpole  is  a  raised  limestone  island;  Hunter  and  Matthew  are  active  volcanoes. 

Population  152,000 

Floristics  c.  3250  vascular  plant  species  (Morat,  etal.,  1984),  including  c.  300  fern 
species  (Parris,  1985,  cited  in  Appendix  1).  2474  endemic  vascular  plant  species  (Morat  et 
al.,  1984),  including  all  conifers  (44  spp.),  Cunoniaceae  (70-80  spp.),  Proteaceae  (43  spp.) 
and  palms.  5  endemic  families  -  Amborellaceae  (1  sp.),  Oncothecaceae  (2  spp.), 
Paracryphiaceae  (1-2  spp.),  Phelli'^neaceae  (10  spp.),  Strasburgeriaceae  (1  sp.).  Pantropical 
and  Indo-Australian  genera  represent  4597o  of  the  rain  forest  flora,  Malesian  genera  9.6% 
(Morat  et  al.,  1984).  Lowland  rain  forests,  and  maquis  scrub  on  ultrabasic  rocks 
(especially  serpentine)  have  a  large  number  of  primitive  relict  species. 

Vegetation  Tropical  evergreen  rain  forest  up  to  1000  m;  tropical  montane  rain 
forest  above  1000  m;  a  variant  of  evergreen  rain  forest,  sometimes  with  Araucaria 
columnaris,  dominant  near  coast  on  raised  coral,  especially  on  Loyalty  Islands  and  Isle  of 
Pines;  dry  sclerophyllous  forest  on  western  slopes;  various  types  of  maquis  scrub  on  acidic 
and  ultrabasic  rocks  (e.g.  peridotites  and  serpentinites),  covering  about  30%  of  the  land 
area;  mangroves  along  western  coasts.  About  50%  of  the  land  area  covered  by  secondary 
forests,  savanna  and  grasslands,  due  to  clearance  for  mining,  logging  and  agriculture. 
Hunter  has  some  grassland  with  occasional  trees;  Walpole  is  covered  by  dense  scrub 
(Douglas,  1969,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  Matthew  has  almost  no  vegetation. 

According  to  figures  of  the  Forestry  Department  (quoted  in  Myers,  1980,  cited  in 
Appendix  1),  forests  of  all  types  cover  16,000  sq.  km;  however,  Thomson  and  Adloff 
(1971)  estimated  that  relatively  undisturbed  rain  forest  covered  only  10%  of  the  territory, 
and  that  "the  high  forest  resource  will  be  exhausted  in  30-40  years".  For  a  more  detailed 

259 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

account  of  vegetation  and  maps,  see  Morat,  Jaffre,  Veillon  and  MacKee  (1981).  See  also 
Schmid  (1978). 

Checklists  and  Floras 

Aubreville,  A.,  Leroy,  J.-F.  and  MacKee,  H.S.  (Eds)  (1967- ).  Flore  de  la  Nouvelle- 
Caledonie  et  D^pendances.  Museum  National  d'Histoire  Naturelle.  (13  fascicles  so 
far,  covering  ferns,  gymnosperms,  and  25  flowering  plant  families,  including 
Apocynaceae,  Lauraceae,  Myrtaceae,  Orchidaceae,  and  Proteaceae.) 

Guillaumin,  A.  (1911).  Catalogue  des  plantes  phanerogames  de  la  Nouvelle-Caledonie 
et  Dependances.  Ann.  Mus.  Col.  Marseille  19.  86  pp.  (Includes  checklists;  rather 
dated  and  incomplete.) 

Guillaumin,  A.  (1948).  Flore  Analytique  et  Synoptique  de  la  Nouvelle-Caledonie  - 
Phanerogames.  Office  de  la  Recherche  Scientifique  Coloniale,  Paris.  369  pp.  (Keys 
to  families,  genera,  species;  rather  dated.) 

Morat,  Ph.,  Veillon,  J.-M.  and  MacKee,  H.S.  (1984).  Floristic  relationships  of  New 
Caledonian  rain  forest  phanerogams.  In  Radovsky,  F.J.,  Raven,  P.  and  Sohmer, 
S.H.  (Eds),  Biogeography  of  the  Tropical  Pacific.  Bernice  P.  Bishop  Mus.  Special 
Publ.  no.  72.  Honolulu.  Pp.  71-128.  (Includes  checklist  of  c.  1000  rain  forest 
species;  endemics  indicated.) 

Sarasin,  F.  and  Roux,  J.  (Eds)  (1914-1921).  Nova  Caledonia  -  Recherches  Scientifigues 
en  Nouvelle-Caledonie  et  aux  lies  Loyalty.  Kreidel,  Berlin.  311  pp.  (Checklists  of 
lower  plants,  ferns  and  some  flowering  plants;  chapters  on  plant  geography.) 

Separate  hsts  for  Hunter,  Matthew,  Walpole,  Chesterfield,  Loyalty  and  the  Huon  Islands 
include: 

Cochic,  F.  (1959).  Report  on  a  visit  to  the  Chesterfield  Islands,  September  1957.  Atoll 

Res.  Bull.  63.  11  pp.  (Lists  20  vascular  plant  species;  notes  on  vegetation.) 
Guillaumin,  A.  (1973).  Contributions  a  la  flore  de  la  Nouvelle-Caledonie,  130:  plantes 

des  Ties  Walpole  et  Matthew.  Bull.  Mus.  National  d'Histoire  Naturelle  (Paris),  ser. 

3,  192  (Bot.,  no.  12):  180-183.  (Lists  45  species  from  Walpole,  10  from  Matthew.) 
Guillaumin,  A.  and  Veillon,  J.M.  (1969).  Plantes  des  archipels  Huon  et  Chesterfield. 

Bull.   Mus.   National  d'Histoire  Naturelle  (Paris),  ser.   2,  41:   606-607.   (Lists   10 

species.) 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  No  published  list  of  threatened  plants.  2 
palms,  Burretiokentia  hapala  and  Cyphophoenix  nucele,  are  included  in  The  lUCN  Plant 
Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:l,  E:14,  V:24,  R:108, 
1:21,  nt:48  (mainly  covering  gymnosperms,  Lauraceae,  Myrtaceae,  Palmae). 

Voluntary  Organizations  It  is  reported  that  a  nature  protection  association  has 
recently  been  formed. 

Additional  References 

Jaffre,  T.  (1980).  Vegetation  des  Roches  Ultabasiques  en  Nouvelle  Caledonie.  Traveaux 

et  Documents  no.  124.  ORSTOM,  Noumea.  Pp.  228.  (Includes  map.) 
Morat,  Ph.,  Jaffre,  T.,  Veillon,  J.M.  and  MacKee,  H.S.  (1981).  Les  Formations 

Vegetates,  Carte  no.  15  Atlas  de  la  Nouvelle-Caledonie.  ORSTOM,  Noumea.  (Scale 

1:1,000,000.) 
Sarlin,  P.  (1954).  Bois  et  Forets  de  la  Nouvelle-Caledonie.  Centre  Technique  Forestier 

Tropical,  Nogent-sur-Marne,  France.  303  pp.  (Includes  treatments  of  principal  forest 

trees.) 


260 


New  Caledonia 

Schmid,  M.  (1978).  The  Melanesian  forest  ecosystems  (New  Caledonia,  New  Hebrides, 

Fiji  Islands  and  Solomon  Islands).  In  Unesco/UNEP/FAO  (1978),  cited  in 

Appendix  1.  Pp.  654-683. 
Schmid,  M.  (1981).  Fleurs  et  Plantes  de  Nouvelle-Caledonie.  Les  editions  du  Pacifique. 

Papeete,  Tahiti.  164  pp.  (181  taxa  with  notes  on  distribution,  ecology,  and 

vegetation;  many  colour  photographs.) 
Thomson,  V.  and  Adloff,  R.  (1971).  The  French  Pacific  Islands:  French  Polynesia  and 

New  Caledonia.  Univ.  Press,  Berkeley,  California. 
Thorne,  R.F.  (1965).  Floristic  relationships  of  New  Caledonia.  Univ.  Iowa  Stud.  Nat. 

Hist.  20(7):  1-14. 
Virot,  R.  (1956).  La  vegetation  Canaque.  Mem.  Mus.  Nat.  Paris  (Bot.)  1.  398  pp. 


New  Zealand 


Area  268,704  sq.  km 

Population  3,264,000 

Floristics  c.  2000  species  of  flowering  plants  and  ferns;  about  81%  endemic 
(Given,  1981a),  reaching  over  90%  in  the  alpine  flora.  Over  200  species  are  shared  with 
Australia.  There  are  also  subantarctic  and  palaeotropical  elements  {Flora  of  New  Zealand, 
1961). 

Vegetation  Kauri  (Agathis  australis)  forests  in  the  warmer  parts  of  North  Island, 
north  of  latitude  38°S;  lowland  podocarp  and  mixed  podocarp/beech  (Nothofagus)/ 
hardwood  forests  along  west  coast  of  South  Island;  beech  forests  over  much  of  South 
Island  and  south  of  latitude  39° S  in  North  Island,  and  in  montane  and  subalpine  regions 
(Molloy,  1984);  remnants  of  swamp-forest  in  west  South  Island.  The  forested  area  is 
reduced  from  80%  (1200  years  ago)  to  26%  today,  of  which  23%  consists  of  montane 
remnants  of  the  indigenous  forests,  and  3%  plantations  of  exotic  softwoods  (Molloy, 
1984).  Scrubland,  wetland  and  coastal  communities  have  also  been  seriously  depleted. 

Checlilists  and  Floras  The  Flora  is: 

Flora  of  New  Zealand  (1961,  1970,  1980).  Vol.  1  by  H.H.  Allan.  Owen,  Wellington. 
1085  pp.  (Ferns,  fern  allies,  gymnosperms,  dicotyledons;  bibliography.)  Vol.  2  by 
L.B.  Moore  and  E.  Edgar.  Shearer,  Wellington.  354  pp.  (Monocotyledons  except 
Gramineae;  bibliography.)  Vol.  3  by  A.J.  Healy  and  E.  Edgar.  Hasselberg, 
Wellington.  220  pp.  (Adventive  monocotyledons;  covers  168  introduced  species.) 

See  also: 

Eagle,  A.  (1982).  Eagle's  Trees  and  Shrubs  of  New  Zealand:  Second  Series.  Collins, 
Auckland.  382  pp.  (405  botanical  paintings,  notes  on  distribution,  short 
descriptions.) 

Poole,  A.L.  and  Adams,  N.M.  (1963).  Trees  and  Shrubs  of  New  Zealand.  Owen, 
Wellington.  250  pp.  (Complete  coverage;  line  drawings  of  400  species.) 

Field-guides 

Cooper,  D.  (1981).  A  Field  Guide  to  New  Zealand  Native  Orchids.  Price  Milburn, 
Wellington.  103  pp. 

261 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Mark,  A.F.  and  Adams,  N.M.  (1979).  New  Zealand  Alpine  Plants,  2nd  Ed.  Reed, 

Wellington.  262  pp. 
Moore,  L.B.  and  Adams,  N.M.  (1963).  Plants  of  the  New  Zealand  Coast.  Paul's, 

Auckland  and  Hamilton.  113  pp. 
Richards,  E.C.  (1956).  Our  New  Zealand  Trees  and  Flowers,  3rd  Ed.  Simpson  and 

Williams,  Christchurch.  297  pp. 
Salmon,  J.T.  (1963).  New  Zealand  Flowers  and  Plants  in  Colour.  Reed,  Wellington. 

203  pp.  (Colour  photographs  and  short  descriptions  of  over  500  species  arranged 

according  to  habitats.) 
Salmon,  J.T.  (1968).  Field  Guide  to  the  Alpine  Plants  of  New  Zealand.  Reed, 

WelHngton.  326  pp. 
Wilson,  H.D.  (1978).  Field  Guide:  Wild  Plants  of  Mount  Cook  National  Park.  Field 

Guide  Publications,  Christchurch.  294  pp. 
Wilson,  H.D.  (1982).  Field  Guide:  Stewart  Island  Plants.  Field  Guide  Publication, 

Christchurch.  528  pp. 

Information  on  Threatened  Plants  New  Zealand  is  covered  by  a  technical  loose- 
leaf  Red  Data  Book  (Given,  1976,  1977,  1978),  an  official  RDB  (Williams  and  Given, 
1981)  and  a  popular  account  of  threatened  plants  (Given,  1981a). 

Given,  D.R.  (1976,  1977,  1978).  Threatened  Plants  of  New  Zealand:  A  Register  of  Rare 

and  Endangered  Plants  of  the  New  Zealand  Botanical  Region.  DSIR,  Christchurch. 

(Loose-leaf  series  of  detailed  double-paged  sheets  on  50  selected  threatened  species.) 
Given,  D.R.  (1976).  A  register  of  rare  and  endangered  indigenous  plants  in  New 

Zealand.  N.Z.  J.  Bot.  14(2):  135-149.  (Lists  314  taxa  under  consideration  for 

threatened  status.) 
Given,  D.R.  (1981a).  Rare  and  Endangered  Plants  of  New  Zealand.  Reed,  Wellington. 

154  pp.  (Descriptive  text,  chapters  on  each  threat,  with  examples,  introductory 

chapters  on  vegetation;  lists  279  taxa,  the  majority  of  which  are  rare  and  threatened 

endemics;  includes  'Code  of  Conduct  for  conservation  of  wild  plants'.) 
Williams,  G.R.  and  Given,  D.R.  (1981).  The  Red  Data  Book  of  New  Zealand:  Rare 

and  Endangered  Species  of  Endemic  Terrestrial  Vertebrates  and  Vascular  Plants. 

Nature  Conservation  Council,  Wellington.  175  pp.  (Includes  data  sheets  on  66 

selected  threatened  plants.) 

For  a  more  comprehensive  bibliography  of  publications  and  papers  on  the  conservation  of 
New  Zealand's  flora,  see  Given  (1981a).  11  species  from  New  Zealand,  including 
Xeronema  callistemon  from  the  Poor  Knights,  and  Hen  and  Chicken  Islands,  are  included 
in  The  lUCN  Plant  Red  Data  Book  (1978).  Latest  lUCN  statistics:  endemic  taxa  -  Ex:4, 
E:41,  V:5,  R:86,  1:23. 

Laws  Protecting  Plants  The  Native  Plants  Protection  Act  (1934)  gives  Hmited 
protection  to  native  plants  growing  on  any  Crown  Land,  or  in  any  State  Forest  or  public 
reserve,  or  roads.  Under  the  provisions  of  the  Act  it  is  an  offence  to  take  native  plants 
from  such  land  without  the  consent  of  the  owner  or  occupier.  A  few  serious  weeds  are 
exempt  from  the  Act.  A  Supreme  Court  ruling  in  1973  decided  that  the  Act  does  not  apply 
to  trees,  and  does  not  recognize  degrees  of  endangerment  with  provision  for  various  levels 
and  types  of  protection.  An  extensive  revision  of  the  Act  is  proposed  following  discussion 
and  public  submissions  (D.  Given,  1984,  in  litt.). 

Other  legislation  giving  various  degrees  and  types  of  protection  to  threatened  plants 
include: 


262 


New  Zealand 

The  Forest  Act  (1949):  makes  it  illegal  to  take,  destroy  or  injure  without  lawful  authority, 
forest  produce  in,  on  or  from  any  State  Forest  land. 

The  National  Parks  Act  (1980):  gives  similar  protection  to  plants  in  National  Parks  and 
Reserves  administered  by  the  Department  of  Land  and  Survey. 

The  Town  and  Country  Planning  Act:  has  provision  for  preservation  of  "trees,  bushes, 
plants,  or  landscape  of  scientific,  wildlife,  or  historic  interest  or  visual  appeal". 

Provisions  in  the  Land  Act  (1961)  make  it  an  offence  to  interfere  with  forest,  wood  or 
timber,  or  to  remove  bark  and  flax  from  Crown  lands  without  permission. 

Voluntary  Organizations 

Auckland  Botanical  Society,  c/o  Secretary,  14  Park  Road,  Titirangi,  Auckland  7. 
Canterbury  Botanical  Society,  P.O.  Box  8212,  Christchurch. 
Waipahihi  Botanical  Society  (Inc.),  c/o  Secretary,  45  Ingle  Avenue,  Taupo. 
Wellington  Botanical  Society,  c/o  Secretary,  116  Korokora  Road,  Petone. 
WWF-New  Zealand,  110-116  Courtenay  Place,  P.O.  Box  6237,  Wellington. 

Botanic  Gardens 

Auckland  City  Council  Botanic  Garden,  Private  Bag,  Wellesley  Street,  Auckland. 
Botany  Division  Experimental  Gardens,  DSIR,  Private  Bag,  P.O.  Box  237, 

Christchurch. 
Christchurch  Botanic  Gardens,  Parks  and  Recreation  Dept,  City  Council,  P.O.  Box 

237,  Christchurch. 
Dunedin  Botanic  Garden,  Parks  and  Recreation  Dept,  City  Council,  P.O.  Box  5045, 

Dunedin. 
Massey  University  Botanic  Garden,  Palmerston  North. 
Otari  Open-Air  Native  Plant  Museum,  Wilton,  P.O.  Box  2199,  WeUington. 
Pukeiti  Rhododendron  Trust  (Inc.),  P.O.  Box  385,  New  Plymouth. 
Pukekura  Park,  Parks  and  Recreations  Dept,  City  Council,  Private  Bag,  New 

Plymouth. 
Timaru  Botanic  Garden,  Parks  and  Recreation  Dept,  City  Council,  P.O.  Box  522, 

Timaru. 

Index  of  threatened  plants  in  cultivation: 

Threatened  Plants  Unit,  lUCN  Cbnservation  Monitoring  Centre  (1983).  The  Botanic 
Gardens  List  of  New  Zealand  Threatened  Species.  Botanic  Gardens  Conservation 
Co-ordinating  Body,  Report  No.  8.  lUCN,  Kew.  11  pp.  (Lists  96  rare  and 
threatened  endemic  taxa  reported  in  cultivation,  with  gardens  listed  against  each.) 

Useful  Addresses 

Botany  Division,  DSIR,  Private  Bag,  Christchurch. 

Nature  Conservation  Council,  Box  12/200,  Wellington  North. 

Additional  References 

Given,  D.R.  (1981b).  Threatened  plants  of  New  Zealand:  documentation  in  a  series  of 
islands.  In  Synge,  H.  (Ed.),  The  Biological  Aspects  of  Rare  Plant  Conservation. 
Wiley,  Chichester.  Pp.  67-80. 

Given,  D.R.  (Ed.)  (1983).  Conservation  of  Plant  Species  and  Habitats.  Nature 

Conservation  Council,  Wellington.  128  pp.  (Symposium  proceedings  of  15th  Pacific 
Science  Congress,  Dunedin,  February  1983.  See  in  particular  D.R.  Given  on 
monitoring  and  strategies  for  threatened  plant  conservation  in  New  Zealand, 
pp.  83-101;  K.  Thompson  on  the  status  of  New  Zealand's  wetlands,  pp.  103-116.) 

263 


Plants  in  Danger:  What  do  we  know? 

Molloy,  L.F.  (1984).  The  reservation  of  commercially  important  lowland  forests  in  New 
Zealand.  In  McNeely,  J. A.  and  Miller,  K.R.  (Eds),  National  Parks,  Conservation, 
and  Development:  the  Role  of  Protected  Areas  in  Sustaining  Society.  Smithsonian 
Institution  Press,  Washington,  D.C.  Pp.  394-401.  (Proceedings  of  the  World 
Congress  on  National  Parks,  Bali,  Indonesia,  11-22  October  1982.) 


Nicaragua 

Area  148,000  sq.  km 

Population  3,162,000 

Floristics  Not  explored  botanically  in  great  detail;  an  estimated  5000  species  of 
vascular  plants  (Gentry,  1978,  cited  in  Appendix  1);  57  endemic  species  known  so  far 
(lUCN  figures). 

Vegetation  In  the  Mosquitia  region  tropical  moist  forest  (believ